Title: Management of sewage sludge and ash containing radioactive materials

Authors: James T. Bachmaier, Kevin Aiello, Robert K. Bastian, Jing-Jy Cheng, Weihsueh A. Chiu, Jenny Goodman, Rosemary Hogan, Andrea R. Jones, Sunita Kamboj, Thomas Lenhart, William R. Ott, Allan B. Rubin, Stephen N. Salomon, Duane W. Schmidt, Loren W. Setlow, Charley Yu, Anthony B. Wolbarst

Addresses: 3514 Everton Street Silver Spring, MD 20906, USA. ' Administrator, Environmental Quality, Middlesex County Utilities Authority, 2571 Main Street, Sayreville, NJ 08872, USA. ' U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Wastewater Management (4204M), 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20460, USA. ' Environmental Quality, Division Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439, USA. ' U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National Center for Environmental Assessment (8623D) 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20460, USA. ' New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection Bureau of Environmental Radiation P.O. Box 415, Trenton NJ 08625–0415, USA. ' U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville MD 20852–2738, USA. ' U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville MD 20852–2738, USA. ' Environmental Quality Division Argonne National Laboratory 9700 South Cass Avenue Argonne, IL 60439, USA. ' 2665 Lakeview Avenue Rocky River, OH 44116, USA. ' U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Mail Stop T-9C34 Washington, DC 20555, USA. ' 3304 Mill Cross Court Oakton, VA 22124–1930, USA. ' U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission State and Tribal Programs Mail Stop O-3-C-10 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville MD 20852–2738, USA. ' U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Mail Stop T-7E18 Washington, DC 20555, USA. ' U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20460, USA. ' Environmental Quality Division Argonne National Laboratory 9700 South Cass Avenue Argonne, IL 60439, USA. ' U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Center for Science and Risk Assessment (6608J) 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20460, USA

Abstract: Approximately 50% of the seven to eight million metric tonnes of municipal sewage sludge produced annually in the US is reused. Beneficial uses of sewage sludge include agricultural land application, land reclamation, forestry, and various commercial applications. Excessive levels of contaminants, however, can limit the potential usefulness of land-applied sewage sludge. A recently completed study by a federal inter-agency committee has identified radioactive contaminants that could interfere with the safe reuse of sewage sludge. The study found that typical levels of radioactive materials in most municipal sewage sludge and incinerator ash do not present a health hazard to sewage treatment plant workers or to the general public. The inter-agency committee has developed recommendations for operators of sewage treatment plants for evaluating measured or estimated levels of radioactive material in sewage sludge and for determining whether actions to reduce potential exposures are appropriate.

Keywords: sewage sludge; incinerator ash; publicly owned treatment works; POTWs; radioactive materials; radioactive contamination; health hazards; sewage treatment; exposure; waste management; United States; USA; environmental management; recycling; reuse.

DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2007.013639

International Journal of Environment and Waste Management, 2007 Vol.1 No.2/3, pp.113 - 127

Published online: 09 May 2007 *

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