Title: Gender differences in the determinants of happiness and life satisfaction among Ghanaians: the effects of leisure time, social network and (in)security

Authors: Ibrahim Mohammed; Rufai Haruna Kilu

Addresses: School of Hotel and Tourism Management, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, HKSAR, Kowloon, 999077, Hong Kong; Department of Economics and Actuarial Science, University of Professional Studies, Accra, 00233, Ghana ' Department of Business Administration, University of Professional Studies, Accra, 00233, Ghana

Abstract: While the literature on subjective well-being (SWB) is replete with studies from the Western world, studies from Sub-Saharan Africa are not only a few but also limited in the set of variables that are identified as correlates of happiness and life satisfaction. Drawing data from the World Values Survey on Ghana and applying a multivariate ordered logistic regression technique, we find that the importance of leisure time is positively associated with the probability of being happy and satisfied with life for both men and women. However, formal or institutionalised social networks and security concerns are only significant predictors of the probability of happiness but not life satisfaction. The gender analysis results reveal that the effects of social networks and security on happiness are pronounced in women but not men. Thus, we recommend promoting happiness and life satisfaction by facilitating social networks and addressing security concerns.

Keywords: gender differences; happiness; life satisfaction; leisure time; social networks; insecurity.

DOI: 10.1504/IJHD.2023.134383

International Journal of Happiness and Development, 2023 Vol.8 No.2, pp.196 - 218

Received: 05 Feb 2023
Accepted: 01 Aug 2023

Published online: 19 Oct 2023 *

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