Title: Public sector technology transfer through patents and licensing: the case of US agriculture

Authors: Kelly Day Rubenstein, Paul W. Heisey, John L. King

Addresses: USDA Economic Research Service, 1800 M St., NW Room 4015S, Washington, DC 20036–5831, USA. ' USDA Economic Research Service, 1800 M St., NW Room 4009S, Washington, DC 20036–5831, USA. ' USDA Economic Research Service, 1800 M St., NW Room 4010S, Washington, DC 20036–5831, USA

Abstract: In the USA, the public sector historically was the primary supplier of new agricultural technologies. But over the past 20–30 years, public agricultural research funding has been relatively stagnant while private sector research spending has surpassed it. At the same time, as the US policy environment has changed, patenting and licensing have become increasingly important mechanisms for technology transfer from the public sector. We review these policy changes and provide an empirical example of public sector patenting in agricultural biotechnology. Patenting by the US federal government has been relatively limited and concentrated in a few areas of technology. On the other hand, agricultural biotechnology patenting by US universities has expanded rapidly and has covered a broader spectrum of technologies.

Keywords: agriculture; agricultural biotechnology; intellectual property; patents; public–private sector interaction; technology transfer; public sector; licensing; USA; United States; public research funding; R&D; private research funding; agricultural research; private sector; universities; research and development.

DOI: 10.1504/IJTTC.2006.013346

International Journal of Technology Transfer and Commercialisation, 2006 Vol.5 No.4, pp.401 - 420

Available online: 21 Apr 2007 *

Full-text access for editors Access for subscribers Purchase this article Comment on this article