Title: Analysing the suitability of blockchain consensus algorithms in swarm robotics

Authors: Theviyanthan Krishnamohan

Addresses: University of Westminster, 309 Regent Street, London W1B 2HW, UK

Abstract: Swarm robotics integrates robotics with swarm intelligence. Consensus achievement is one of the major behaviours of swarm robotics. Strategies that solve the consensus-achievement problem have been shown to be vulnerable to Byzantine robots. Blockchain-based solutions have been shown to improve Byzantine fault tolerance. However, these solutions suffer from poor performance, excessive resource consumption, and vulnerability to the 51% attack due to the use of the proof-of-work consensus algorithm. This study surveys existing blockchain consensus algorithms and their suitability to swarm robotics. Consequently, a taxonomy is introduced consisting of three categories, namely proof of resource, proof of authority, and Byzantine agreement. The proof-of-resource algorithms are vulnerable to the 51% attack and consume excess resources. Proof of authority algorithms creates permissioned blockchains, which contravenes the principles of swarm robotics. Byzantine agreement algorithms introduce centralisation. Consequently, the need for a new consensus algorithm to be used in swarm robotics is postulated.

Keywords: swarm robotics; blockchain; proof of work; proof of authority; PoA; proof of stake; PoS; stellar consensus protocol.

DOI: 10.1504/IJBC.2022.128887

International Journal of Blockchains and Cryptocurrencies, 2022 Vol.3 No.4, pp.319 - 328

Received: 18 Aug 2022
Accepted: 31 Oct 2022

Published online: 08 Feb 2023 *

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