Title: A comparative study on the photodegradation efficiency of TiO2-CS hybrid beads under wet and dry conditions

Authors: Mohd Azam Mohd Adnan; Saba Afzal; Mohd Rafie Johan; Nurhidayatullaili Muhd Julkapli

Addresses: Nanotechnology and Catalysis Research Centre (NANOCAT), Institute for Advanced Studies, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; Advanced Materials & Manufacturing Research Group (AMMR), Faculty of Engineering and Life Sciences, Universiti Selangor, Bestari Jaya Campus, Jalan Timur Tambahan, 45600 Bestari Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia ' Department of Chemistry, Sardar Bahadur Khan Women's University Quetta, Bawrery Road, Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan ' Nanotechnology and Catalysis Research Centre (NANOCAT), Institute for Advanced Studies, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia ' Nanotechnology and Catalysis Research Centre (NANOCAT), Institute for Advanced Studies, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Abstract: The direct ex-situ technique successfully produced chitosan (CS) support TiO2 hybrid beads under wet and dry circumstances. The addition of CS to TiO2 photocatalysis improves adsorption, dispersion, and stability. The active surface, crystallinity, and morphology of the hybrid beads were determined, confirming the samples' homogenous granular morphology and homogeneous dispersion of TiO2 nanoparticles in the CS matrix. The more vital interaction between TiO2 and CS molecules was responsible for the lower IR peak intensities of the OH and NH2 groups of wet hybrid beads. Raman spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed that the crystallinity and phase of TiO2 in both wet and dry samples are almost indistinguishable. With the optimal catalyst loading of 6 g, the photodegradation study revealed that wet hybrid beads reported adsorption of 95% for MB, while dry hybrid beads reported 75% for MO. Therefore, to enhance interactions between TiO2 and CS, TiO2-CS wet hybrid beads have superior stability, surface functioning, and adsorption capabilities, as determined by characterisation results.

Keywords: hybrid beads; TiO2; chitosan; wet condition; methyl orange; methylene blue.

DOI: 10.1504/IJMPT.2022.10044464

International Journal of Materials and Product Technology, 2022 Vol.65 No.1, pp.67 - 79

Received: 24 Jun 2021
Accepted: 16 Nov 2021

Published online: 20 Jul 2022 *

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