Authors: Aastha Dhingra; Nadeem A. Khan; Sirajuddin Ahmed; Siddhartha Gautam; Sergij Vambol; Viola Vambol; Svitlana Kovalenko
Addresses: Department of Civil Engineering, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, India ' Department of Civil Engineering, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, India ' Department of Civil Engineering, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, India ' Delhi Pollution Control Committee, New Delhi, India ' Life Safety and Law Department, Kharkiv Petro Vasylenko National Technical University of Agriculture, Kharkiv, Ukraine ' Educational and Scientific Department of Safety and Occupational Health, Public Agency “National Scientific and Research Institute of Industrial Safety and Occupational Safety and Health”, Kiev, Ukraine ' Department of Applied Mechanics and Technologies of Environmental Protection, National University of Civil Defence of Ukraine, Ukraine
Abstract: The quality of surface water degraded especially due to entry of pharmaceuticals, hazardous material into it. These micro-pollutant are hard to degrade as well as detect in water or wastewater system. Based on research, organic and inorganic particles, as well as soluble organic and soluble inorganic substances, are contained in medical wastewater. Among these harmful and dangerous substances: vomiting, faeces, metal particles, hydrogen sulphide, urea and much more. In some countries, such as India and Ukraine, hospital wastewater is discharged to urban wastewater treatment plants. A survey was conducted in 75 hospitals, including 25 hospitals from the categories of high, medium and low. The average water consumption per bed per day in a hospital of Delhi ranges between 500-600 LPD. The annual water consumption in hospitals of Delhi is about 9,000 million litres. The study purpose is to study the details of water consumption in hospitals to develop recommendations for protection of the environment from hazardous pollutants.
Keywords: wastewater; medical institutions; pharmaceuticals; natural waters; wastewater discharge; India.
World Review of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development, 2022 Vol.18 No.3/4, pp.436 - 444
Received: 26 Nov 2019
Accepted: 28 Jul 2020
Published online: 02 Jun 2022 *