Title: Health outcome implications and prevention in communities based on race/ethnicity, gender, smoking status, and biological factors in COVID-19 and its variants

Authors: Sunil Mathur; Shreya Mathur; Laura Monahan

Addresses: Department of Mathematics and Statistics, College of Science and Engineering, Texas A&M University, Corpus Christi, Texas, USA ' David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA ' Department of Women, Children and Family Health Science, College of Nursing and Health Sciences, Texas A&M University, Corpus Christi, Texas, USA

Abstract: In this article, we aim to investigate the variable effects of COVID-19 on public health and shed light on factors responsible for disproportionate mortality rates among different people. We investigate preventive activities that have been in practice and explore health promotion activities that can be applied to a population base by public health practitioners. The most significant effects of COVID-19 are among non-Hispanic blacks and Latino individuals. Smokers had twice the prevalence of COVID-19 compared to non-smokers. Several factors such as age, diabetes, obesity, hypertension, male sex, and race/ethnicity significantly affect health outcomes in people exposed to COVID-19. Young African Americans are dying at a higher rate than their counterparts in other groups due to COVID-19. Understanding the factors behind the variable effects of COVID-19 among different people may allow public health officials to develop and implement public policies and interventions to mitigate adverse health outcomes effectively.

Keywords: COVID-19; disparities; minorities; mortalities; public health.

DOI: 10.1504/IJBHR.2022.10045309

International Journal of Behavioural and Healthcare Research, 2022 Vol.8 No.1/2, pp.1 - 14

Received: 21 Apr 2021
Accepted: 03 Jul 2021

Published online: 07 Apr 2022 *

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