Title: The effects of national policy on biotechnology development: the need for a broad policy approach

Authors: Jacqueline Senker, Thomas Reiss, Vincent Mangematin, Christien Enzing

Addresses: Science and Technology Policy Research, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QE, UK. ' Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research, (Fraunhofer ISI), 76139 Karlsruhe, Germany. ' UMR GAEL (INRA/UPMF), Universite Pierre Mendes France, 38040 Grenoble Cedex 9, France. ' Innovation Policy Group TNO, 2600 JA Delft, The Netherlands

Abstract: An assessment is made of the effectiveness of national policies for the biotechnology knowledge base and its commercialisation in 14 European Union member states. The assessment first reviews the various theoretical approaches that lie behind policies to promote the commercialisation of knowledge. It then discusses the EPOHITE study, including its aims, methodology and results. In the conclusions, the paper will use the results of the study to discuss any relationship between the policy approach of individual member states and their innovation performance. It will also discuss the application of the lessons learned from this study to the countries studied as well as to new member states of the EC and newly industrialising countries. Some of the difficulties to be overcome will also be tackled.

Keywords: innovation policy effectiveness; biotechnology; science base; commercialisation; national policy; knowledge base; European Union.

DOI: 10.1504/IJBT.2007.012167

International Journal of Biotechnology, 2007 Vol.9 No.1, pp.20 - 38

Published online: 26 Jan 2007 *

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