Authors: Arshad Husain; Aditya Dev Mishra; Sisir Kumar Jena
Addresses: DIT University, Dehradun, India ' DIT University, Dehradun, India ' DIT University, Dehradun, India
Abstract: Digital watermarking is nowadays an active research area for protecting multimedia content such as authentication and copyright safeguard. The major challenges faced in most watermarking schemes are related to non-functional requirements such as security, reliability, and robustness against attack. In the present study, a singular value decomposition (SVD) and principal component-based image watermark embedding, and corresponding watermark extraction method have been proposed. The proposed watermarking embedding method also used the concept of particle swarm optimisation (PSO) to obtain an optimum value of the watermark-scaling factor. The proposed method is an assessment with a satellite image dataset [Resourcesat-2 with linear imaging and self scanning (LISS-III) sensor] of the Sangam Region, Prayagraj City, Uttar Pradesh, India (25°20'19.7"N, 81°58'43.8"E). Performance analysis parameter values such as peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), mean square error (MSE), and normalised correlation (NC) are calculated to test the robustness and perceptibility of the proposed method. The experimental results show that the PSNR, MSE, and NC values are 44.6562, 2.2257, and 0.9650 respectively at the tested dataset. The proposed method performs robustly at various types of attacks and different wavelets.
Keywords: watermarking; multimedia; singular value decomposition; SVD; principal component-based image.
International Journal of Swarm Intelligence, 2022 Vol.7 No.1, pp.82 - 93
Received: 04 Dec 2020
Accepted: 15 Jan 2021
Published online: 24 Feb 2022 *