Title: Vulnerability of climate change among rubber smallholders: case study in Baling and Padang Terap districts of Kedah, Malaysia

Authors: Nur Hikmah Zulhaid; Roslina Kamaruddin; Siti Aznor Ahmad

Addresses: School of Economic, Finance and Banking, Universiti Utara Malaysia, 06010 Sintok, Kedah, Malaysia ' School of Economic, Finance and Banking, Universiti Utara Malaysia, 06010 Sintok, Kedah, Malaysia ' School of Economic, Finance and Banking, Universiti Utara Malaysia, 06010 Sintok, Kedah, Malaysia

Abstract: The livelihood vulnerability index (LVI) was examined in this study using the methodology of the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). This study made use of primary data gathered through surveys of 200 smallholders in the Kedah districts of Padang Terap and Baling using a structured questionnaire. Weather variability and seasonal change represent the exposure dimension, while physical assets, natural assets, human assets, social assets, and financial assets represent the sensitivity dimension, and demographic profile, alternative strategy, and technology represent the adaptive capacity dimension. According to reports, rubber smallholders in Baling were more vulnerable than smallholders in Padang Terap. Alternative strategies and technological practises are viewed as critical needs capable of promoting long-term livelihood for rubber smallholders. Diversification in agricultural and non-agricultural activities was found to increase smallholders' adaptive capacity and, as a result, their incomes.

Keywords: livelihood vulnerability index; LVI; exposure; sensitivity; adaptive capacity; Kedah; Malaysia.

DOI: 10.1504/IJSD.2021.10042442

International Journal of Sustainable Development, 2021 Vol.24 No.2, pp.81 - 100

Accepted: 17 May 2021
Published online: 02 Nov 2021 *

Full-text access for editors Access for subscribers Purchase this article Comment on this article