Title: Awareness of automation, data origins, and processing stakeholders by parsing the general data protection regulation sanction-based articles

Authors: Ulla Gain; Virpi Hotti

Addresses: School of Computing, University of Eastern Finland, Finland ' School of Computing, University of Eastern Finland, Finland

Abstract: Datafication forces to be aware of data origin and to be aware of data-based insights. Further, weak awareness of automated data processing and processing stakeholders challenge compliant data usage. The research concerns the general data protection regulation (GDPR) articles that define sanction criteria to figure out whether awareness of automation, data categories, and processing stakeholders are increased and whether cognitive services are useful to manifest indicative semantic roles. All 49 articles (5-9, 11-22, 25-39, 41-49, 58, 85-91) concern processing stakeholders, eight articles (9, 13, 14, 15, 20, 21, 35 and 37) concern data categories, and seven articles (13, 14, 15, 20, 22, 35, and 47) concern automation. Krippendorff's alpha was used to estimate the intercoder reliability between two coders (the cognitive service and human interpreter), and the value 0.85 refers that the parsing capability of the IBM Watson Natural Language Understanding text analysis cognitive service amplifies human interpretations and interventions.

Keywords: automation; data governance; data category; general data protection regulation; GDPR; natural language processing; content analysis; semantic roles.

DOI: 10.1504/EG.2021.10034597

Electronic Government, an International Journal, 2021 Vol.17 No.4, pp.404 - 437

Received: 12 Mar 2020
Accepted: 27 Jun 2020

Published online: 12 Oct 2021 *

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