Title: Technological developments in batteries: a survey of modelling, estimation, and management strategies for EV application
Authors: Gaddipati Geetha Ravali; Kuthuri Narasimha Raju
Addresses: Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Koneru Lakshmaiah Education Foundation, Vaddeswaram, 522502, AP, India ' Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Koneru Lakshmaiah Education Foundation, Vaddeswaram, 522502, AP, India
Abstract: Battery technology is extensively used as an energy storage system (ESS) in electric vehicles (EVs). Although large-scale battery ESS are commercially available today such as Pb-acid, NiCd, and Li-ion batteries, the major hurdles are longevity, reliability, economy, and safety. Nonetheless, due to technological advancement the research is progressing towards the future batteries like metal-air, and flow batteries. This study compares features of various battery technologies. Besides, the prerequisite condition for efficient battery operation is accurate cell model that reflects hysteresis, aging, and thermal effects to characterise real-world performance. Furthermore, the successful operation of EV depends on accurate state-of-charge (SOC) estimation, the key task to be performed by battery management system (BMS). This paper presents various SOC estimation techniques considering the major nonlinearities and many unknown errors. Thus, the analysis emphasises many key issues, challenges, and recommendations for developments in SOC estimation and enhancement of battery management systems for future EVs.
Keywords: BESS; battery energy storage system; battery modelling; capacity degradation; electric vehicles; SOC; state of charge; states estimation methods; thermal model.
International Journal of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles, 2021 Vol.13 No.2, pp.194 - 209
Received: 26 Sep 2020
Accepted: 23 Nov 2020
Published online: 21 Sep 2021 *