Title: Technological developments in batteries: a survey of modelling, estimation, and management strategies for EV application

Authors: Gaddipati Geetha Ravali; Kuthuri Narasimha Raju

Addresses: Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Koneru Lakshmaiah Education Foundation, Vaddeswaram, 522502, AP, India ' Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Koneru Lakshmaiah Education Foundation, Vaddeswaram, 522502, AP, India

Abstract: Battery technology is extensively used as an energy storage system (ESS) in electric vehicles (EVs). Although large-scale battery ESS are commercially available today such as Pb-acid, NiCd, and Li-ion batteries, the major hurdles are longevity, reliability, economy, and safety. Nonetheless, due to technological advancement the research is progressing towards the future batteries like metal-air, and flow batteries. This study compares features of various battery technologies. Besides, the prerequisite condition for efficient battery operation is accurate cell model that reflects hysteresis, aging, and thermal effects to characterise real-world performance. Furthermore, the successful operation of EV depends on accurate state-of-charge (SOC) estimation, the key task to be performed by battery management system (BMS). This paper presents various SOC estimation techniques considering the major nonlinearities and many unknown errors. Thus, the analysis emphasises many key issues, challenges, and recommendations for developments in SOC estimation and enhancement of battery management systems for future EVs.

Keywords: BESS; battery energy storage system; battery modelling; capacity degradation; electric vehicles; SOC; state of charge; states estimation methods; thermal model.

DOI: 10.1504/IJEHV.2021.10041359

International Journal of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles, 2021 Vol.13 No.2, pp.194 - 209

Received: 26 Sep 2020
Accepted: 23 Nov 2020

Published online: 21 Sep 2021 *

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