Title: Groundwater deterioration in arid agricultural area under the pressure of climate change and high refugee inflow. Case study: Jordan
Authors: Osama 'Moh'D Najeeb' Mousa Gazal
Addresses: Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Doctoral School of Environmental Sciences, Szent István University, P.O. Box 2100, Gödöllő, Páter Károly u.1, Hungary
Abstract: The conservation of groundwater is a priority for Jordan to cope with its water crises. Climate change and rapid population growth associated with anthropogenic activities have exacerbated many environmental issues. This study assesses the deterioration of renewable groundwater aquifers through a comprehensive analysis, using all available hydrogeological and climatological data with groundwater level and groundwater quality records. The findings indicate the fragility of groundwater sustainability, the high vulnerability to deterioration due to lack of precipitation, the succession of droughts, the unsustainable use of water resources, intensive agricultural activities, and the high susceptibility to contamination according to the study area vulnerability maps. The potential of the study area to support rain-fed agriculture is low, while the overuse of fertilizer in intensive agricultural practices is the main cause of contamination. Given the study findings, several groundwater conservation strategies have been proposed to protect it from further deterioration.
Keywords: groundwater vulnerability; climate change; water scarcity; agriculture; drought; contamination; simulation; potential evapotranspiration; CROPWAT; Jordan.
International Journal of Hydrology Science and Technology, 2021 Vol.12 No.3, pp.253 - 315
Received: 15 Jun 2019
Accepted: 03 Jun 2020
Published online: 13 Sep 2021 *