Title: Routing strategies for underwater wireless communication: a taxonomy

Authors: T.T. Manikandan; Rajeev Sukumaran; M.R. Christhu Raj; M. Saravanan

Addresses: Department of Computer Science and Engineering, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Kattankulathur, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India ' Department of Computer Science and Engineering, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Kattankulathur, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India ' Department of Information Technology, M. Kumarasamy College of Engineering, Karur, Tamil Nadu, India ' Department of Computer Science and Engineering, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Kattankulathur, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

Abstract: In this research article, we present the broad classification and exhaustive review of the various routing protocols available for underwater wireless communication. In this work, we addressed the various challenges of underwater communication. To present the current state of development in routing strategies for the UWSN, we have chosen a unique approach. Here, the comparison between routing protocols is done purely based on the design perceptive and the specific issue those protocols address. In terms of design, the routing protocols are classified into: 1) non-cross layer; 2) cross layer protocols. Similarly, issues such as: 1) node mobility; 2) energy balancing; 3) channel condition; 4) energy consumption; 5) void region were taken into consideration for the comparison of a broad range of underwater routing strategies. The observation presented from this analysis is worthy for the future researchers and the network designers to work on improving the effectiveness of the routing decisions in a challenging underwater environment.

Keywords: underwater wireless sensor network; UWSN; routing protocols; cross layer; localisation-based routing; localisation free routing; intelligent algorithm-based routing.

DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2021.116782

International Journal of Communication Networks and Distributed Systems, 2021 Vol.27 No.2, pp.147 - 177

Received: 13 Feb 2020
Accepted: 11 Sep 2020

Published online: 08 Jul 2021 *

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