Title: Human factors of automated driving systems: a compendium of lessons learned

Authors: Francesco N. Biondi; Balasingam Balakumar

Addresses: Human Systems Laboratory, University of Windsor, Ontario, Canada ' Human Systems Laboratory, University of Windsor, Ontario, Canada

Abstract: On-road deployment of partial automation and testing of vehicles with higher levels of automated driving systems have been ongoing for several years. Recent research partly confirms what we already knew about user interaction with automation in aviation, and, interestingly, adds relevant information to our understanding of human operators' adoption of vehicle technology. In this study, we review key studies from the last quinquennial on driver interaction with partial and higher levels of automation, with the goal of providing a compendium for transportation professionals and legislators. In addition to providing a brief but necessary introduction of the Society of Automotive Engineers Taxonomy, we address research findings and human factors safety takeaways for partial automation. Our review shows that driver underload, lacking mental models, and driver training are key issues that merit further human factors investigation. In the latter part of the compendium, we also discuss recent findings and policy considerations on higher levels of automated driving systems. These include developing more transparent and comprehensive ways of reporting incidents and system disengagements, having protocols that help minimise safety risks during transitions of control, and implementing validation methods that help mitigate the safety risks of automated systems.

Keywords: automated driving systems; ADSs; partial automation; Society of Automotive Engineers; SAE taxonomy; human factors; automation.

DOI: 10.1504/IJHFE.2021.116066

International Journal of Human Factors and Ergonomics, 2021 Vol.8 No.2, pp.183 - 194

Received: 25 Aug 2020
Accepted: 30 Nov 2020

Published online: 07 Jul 2021 *

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