Title: A literature review of augmented reality, virtual reality, and mixed reality in language learning

Authors: Kam Cheong Li; Billy Tak-Ming Wong

Addresses: The Open University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China ' The Open University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China

Abstract: Technological advances in augmented reality (AR), virtual reality (VR) and mixed reality (MR) have been increasingly used for supporting language learning. They provide learners with an enhanced or simulated environment for exposure to a target language. This paper reviews the studies on AR/VR/MR-based language learning and surveys their major patterns and trends, covering 111 studies published between 2004 and 2018. The results show an increasing number of related studies at a wide range of educational levels. Speaking is the most frequent area for training; and vocabulary learning has become more prevalent. The mainstream technology has evolved from VR environments in early studies into AR applications in recent ones; and the devices for accessing learning contents have become more portable. It is recognised that the use of technology alone will not suffice for improving learners' language proficiency, but the design of curricular and learning contents also plays an important role.

Keywords: augmented reality; virtual reality; mixed reality; language learning; ubiquitous learning; computer-assisted language learning; CALL.

DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2021.114516

International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation, 2021 Vol.15 No.2, pp.164 - 178

Received: 04 Dec 2019
Accepted: 06 Mar 2020

Published online: 19 Mar 2021 *

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