Title: Ultrasonic-assisted rapid extraction of Cassia sieberiana D.C.: a Box-Behnken design process optimisation

Authors: Saidu Jibril; Hasnah Mohd Sirat; Norazah Basar; Roswanira Abdul Wahab; Naji A. Mahat; Wan Mohd Nuzul Hakimi Wan Salleh

Addresses: Department of Chemical Sciences, Federal University Kashere, P.M.B. 0182, Gombe, Nigeria ' Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor, Malaysia ' Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor, Malaysia ' Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor, Malaysia ' Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor, Malaysia ' Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900 Tanjung Malim, Perak, Malaysia

Abstract: Ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) on the Cassia sieberiana root was optimised by a three-factor-three-level Box-Behnken design (BBD). A single factor experiment revealed the logic ranges for the UAE parameters for extraction time, temperature and solvent to sample ratio were 10-60 min, 30-60°C and 10-30 mL/g, respectively. The BBD showed that a second-order polynomial model produced a satisfactory fitting of the experimental data (R2 = 0.9917, P < 0.001) with regards to extraction yield. The optimal UAE conditions were 29 min, 45°C and 16.79 mL/g. Under the optimised conditions, the UAE yielded 1.28 ± 0.7% of C. sieberiana root extract as to 0.69 ± 1.1% obtained by maceration and 0.82 ± 0.5% obtained by Soxhlet extraction. The results affirmed that the BBD was suitable in establishing the optimum UAE conditions for a maximum extraction yield while being more efficient and rapid than conventional methods (maceration and Soxhlet extraction).

Keywords: Box-Behnken; Cassia sieberiana; UAE; ultrasonic-assisted extraction; Soxhlet extraction; optimisation; temperature; design; solvent; polynomial.

DOI: 10.1504/IJCBDD.2021.114092

International Journal of Computational Biology and Drug Design, 2021 Vol.14 No.1, pp.15 - 31

Accepted: 12 Aug 2020
Published online: 29 Mar 2021 *

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