Title: Managing the levels of CO2 in a tunnel using oppnet virtual machine

Authors: Shorouq S. Almayouf; Atheer M. AlTamimi; Fatimah M. Kharrat; Hessah I. AlSaidan; Naba S. AlQahtani; Sarah I. Bin Nafisah; Mai A. Alduailij

Addresses: Computer Sciences Department, College of Computer and Information Sciences, Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia ' Computer Sciences Department, College of Computer and Information Sciences, Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia ' Computer Sciences Department, College of Computer and Information Sciences, Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia ' Computer Sciences Department, College of Computer and Information Sciences, Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia ' Computer Sciences Department, College of Computer and Information Sciences, Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia ' Computer Sciences Department, College of Computer and Information Sciences, Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia ' Computer Sciences Department, College of Computer and Information Sciences, Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Abstract: This work aims at managing the levels of CO2 inside King Abdulaziz Road Tunnel in Makkah, Saudi Arabia, by using heterogeneous systems and devices that can interact with each other autonomously through various communication media. This can be achieved by providing a tunnel with sensors that can detect the increased levels of CO2 and then search for available devices that can help in achieving the goal which is providing a tunnel with a good ventilation system. The sensors should be able to interact with fans to refine the air inside the tunnel and a warning message is sent to the billboard inside the tunnel to be displayed for drivers to take precautions. This can be done by using oppnet virtual machine (OVM). OVM can be downloaded to any device making it oppnet-enabled. Our goal of managing the levels of CO2 inside the tunnel can be achieved by making the sensors, fans and the billboard oppnet-enabled devices to interact with each other and share resources autonomously. The results show that the success rate is 93%, and the time required for our oppnet to succeed is within seven seconds.

Keywords: ad hoc networks; CO2 level; heterogeneous systems; opportunistic networks; resource sharing; resource utilisation networks; tunnels.

DOI: 10.1504/IJICA.2021.10036520

International Journal of Innovative Computing and Applications, 2021 Vol.12 No.2/3, pp.146 - 174

Received: 27 Jan 2020
Accepted: 21 Apr 2020

Published online: 18 Mar 2021 *

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