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Title: Characterisation of frequency modulated wave of NIR photons transport in human lower forearm phantom

Authors: Ebraheem Sultan; Nizar Alkhateeb

Addresses: Electronic Engineering Department, College of Technological Studies, PAAET, Kuwait ' Electronic Engineering Department, College of Technological Studies, PAAET, Kuwait

Abstract: Free-space broadband frequency modulated near infrared (NIR) photon technique is used to model and characterise the optical behaviour in a lower forearm human phantom. NIR system measures the broadband insertion loss (IL) and the insertion phase (IP). Different penetration depth and path-related modulated photon movement is analysed. The study is divided into two stages. The first stage dedicated to performing broadband IL and IP measurements in a back-scattering method. The second stage dedicates to modelling the photon behaviour in stage 1 using a finite element simulator called as COMSOL. Results in both stages are analysed and compared using a signal processing method to identify the frequency modulated photon stamp associated with different layers and verifies the accuracy of the 3D FE modelling. Error shown to be less than 6% and results gives a clear understanding of how the modulated waves of photons behave when traveling in the human forearms phantom.

Keywords: NIR spectroscopy; COMSOL; 3D FE; modulated wave of photons; optical transmitter; VCSEL; optical receiver; APD; insertion phase; IP; insertion loss; IL.

DOI: 10.1504/IJBET.2021.10035161

International Journal of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, 2021 Vol.35 No.1, pp.19 - 36

Received: 23 May 2017
Accepted: 30 Nov 2017

Published online: 25 Jan 2021 *

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