Title: Entrepreneurs' gender, age and education shaping motives: push of necessity and pull of opportunity in MENA and Denmark
Authors: Mahdokht Sedaghat; Peter Waring Lei
Addresses: International Business Academy, Havneparken 1, 6000, Kolding, Denmark ' International Business Academy, Havneparken 1, 6000, Kolding, Denmark
Abstract: Entrepreneurs are different at engaging in entrepreneurial activities. Some engage in entrepreneurship to avoid unemployment, whereas others pursue a recognised opportunity for profit. This proposition is refined by investigating inequalities among entrepreneurs in terms of age, gender and education. These inequalities are hypothesised to differ from one society to another, here Denmark and Middle East and North Africa (MENA). We hypothesise that gender, age, education and society affect motives. A further refinement is to consider that society moderates the impacts of gender, age and education on motives. A sample of 7,543 entrepreneurs in MENA and 2,973 in Denmark is analysed (2001-2014). Findings show that gender affects motives, in that women in MENA are less often motivated by opportunity than women in Denmark. Age affects motives, in that older entrepreneurs are more frequently opportunity motivated than younger entrepreneurs. Education effects motives, in the way that educated entrepreneurs are more frequently motivated by opportunity. Society effects motives, in that MENA entrepreneurs are less frequently motivated by opportunity. Finally, society moderates the impacts of gender, age and education on motives.
Keywords: entrepreneurship; motives; age; gender; education; MENA; Denmark; Global Entrepreneurship Monitor; GEM.
MENA Journal of Cross-Cultural Management, 2020 Vol.1 No.1, pp.63 - 79
Received: 24 Feb 2020
Accepted: 03 Jun 2020
Published online: 05 Jan 2021 *