Title: Factors influencing the gender gap in poverty: the Indonesian case

Authors: Muryani; Miguel Angel Esquivias

Addresses: Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia ' Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia

Abstract: Indonesia reduced its poverty rate to a historical level of below 10%. Nevertheless, nearly 20% of the population remains vulnerable to falling into poverty. This study employs the Equally Distributed Equivalent (EDE) model finding that chronic poverty accounted for 69% while transient poverty accounted for the 30% in 2010. Access to credit, education level, and poor access to health services, influences the likelihood of chronic and transient poverty. Women face higher probabilities of remaining poor (chronic) or of falling into poverty (transitory) than men, due to a lack of access to health services and education. Women in urban areas are more likely to fall into transient poverty than men. Health and education services in rural areas are more urgently needed than in cities, as poverty is more highly associated with rural areas than in urban environments. Having larger families could increase the likelihood of chronic and transient poverty.

Keywords: poverty; gender gap; chronic poverty; transition poverty; no poverty; poverty alleviation; social protection; rural poverty; Indonesia; equally distributed equivalent model.

DOI: 10.1504/WREMSD.2021.112101

World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, 2021 Vol.17 No.1, pp.103 - 119

Received: 26 Apr 2019
Accepted: 20 Apr 2020

Published online: 15 Dec 2020 *

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