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Title: India's sustainable energy future and the challenges for optimised integration of variable energy sources

Authors: Sutapa Pati

Addresses: Xavier School of Sustainability, Xavier University, Plot No: 12(A), Nijigada, Kurki, Harirajpur-752050, Dist.-Puri, Pipili, Odisha 752050, Bhubaneswar, India

Abstract: Renewable energy penetration in India is strongly linked to growing energy consumption, energy security and access to energy. Variable energy sources, viz. solar, small hydro power and wind energy form a significant share of India's energy mix. High intermittency in these technologies can lead to system related operational issues such as varying power quality and unreliability. On the other hand, grid integration of renewable energy projects is essential for bringing about an increase in the renewable component of regional and national energy mix. This paper analyses the existing status, technical and systemic challenges in large scale integration of renewable energy sources. In order to understand the complexities therein, the experiences of renewable energy service providers were supplemented by secondary literature. This paper adopts a system-based view for analysing issues of renewable energy integration and up-scaling for India, encompassing technical, infrastructural, and user specific aspects. It stresses the specific interventions that would bolster system strength and readiness for a renewable rich India. It also highlights key challenges of power quality, constancy and grid balancing and each one's unique position in a sustainable energy future for India.

Keywords: grid integration; grid balancing; distributed energy resources; variable energy sources; sustainable energy system.

DOI: 10.1504/IJETP.2021.111927

International Journal of Energy Technology and Policy, 2021 Vol.17 No.1, pp.98 - 116

Received: 31 May 2019
Accepted: 16 Mar 2020

Published online: 21 Dec 2020 *

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