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Title: Statistical analysis for the removal of crystal violet using bacterial cellulose powder via response surface methodology

Authors: Khairul Azly Zahan; Nur Sofiah Zamri; Norhani Jusoh; Mahfuzah Mustapha; Suzana Wahidin

Addresses: Malaysian Institute of Chemical and Bioengineering Technology, Universiti Kuala Lumpur, 78000 Alor Gajah, Melaka, Malaysia; Faculty of Engineering Technology, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia ' Malaysian Institute of Chemical and Bioengineering Technology, Universiti Kuala Lumpur, 78000 Alor Gajah, Melaka, Malaysia ' Malaysian Institute of Chemical and Bioengineering Technology, Universiti Kuala Lumpur, 78000 Alor Gajah, Melaka, Malaysia ' Malaysian Institute of Chemical and Bioengineering Technology, Universiti Kuala Lumpur, 78000 Alor Gajah, Melaka, Malaysia ' Malaysian Institute of Chemical and Bioengineering Technology, Universiti Kuala Lumpur, 78000 Alor Gajah, Melaka, Malaysia

Abstract: Statistical analysis for the removal of crystal violet (CV) using bacterial cellulose (BC) powder was evaluated. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to observe the interactions between BC powder size (μm), initial CV concentration (mg/L), BC powder load (mg), and contact time (min) on the percentage of CV removal (%). The experiments were designed using Box-Behnken design by Statistica 8.0 software package. As a result, the mathematical model was developed to show the effect of each parameter and their interaction on the percentage of CV removal by BC powder. The statistical significance of the model equation was obtained as the calculated F-value (18.683) was greater than the tabulated F0.05 (2.510). A high coefficient of determination (R2) value which is 0.893 was also achieved. Additionally, the most significant parameter that affect the percentage of CV removal by BC powder was the linear and quadratic term of initial CV concentration (X2) with the largest t-value (9.635, −6.419) and smallest p-value (0.000000, 0.000005). Thus, the potential use of BC powder as an adsorbent material for the removal of CV solution had been statistically proven.

Keywords: statistical analysis; response surface methodology; crystal violet; dye; bacterial cellulose; biopolymer; adsorption; environmental pollution; wastewater.

DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2021.10033671

International Journal of Environment and Waste Management, 2021 Vol.27 No.1, pp.35 - 45

Received: 16 Sep 2018
Accepted: 04 Jun 2019

Published online: 21 Dec 2020 *

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