Open Access Article

Title: Wafer-scale fabrication and modification of silicon nano-pillar arrays for nanoelectronics, nanofluidics and beyond

Authors: Dirk Jonker; Lucas Kooijman; Yasser Pordeli; Bernhard Van Der Wel; Erwin Berenschot; Bjorn Borgelink; Hai Le-The; Meint De Boer; Jan Eijkel; Ray Hueting; Roald Tiggelaar; Arie Van Houselt; Han Gardeniers; Niels Tas

Addresses: Mesoscale Chemical Systems Chair, Faculty of Science and Technology, MESA+ Institute, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands ' Mesoscale Chemical Systems Chair, Faculty of Science and Technology, MESA+ Institute, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands ' Mesoscale Chemical Systems Chair, Faculty of Science and Technology, MESA+ Institute, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands ' Integrated Devices and Systems Chair, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science, MESA+ Institute, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands ' Mesoscale Chemical Systems Chair, Faculty of Science and Technology, MESA+ Institute, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands ' Mesoscale Chemical Systems Chair, Faculty of Science and Technology, MESA+ Institute, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands ' Physics of Fluids Chair, Faculty of Science and Technology, MESA+ Institute, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands; BIOS Lab-on-a-Chip Chair, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, MESA+ Institute, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands ' NanoLab Cleanroom, MESA+ Institute, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands ' BIOS Lab-on-a-Chip Chair, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science, MESA+ Institute, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands ' Integrated Devices and Systems Chair, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science, MESA+ Institute, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands ' NanoLab Cleanroom, MESA+ Institute, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands ' Physics of Interfaces and Nanomaterials Chair, Faculty of Science and Technology, MESA+ Institute, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands ' Mesoscale Chemical Systems Chair, Faculty of Science and Technology, MESA+ Institute, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands ' Mesoscale Chemical Systems Chair, Faculty of Science and Technology, MESA+ Institute, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands

Abstract: We report on the fabrication and modification of a top-down nanofabrication platform for enormous parallel silicon nanowire-based devices. We explain the nanowire formation in detail, using an additive hybrid lithography step, optimising a reactive ion etching recipe for obtaining smooth and vertical nanowires under a hybrid mask, and embedding the nanowire in a dielectric membrane. The nanowires are used as a sacrificial template, removal of the nanowires forms arrays of well-defined nano-pores with a high surface density. This platform is expected to find applications in many different physical domains, including nanofluidics, (3D) nanoelectronics, as well as nanophotonics. We demonstrate the employment of the platform as field emitter arrays, as well as a state-of-the-art electro-osmotic pump.

Keywords: 3D nanofabrication; 3D nanoelectronics; nanofluidics; electro-osmotic pump; nanoelectronics; additive hybrid lithography; SiNW; silicon nanowires; continuous mode; mixed-mode; reactive ion etching.

DOI: 10.1504/IJNT.2020.111322

International Journal of Nanotechnology, 2020 Vol.17 No.7/8/9/10, pp.583 - 606

Published online: 19 Nov 2020 *