Title: Systemic complementarity, an integrative model of cooperation among small and medium-sized tourism enterprises in Mexico

Authors: J. Yvette Sánchez-García; Juan E. Núñez-Ríos; Carlos López-Hernández

Addresses: Escuela de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales, Universidad Panamericana, Álvaro del Portillo 49, Zapopan, Jalisco, 45010, Mexico ' Escuela de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales, Universidad Panamericana, Álvaro del Portillo 49, Zapopan, Jalisco, 45010, Mexico ' Escuela de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales, Universidad Panamericana, Álvaro del Portillo 49, Zapopan, Jalisco, 45010, Mexico

Abstract: This article explores cooperation among small and medium-sized tourism companies as a way to adapt better to their context because the lack of organisation and control affect their equilibrium and life cycle. The systemic complementarity was explored to maximise responsive and adaptive capabilities considering heterogeneity in these companies. The viable system approach was adopted to treat conflictual relations in these companies; in that sense, the viable system model was applied to develop coherent relationships, foster collaborative interactions and seek equilibrium. The functions and communication processes in the model distribute necessary information to enrich management and operations considering the environment. Also, the culture and interaction among actors foster ownership and engagement to achieve viability. Finally, through organisational cybernetics, it is attempted to contribute to strengthen these organisations and help them to identify their opportunities as a whole.

Keywords: viable system model; VSM; system dynamics; heterogeneity; enterprise cooperation; SMEs; organisational relationship; Mexico.

DOI: 10.1504/IJBIR.2020.110968

International Journal of Business Innovation and Research, 2020 Vol.23 No.3, pp.354 - 369

Received: 03 May 2019
Accepted: 06 Jun 2019

Published online: 08 Oct 2020 *

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