Title: Water management below the outlet - a survey-based analysis on the Indus Basin irrigation system in Pakistan

Authors: Mark Oelmann; Jonathan Schulze; Nora Zimmermann; Benedikt Roters

Addresses: Department of Economics, University of Applied Sciences Ruhr West (HRW), Water and Energy Economics, Duisburger Str. 100, 45479 Muelheim an der Ruhr, Germany ' Department of Economics, University of Applied Sciences Ruhr West (HRW), Water and Energy Economics, Duisburger Str. 100, 45479 Muelheim an der Ruhr, Germany ' Department of Economics, University of Applied Sciences Ruhr West (HRW), Water and Energy Economics, Duisburger Str. 100, 45479 Muelheim an der Ruhr, Germany ' Department of Economics, University of Applied Sciences Ruhr West (HRW), Water and Energy Economics, Duisburger Str. 100, 45479 Muelheim an der Ruhr, Germany

Abstract: This article examines the prevalent management rules of farmers below the outlets - at the local level. The aim is to identify the institutional gaps, which - if corrected - could substantially result in a more efficient use of the scarce surface water resources among the farmers. The publication contextualises findings from personal interviews, field visits and a survey in three villages in Punjab, in 2018. With regard to management deficiencies, the most commonly described problem of an allocation asymmetry, also known as the head-tail problem, was not found in the survey. Nevertheless, this research found that other aspects such as the lining of watercourses, the clout of low ranked irrigation officers over determining water tariffs, and the missing links between different hydraulic levels of organisation are representing equally challenging thresholds for an efficient and equitable water usage.

Keywords: Pakistan; irrigation management; institutions; farmer's survey; sustainability; accountability; water allocation; equity in water management; water management; irrigation; agriculture; warabandi.

DOI: 10.1504/IJEPDM.2019.110323

International Journal of Environmental Policy and Decision Making, 2019 Vol.2 No.4, pp.304 - 321

Received: 12 Oct 2019
Accepted: 07 May 2020

Published online: 30 Sep 2020 *

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