Authors: Andrea Bruno; Giuseppe Cattaneo
Addresses: Dipartimento di informatica, Università degli Studi di Salerno, Salerno, SA, Italy ' Dipartimento di informatica, Università degli Studi di Salerno, Salerno, SA, Italy
Abstract: The resolution of video cameras has increased considerably in recent years leading to a new generation of codecs with higher compression rates, such as H.265, VP9 and AV1. However, compression can heavily affect the noise present in each frame. Other encoder specific features, like the intra-frame prediction for H.265 and AV1, can flatten the pixel non-uniformity (PNU) noise. We implemented a test-bed to establish whether source camera identification can still be achieved using the PNU when videos are encoded in those formats. The experiments proved that the results are less accurate than those obtained from videos encoded with traditional codecs. Nevertheless, the most original result achieved was the methodology we designed. In order to avoid hidden artifacts the source videos were initially acquired as a raw data stream from a dedicated embedded system and then recorded with an open-source YUV encoder.
Keywords: pixel non-uniformity; PNU; pixel non-uniformity noise; sensor pattern noise; video forensics; source camera identification; video codecs; video compression; intra-frame prediction; embedded systems; experimental estimate; H.264; H.265; VP9; AV1.
International Journal of Embedded Systems, 2020 Vol.12 No.4, pp.424 - 433
Received: 17 Jan 2019
Accepted: 16 Apr 2019
Published online: 05 May 2020 *