Title: Competition of electric vehicles with other means of road transport over the past 150 years: a survey

Authors: Vadim F. Yakovlev

Addresses: Department of Electrical Engineering, Samara State Technical University, Samara 443100, Russia ORCID – 0000-0002-0166-957X

Abstract: Automobiles as a new means of road transport had to compete with horses at the end of the 19th century. Automobiles won the competition because they were faster, cheaper to operate, and produced less pollution. The potential consumer had a choice between vehicles with electric, internal combustion or steam engines in the 1900s. Electric vehicles were considered as more reliable and cost effective. Mass production made gasoline vehicles affordable and easy-to-use. Electric vehicles lost the competition with them since 1910s. Air pollution in large cities has renewed the interest in electric vehicles at the end of the 20th century. Expressions for estimation of well to wheel energy efficiency of electric and gasoline vehicles in miles per gallon have been obtained. Electric vehicles are more well to wheel energy efficient than gasoline cars. Price-performance ratio for electric vehicles today is higher than it was in the 1900s.

Keywords: EV; electric vehicles; road transport history; well to wheel energy efficiency; energy transition.

DOI: 10.1504/IJEHV.2019.102885

International Journal of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles, 2019 Vol.11 No.4, pp.358 - 366

Received: 06 Jun 2019
Accepted: 11 Jun 2019

Published online: 27 Sep 2019 *

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