Title: Can the circular economy be transposed into the EU defence sector? The case of the Dutch Ministry of Defence and a roadmap

Authors: Giorgos Dimitriou; Panagiotis Kikiras; Patricia López Vicente

Addresses: European Defence Agency (EDA), Rue des Drapiers 17-23, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium ' European Defence Agency (EDA), Rue des Drapiers 17-23, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium ' European Defence Agency (EDA), Rue des Drapiers 17-23, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium

Abstract: Traditionally, defence has not been subject to obligations under the EU resource-efficiency directives, the argument being that the armed forces of member states need to remain unencumbered by regulations in order to maintain capabilities and operational effectiveness. Yet, within the EU defence sector several instances of circular economy principles were already in practice thereby improving operational resilience. With the adoption of multiple legislative measures since the 1990s, the EU has accepted greater responsibility in sustainability and resource productivity to its member states, beginning with the 1994 Directive on Packaging and Packaging Waste to the energy and climate targets of Europe 2020. In November 2016, the EU Commission moved forward with the European Defence Action Plan, including provision to introduce/transpose circular economy principles to defence. This article presents the findings of an exploratory study originally undertaken as an assessment for the European Defence Agency. The investigation captures practices in the defence sector that exemplify circular economy principles and highlights the significance of the findings.

Keywords: circular economy; defence; policy; Europe; regulation; government; defence action plan; climate; energy.

DOI: 10.1504/IJC.2019.10024460

International Journal of Competitiveness, 2019 Vol.1 No.4, pp.319 - 330

Received: 15 Dec 2017
Accepted: 08 Feb 2018

Published online: 08 Oct 2019 *

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