Title: Optimisation of carbon nanotubes for advanced diagnosis and biomedical application

Authors: Khalid Parwez; Suman Veerappa Budihal

Addresses: Department of Clinical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Applied Medical Science, Shaqra University (SU), P.O. Box – 1678, Al-Dawadmi – 11911, Saudi Arabia ' Department of Physiology, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore Manipal Academy of Higher Education (MAHE), Manipal, Karnataka – 575004, India

Abstract: Nanomaterials have a broad spectrum of applications in biomedical fields. The carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are among the most versatile and well-characterised members of this group of materials. This review aims to discuss how to utilise CNTs as a diagnostic tool. Functionalisation with antibodies has gained significance in recent years among the various way of functionalisation of CNTs. Antibodies make their surface sensitive to surroundings for immuno-sensing. Surface passivation with other proteins is required to inhibit the non-specific binding of biomolecules on the hydrophobic carbon nanotube surface for ultrasensitive detection of biological species. CNT-based immuno-sensors provide excellent results with a promising sensitivity and reproducibility and, in combination with novel devices [such as a microfluidic electrochemical biosensor, nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS), paper-based analytical devices (PADs), field effect transistors (FET)]. This combination offers an attractive analytical approach for the fast, low-cost, and accessible detection of trace prognostic biomarkers, microbial pathogens, environmental pollutants, and toxins.

Keywords: nanomaterials; carbon nanotubes; functionalisation; biosensor; immuno-sensor; field effect transistors; FETs; micro electro mechanical systems; MEMS; paper-based analytical devices; PADs; tissue engineering.

DOI: 10.1504/IJNP.2019.102602

International Journal of Nanoparticles, 2019 Vol.11 No.3, pp.217 - 238

Received: 25 Feb 2018
Accepted: 24 Dec 2018

Published online: 30 Sep 2019 *

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