Title: Which factors determine the gender gap in the entrepreneurial action? Evidence from Mexico

Authors: José Manuel Saiz-Álvarez; Lucía Rodríguez-Aceves

Addresses: EGADE Business School, Tecnológico de Monterrey, Av. General Ramón Corona 2514, Col. Nuevo México, 45138 Zapopan, Jal., Mexico ' Faculty of Business Administration, Tecnológico de Monterrey, Av. General Ramón Corona 2514, Col. Nuevo Mexico, 45138 Zapopan, Jal., Mexico

Abstract: The empirical evidence about how the gender gap influences on the entrepreneurial intention (EI) and its effects on the entrepreneurial action (EA) are still limited. The objective of this paper is to analyse the main factors to explain the entrepreneurial gender gap in Mexico related to EI and EA and moderated by income, education, and marital status. Our findings show that, first, although women have a high EI in Mexico, they are reluctant to create firms due to an upper perceived behavioural control (PBC), so their EA is deficient. As a result, the Mexican labour market continues being very traditional with low rates of female participation. Second, the EI tends to decrease with income. Third, single men with completed graduate and/or postgraduate studies and high levels of income are more prone to entrepreneurship in Mexico.

Keywords: gender gap; entrepreneurial action; entrepreneurial intention; GEM; Mexico; women entrepreneurship; education; marital status; income; perceived behavioural control.

DOI: 10.1504/IJEV.2019.101356

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Venturing, 2019 Vol.11 No.3, pp.207 - 230

Received: 07 Nov 2017
Accepted: 22 May 2018

Published online: 05 Aug 2019 *

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