Forthcoming articles


International Journal of Sensor Networks


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International Journal of Sensor Networks (71 papers in press)


Regular Issues


  • Recent Advances in Wireless Sensor Networks with Environmental Energy Harvesting
    by Lei Shu, Wanjiun Liao, Jaime Lloret, Lei Wang 

  • Data Collection with Probabilistic Guarantees in Opportunistic Wireless Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Zhipeng Cai, Meirui Ren, Jianzhong Li, Longjiang Guo 
    Abstract: Nowadays, sensors can be embedded in many mobile devices/objects such as smart phones, iPads, vehicles, robots and animals to collect data from the surrounding environment. Furthermore, these mobile devices can communicate with each other by blue-tooth,WiFi or other wireless techniques to form Opportunistic Wireless Networks (OWNs). Due to the mobility of these devices, OWNs have volatile network topology and loose connectivity. Thus, data collection from mobile devices is very challenging. This paper proposes a data collection protocol named DCPG with probabilistic guarantees in OWNs. DCPG consists of four parts: broadcasting sinks position periodically, electing collectors by partitioning a network into grids, direct transmission from general nodes to collectors, and directional transmission from collectors to the sink. The theoretical analysis shows that DCPG can adjust the system parameters to guarantee that the average data collection ratio is greater than the user-specified data collection ratio. The simulation results further show that DCPG outperforms the existing best data collection protocol SMITE on the aspects of data collection ratio and communication overhead.
    Keywords: Data Collection; Opportunistic Networks; Loose Connectivity; Mobile Smart Device.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSNET.2015.10001241
  • Distributed Cooperative Spectrum Sensing with Wireless Sensor Network Cluster Architecture for Smart Grid Communications   Order a copy of this article
    by Ines Hosni, Noureddine Hamdi 
    Abstract: Smart grid (SG) is widely considered as the next generation power grid. It is included within information feedback communications. Recently, Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have shown its advantages for smart grid by achieving low-power transmissions. A SG communications infrastructure uses technologies and existing available infrastructure. Thus, forming a network of heterogeneous communications needs various communication properties and several traffic types, so that data should be detected and managed. However, SG communication technologies are subjects to ineffective spectrum allocation issues, that require an effective and low cost communication infrastructure. Cognitive Radio Wireless Sensor Network (CRWSN) has been identified as a new technique for SG to face these challenges. CRWSN is a new research paradigm where wireless sensor network and cognitive radio (CR) are combined. In this paper, WSN with cluster tree topology is proposed as a compatible choice for SG design. We introduce CRWSN into SG using cluster tree topology to improve the sensing performance and solve the rarity of spectrum by opening the underused licensed bands to secondary users. We adopt cluster distributed cooperative sensing as a method of spectrum sensing. We later evaluate the performance of this method under two distributed policies; OR and AND rules based on energy detection.
    Keywords: Smart grid; wireless sensor networks; cluster-tree topology; cognitive radio wireless sensor networks; distributed cooperative sensing; OR/AND rules,; detection probability.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSNET.2015.10001246
  • Sink based Cross Layer Routing for Image Delivery in Wireless Sensor Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Santhosha Rao, Kumara Shama 
    Abstract: With the advent of Wireless Technology, various applications in traditional wired networks have been adopted in Wireless Networks such as Ad Hoc Networks, Wireless Sensor Networks etc. Owing to limited energy in these devices power saving is very critical to prolong the lifetime of these devices. If the objective is to transmit multimedia, it is required to balance the power control and lifetime with the end to end Quality Constraints. Our work finds a mechanism to minimize the energy consumption while satisfying the QoS for Multimedia. In this work, we use cross-layer optimization mechanism based on power and modulation rate control for a multipath routing protocol and the optimization mechanism is subject to certain QoS requirement in terms of total end-to end Quality Level specified in terms of Packet Error Rate. The proposed Sink Based Maximal Minimal Residual Energy(MMRE) AOMDV algorithm uses the information such as image size, node gain, noise information, time constraint of the application and residual battery energy of the nodes available in the route request packets to calculate the optimal power and rate vectors and the number of packets that can be sent by the source for each disjoint path in the route reply packets. The source is freed from the complex algorithmic executions and hence the energy needed for this purpose is conserved. It is assumed that sink has abundant computational power and energy is not a constraint.
    Keywords: Sink based MMRE AOMDV; multimedia; power control; Rate adaptation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSNET.2015.10001252
  • Sentry Selection in Sensor Networks: Theory and Algorithms   Order a copy of this article
    by Paul Balister, Bela Bollobas, Martin Haenggi, Amites Sarkar, Mark Walters 
    Abstract: We study the geometric aspects of the sentry selection problem for a sensor network with randomly distributed sensors each of which covers a small disc. The problem is to partition the sensors into a predetermined number of groups, so that, for each group, the sensing regions of the sensors in that group together cover the region of interest. After presenting some theoretical results, we include descriptions of two fast partitioning algorithms, together with the results of simulating them on moderate-sized networks.
    Keywords: Wireless sensor networks; sentry selection; Gilbert model;rnrandom coverings; recolouring algorithms; geometric probability.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSNET.2015.10001255
  • BEAM: Branch-based Efficient and Adaptive Multicast for Wireless Sensor Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Daehee Kim, Sejun Song, Baek-Young Choi 
    Abstract: Multicast has been largely used for one-to-many distribution in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). However, existing multicast protocols have various overhead issues such as large forwarding states, control messages, packet header sizes, computation time, and energy consumption. In this paper, we propose a resilient and efficient branch-based multicast protocol, BEAM that reduces forwarding states and control messages by building efficient multicast paths on-demand using branch-based membership establishment, and that efficiently decreases packet header and computation overhead using branch-based data forwarding. Furthermore, for long-lived WSNs, BEAM resiliently keeps maintaining efficient multicast path with low overhead on continuous membership establishments based on quality of branches. Extensive evaluation results show that BEAM has less overhead complexity, packet overhead by 40%, and energy consumption by 30% than existing stateless multicast protocols.
    Keywords: Wireless Sensor Network; Branch-Based Multicast; Geographic Multicast; Source Multicast; Energy Efficient Multicast; Green Sensor Network.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSNET.2015.10001256
  • Target Coverage Maximization for Directional Sensor Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Zaixin Lu, Weili Wu, Wei Li 
    Abstract: Wireless sensor networks have applications in many areas, such as biomedical observation, environmental monitoring, and battlefield surveillance. In order to reduce costs and improve reliability, target coverage has been an important problem for wireless sensor networks in recent years. In this paper, we investigate target coverage for a special kind of wireless sensor networks, called directional sensor networks, in which the sensors have limited monitoring distance and coverage angle. Given a set of targets and a set of sensors, we investigate how to assign proper directions for the sensors such that the number of covered targets is maximized. We show that it is NP-hard to find an optimal solution and we investigate both centralized and distributed approximation algorithms with provable performance guarantee. In addition, we analyze the problem itself from the Combinatorics' point of view. Finally we also conduct a simulation experiment to evaluate the practical performance of proposed algorithms.
    Keywords: Wireless Sensor Network; Directional Cover; Target Coverage Maximization; Distributed Algorithm; Approximation Algorithm.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSNET.2015.10001259
  • A Novel Rumor Propagation Model on Social Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Ailian Wang, Weili Wu, Junjie Chen 
    Abstract: In information age, the malevolent spreading of rumors on social networks put forward a new challenge to the security of network and society, it's extremely important to study the inherent laws of rumor spreading in online social networks and propose effective control strategies for rumors. In this paper, based on cellular automaton model, we propose a new rumor spreading model. We first show the propagation characteristics of online social networks rumors spread. Then experimental simulation is carried out under periodic boundary constraints in the process of rumor spread, and the result is compared with real data. In addition, the immunization strategy to suppress the rumor spreading is analyzed with detailed scenarios. The results show that the new model is indeed able to characterize the propagation behavior on online social networks.
    Keywords: Cellular automaton; Social network; Cellular state; Rumor spreading model; Immunization Strategy.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSNET.2016.10001227
  • Coordinated Communication and Position Aware Route Recon guration for Throughput Optimization in Mobile Sensor Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Adnan Fida, Nor Tuah Jaidi, Trung Dung Ngo 
    Abstract: In this paper, we demonstrate the improvement in end-to-end throughput by coordinated reconfiguration of the route using the information exchanged between the routers. A coordination strategy of route reconfiguration is developed by integrating communication quality, particle swarm optimization, and mobility control of multiple routers in the presence of path loss, noise, multipath Rayleigh fading, and interference. The route with the highest throughput is determined using communication quality oriented routing metric prior to the route reconfiguration. We then show that how a coordinator can identify the router with critical link and coordinate the actions of multiple routers to gradually steer them towards a reconfigured route with higher end-to-end throughput. The simulation results illustrate that the proposed strategy provide routes with better performance in terms of throughput as compared to the routes generated by the non-coordinated route reconfiguration framework.
    Keywords: Throughput Optimization; Rayleigh Fading Channel; Communication Aware Routing; Particle Swarm Optimization; Mobility;.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSNET.2016.10001352
  • Distributed Algorithms for a Robust Topology using Reconfigurable Radios Wireless Sensor Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Yueshi Wu, Mihaela Cardei 
    Abstract: In traditional wireless sensor networks (WSNs)communicating on a single channel, the data throughput measured at the sink is constrained by radio capability, contentions, and collisions, which increase in the region closer to the sink. Using Software Defined Radio (SDR) technology, the distributed algorithm Radio-Mode Assignment(RMA)is used by sensor nodes to reconfigure their radio according to some predefined radio-modes, such that the resulting topology is connected to the sink. This mechanism reduces interference and increases data delivery rate. In this paper we extend RMA by adding two distributed algorithms to be used in the presence of a primary user. Sensor nodes operating on the same frequency as the primary user will reassign their radio-mode such that he resulting topology does not interfere with the primary user. We analyze the performance of our distributed algorithms using the ns-3 simulator.
    Keywords: Wireless Sensor Network; Cognitive Radio; Radio-Mode Assignment; Multi-Radio Sink; Distributed Algorithm; Primary User; Robust Topology.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSNET.2016.10001264
  • A Correlation-based Coverage Aware and Energy Balanced Probabilistic Flooding Algorithm   Order a copy of this article
    by Jianping Wang, Rong Huihui, Wei Sun, Qiyue Li 
    Abstract: Aiming at the costly explicit and implicit acknowledgements (ACKs) and the serious energy imbalance of the existing flooding algorithm, a correlation-based coverage aware and energy balanced probabilistic flooding algorithm (CCEP) is proposed in this paper. CCEP distinguishes previous flooding algorithms with three features: (1) it exploits the link correlation between neighbors; the one-hop neighbors that have high link correlation are assigned to an aggregate explicit or implicit acknowledgement (aggregate ACK), thus effectively ameliorates the ACK implosion problem and saves energy on both data transmit and ACKs; (2) it balances the residual energy of sensor nodes; (3) it achieves target reliability and energy effi-ciency by tracking real-time aggregate ACKs and probabilistically deciding whether or not to retransmit a packet. The simulation results reveal that CCEP saves more than 50% energy on explicit and implicit ACKs in most cases while achieving target reliability; CCEP simultaneously reduces network variance of residual energy, thus prolonging the network lifetime.
    Keywords: Sensor networks; Link correlation; Probabilistic flooding; Target reliability; Energy balance; Coverage aware.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSNET.2016.10001360
  • The Extra-Bit Technique for Reducing Idle Listening in Data Collection   Order a copy of this article
    by Thomas Erlebach, Aram Rasul 
    Abstract: Data collection is one of the predominant operations in wireless sensor networks. This paper focuses on the problem of efficient data collection in a setting where some nodes may not possess data each time data is collected. In that case, idle listening slots may occur, which lead to a waste of energy and an increase in latency. To alleviate these problems, successive-slot schedules were proposed by Zhao and Tang (Infocom 2011). In this paper, we introduce a so-called extra-bit technique to reduce idle listening further. Each packet includes an extra bit that informs the receiver whether further data packets will follow or not. The extra-bit technique leads to significantly reduced idle listening and improved latency in many cases. We prove that every successive-slot schedule is also an extra-bit schedule. We then consider the special case of linear networks and prove that the optimal length of a successive-slot schedule (or extra-bit schedule) is 4N-6 time slots, where N >= 3 is the number of nodes excluding the sink. Furthermore, we determine the optimal schedule length for balanced multi-chains. We then consider the setting where two frequencies (channels) can be used for transmission and determine the optimal schedule length for chains and balanced multi-chains in that case as well. Finally, the proposed extra-bit technique is compared with the successive-slot technique with respect to the expected amount of idle listening, and it is shown that the extra-bit technique reduces idle listening substantially.rn
    Keywords: Wireless Sensor Network; Transmission Scheduling; Oblivious Schedule; Extra-Bit Schedule; Successive-Slot Schedule.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSNET.2016.10001535
  • Sensor Network and Inertial Positioning Hybridization for Indoor Location and Tracking Applications   Order a copy of this article
    by Yuri Alvarez Lopez, Guillermo Alvarez Narciandi, Fernando Las-Heras 
    Abstract: An Indoor Location System (ILS) for practical asset and people tracking in indoor scenarios using Received Signal Strength (RSS) ZigBee-based sensor network and inertial sensors is presented. A novel algorithm that uses differential signal levels gathered from a set of transmitter nodes is developed for processing RSS data. These levels are introduced into a cost function whose minimum gives the asset location estimation. The use of differential field levels-based algorithm avoids the need of system calibration due to signal strength fluctuation. Moreover, position accuracy is improved by adding inertial sensor information. The method is tested in a real scenario, demonstrating practical indoor positioning when combining ZigBee-based sensor network and inertial sensors information. The influence of the number of ZigBee nodes on the position estimation accuracy has been analysed.
    Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN); Indoor Location Systems (ILS); Received Signal Strength (RSS); ZigBee; Inertial sensors; Radiodetermination.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSNET.2016.10001270
  • Performance Evaluation of IEEE 802.15.6-based WBANs under Co-Channel Interference   Order a copy of this article
    by Muhamamd Alam, Elyes Ben-Hamida 
    Abstract: In this paper, interference mitigation and coexistence strategies proposed in IEEE 802.15.6 standard are investigated within the context of co-channel interference. Scheduled access and CSMA/CA MAC protocols are implemented for on-body and body-to-body communication. A comparative evaluation of the reference scenario (without any coexistence scheme), two non-collaborative (i.e., Time Shared, Random Channel) and one collaborative (i.e., CSMA/CA) based coexistence schemes is presented for five co-located bodies. An accurate simulation platform is developed through mobility traces which provide dynamic distances, space and time variations under walking, sitting, standing, running scenarios. Consequently, IEEE 802.15.6 proposed channel models are enhanced, further accurate radio-link models are developed by taking into account line-of-sight (LOS) and non line-of-sight (NLOS) factors. Extensive set of physical, medium access control parameters are invoked to realize a comprehensive study. It is concluded that there is trade off between non-collaborative and collaborative schemes. Time Shared and Random Channel provides much better packet reception ratio and energy efficiency, though they suffer in meeting the delay constraints of the IEEE 802.15.6 standard. Whereas, CSMA/CA based collaborative approach is able to achieve the delay requirements however, it does not perform well both in terms of packet reception ratio and energy consumption.
    Keywords: Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN); Body-to-Body Networks (BBN); Interference Mitigation; Coexistence; Performance Evaluation; IEEE 802.15.6 Standard.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSNET.2016.10001274
  • Detection of Clone Node Attack in Mobile Wireless Sensor Network with Optimized cost Function   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammad Hasan Ansari, Vahid Taba Taba Vakily 
    Abstract: Ever increasing development of mobile wireless network technology, their prevalence and security challenges ahead of them, has made the requirement of security mechanisms an imperative in these networks. Meanwhile, clone attacker detection is considered as the most important security challenge of these networks. In this article, an innovative distributed approach for detection of clone node attack is proposed. The proposed approach is robust against smart attacker in mobile wireless sensor networks. Previously proposed approaches suffer disadvantages such as memory and communication overhead, probability of false alarm and high detection time, however, the detection approach proposed here takes advantage of introducing the observer position concept and hence achieves clone node detection in one cycle of protocol execution leading to less communication overhead. In order to analyze performance, the proposed approach is analyzed in terms of security and cost. Next, to improve performance, reciprocal performance of attacker and approach is stated using a discrete model and detection cost function stated as a convex optimization problem. Solving this optimization problem, clone node detection cost and parameters optimized values are calculated. At last, to analyze the approach performance, extensive simulations for different network configurations are performed and analyzed and then, results are compared to evaluate advantages of the proposed approach in comparison with the reference one. Simulation results show that proposed approach has less communication overhead and false alarm probability and better performance compared to previously proposed approaches.
    Keywords: Wireless sensor network; Security; Clone node; Intrusion detection; Convex optimization.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSNET.2016.10001275
  • A relay node deployment strategy for energy-balance using a Group Gaussian distribution   Order a copy of this article
    by Guojie Du, Yugang Niu, Jiancong Zhao 
    Abstract: Energy is one of the limited resources in a wireless sensor network (WSN), which inevitably results in the energy-hole phenomenon. One of the effective solutions is to deploy a certain number of relay nodes to alleviate the traffic load of sensor nodes. In this paper, the authors focus on the problem of relay node deployment in a layered network. By utilizing a set of Gaussian distributions with different deviations in each layer, termed as Group Gaussian Distribution (GGD), this paper proposes a new relay node deployment strategy to balance energy consumption. Moreover, the energy consumption of each node and the energy-balance condition are analyzed. And then, the actual requisite number of relay nodes and the standard deviations of Gaussian distributions in each layer are obtained. Both the theoretical analysis and the simulation results prove that the proposed deployment strategy significantly outperforms other node deployment schemes.
    Keywords: Relay node deployment; Gaussian distribution; Energy-balance; Network lifetime.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSNET.2016.10001276
  • An eccentricity-based data routing protocol for 3D wireless sensor networks   Order a copy of this article
    by A. S. M. Sanwar Hosen, Gi Hwan Cho 
    Abstract: Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are facing many challenges due to the limited resources. Thus, routing cost minimization is one of the major issues in order to design a feasible network topology. This paper presents a simple and efficient data routing protocol of constructing three dimensional (3D) WSN. It points to minimize the routing cost which includes the data gathering from deployed sensor nodes and the data forwarding to the sink(s). For this, the network is divided into 3D subspaces, and a routing centroid (RC) node is elected in the eccentricity region from any node in a subspace. In data forwarding, it selects an intermediate node in such a way that minimizes the number of hops towards the sink. The simulation results show that, with benefit of RC node concept, our scheme can significantly reduce the overall data routing cost and then results in prolonging the network lifetime of a 3D WSN.
    Keywords: WSN; wireless sensor network; 3D space; three dimensional space; space diagonal length; eccentricity; data routing cost; routing centroid node; data routing; network lifetime.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSNET.2016.10001278
  • A Novel Computational Geometry Based Node Deployment Scheme in 3-D Wireless Sensor Network   Order a copy of this article
    by Niharika Anand 
    Abstract: Deployment in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is an important aspect and depends on the application, the WSN is designed for. In this research, a deterministic approach for sensor deployment in three- dimensional (3- D) surface has been proposed, in order to maximize the coverage. For this purpose sectoring of the terrain approach is utilized which is based on the Voronoi Diagram and then the Delaunay Triangulation is performed on the sectors to establish the connectivity of the deployed nodes. The basic idea is to give a deployment technique that works for the 3-D terrain. The traditional Voronoi Diagram algorithm is modified for sectoring the terrain and the simulated results validate the proposed algorithm. The performance of the proposed algorithm is compared with other deployment techniques like Territorial Predator Scent Marking Algorithm (TPSMA) and random deployment on the basis of coverage ratio and uniformity and comparison show the enhanced result as compared to other techniques.
    Keywords: Voronoi Diagrams; Delaunay Triangulation; Wireless Sensor Network (WSN).
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSNET.2016.10001538
  • EGL: Efficient Geometry-based Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Ali Sayyed, Gustavo Medeiros De Araujo, Leandro Buss Becker 
    Abstract: Localization of sensor nodes is one of the most challenging issues in wireless sensor networks. Position information of nodes helps in effective coverage, routing, data collection, target tracking and event detection. Several approaches have been proposed in the literature for localization of randomly deployed sensor nodes, including range-based, range-free and mobile beacon based techniques. This paper describes a localization scheme using a mobile node (UAV) for efficient location estimation of the sensor nodes. UAV equipped with a GPS unit, scan the sensing field while broadcasting its current position periodically. The sensor nodes receive UAV messages, find three boundary points on it communication circle and then with the help of simple geometry rules estimate their locations. The scheme does not require extra hardware or data communication and does not require the ordinary sensor nodes to spend energy on any interaction with neighboring nodes. Several enhancements, including beacon scheduling, UAV Speed selection, detection and correction of boundary points errors, are explained for performance and efficiency improvement. This scheme is accurate and efficient enough to tolerate obstacles and only requires broadcasting of beacon messages by the mobile node. The performance of the proposed scheme has been evaluated by simulation using Omnet++. Obtained results show that localization accuracy can be adjusted by properly selecting UAV speed and beacon interval along with the UAV scan pattern.
    Keywords: wireless sensor networks; mobility; localization; positioning; geometry; mobile node; UAV.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSNET.2016.10001280
  • Joint Spatial-Temporal Access Scheme of Multi-hop Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Chi Xu, Meng Zheng, Wei Liang, Haibin Yu 
    Abstract: This paper investigates a novel channel access scheme for delay-sensitive multi-hop cognitive radio sensor networks (CRSNs) employing fixed relaying with decode-and-forward and selection diversity combining. Specifically, we first formulate a two-dimensional spatial-temporal opportunity model in which free opportunity and sharing opportunity are defined, and then propose a joint spatial-temporal access scheme (JSTAS) to achieve successive channel access for continuous data transmission. By spatial sensing and temporal sensing, the cognitive sensors with JSTAS control the transmission powers by fully considering their maximum transmission powers, the interference constraints of multiple primary receivers and the interference from one primary transmitter. To evaluate the proposed JSTAS, we derive the closed-form outage probability under Rayleigh fading channels and make comparisons between five different schemes. Simulation results demonstrate that JSTAS has better outage performance than that of pure spatial or temporal access scheme under all considered scenarios.
    Keywords: cognitive radio sensor networks; multi-hop; delay-sensitive; spatial-temporal opportunity; channel access; outage probability.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSNET.2016.10001281
  • A Novel Route Discovery Procedure for Congestion Avoidance in Multi-hop WSNs   Order a copy of this article
    by Omer Chughtai, Nasreen Badruddin, Azlan Awang, Maaz Rehan 
    Abstract: Due to high data traffic and resource-constrained nature of the Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), congestion occurs which leads to severe packet loss and high energy consumption. Since an efficient route discovery procedure can avoid congestion and balance the traffic load, a reliable congestion-aware routing is important and requires careful design consideration. In this article, a novel route discovery procedure for congestion avoidance (RDCA) in multi-hop WSNs has been proposed. RDCA is based on an objective function that incorporates the implicit behaviour of traffic load and consumed energy of the sensor nodes and signal strength between them along with the hop count. The results show that RDCA has a significant impact over Energy, Traffic Load, and Link Quality Aware Ad Hoc Routing (ETLAODV) and Energy efficient and QoS based routing (EQSR) in terms of Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR), End-to-End (ETE) delay, energy consumption, and average throughput.
    Keywords: Congestion-aware routing; Traffic load balancing; Congestion avoidance; Route discovery; WSNs.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSNET.2016.10001262
  • Transmission Power Control and Sensor Node Reprogramming for Smartphone-WSN Interaction   Order a copy of this article
    by Jeongyeup Paek, JeongGil Ko, Sang Gi Hong, Byung-Bog Lee, Naesoo Kim 
    Abstract: Recent advances in both hardware and software had led the smartphones to become an attractive candidate as a mobile gateway and data-user for wireless sensor networks that have the capability to monitor the physical phenomena in various dimensions. Together, wireless sensing systems and smartphones can enable new services that allow users to gather and process fine-grained local sensor data for improving the quality and user-experience of various applications. In this work, we outline a number of remaining technical challenges before such a system architecture is practically made real. We discuss important consideration points for future system developers, and propose schemes to address two of the general yet critical challenges. Specifically, we propose an empirical link stability scoring algorithm to improve the energy efficiency of active-probing-based transmission power control schemes by 15%, and introduce a method to efficiently exchange sensor nodes' execution binaries using Android and iOS installation packages. These schemes, when included in a system of smart devices interconnecting with locally deployed wireless sensors, can be used to implement a practical and low-power system for personalized sensing applications.
    Keywords: Smartphone-based Sensor Networks; Transmission Power Control; Sensor Network Remote Reprogramming;.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSNET.2016.10001402
  • Energy-Aware Task Scheduling by a True Online Reinforcement Learning in Wireless Sensor Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Md. Muhidul Islam Khan 
    Abstract: Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are an attractive platform for various pervasive computing applications. A typical WSN application is composed of different tasks which need to be scheduled on each sensor node. However, the severe energy limitations pose a particular challenge for developing WSN applications, and the scheduling of tasks has typically a strong influence on the achievable performance and energy consumption. In this paper, an energy-aware task scheduling method is proposed to achieve better energy consumption/performance trade-off in a target tracking application. Particularly, the proposed method exploits a true online reinforcement learning algorithm. A framework is proposed where it is possible to trade the application performance and the required energy consumption by a weighted reward function and can therefore achieve different energy/performance results of the overall application. By exchanging data among neighboring nodes it is possible to improve this energy/performance trade-off. The proposed method is compared with the existing approaches exploiting online learning: distributed independent reinforcement learning (DIRL), reinforcement learning (RL), cooperative reinforcement learning (CRL) and exponential weight for exploration and exploitation (Exp3), in terms of tracking quality and energy consumption trade-off in a target tracking application. Simulation results show that our proposed method is superior to existing methods for this kind of application.
    Keywords: Wireless sensor networks; Task scheduling; Energy-awareness; True online reinforcement learning; Distributed independent reinforcement learning; Cooperative reinforcement learning; Adversarial Bandit solvers.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSNET.2016.10001403
  • Does the Assumption of Exponential Arrival Distributions in Wireless Sensor Networks Hold?   Order a copy of this article
    by Krishna Doddapaneni, Ali Tasiran, Enver Ever, Fredrick A. Omondi, Purav Shah, Leonardo Mostarda, Orhan Gemikonakli 
    Abstract: Wireless Sensor Networks have seen a tremendous growth in various applicationrnareas despite prominent performance and availability challenges. One of therncommon configurations to prolong the lifetime and deal with the path loss phenomenarnis having a multi-hop set-up with clusters and cluster heads to relay the information.rnAlthough researchers continue to address these challenges, the type of distributionsrnfor arrivals at the cluster head and intermediary routing nodes is still an interestingrnarea of investigation. The general practice in published works is to compare an empiricalrnexponential arrival distribution of wireless sensor networks with a theoreticalrnexponential distribution in a Q-Q plot diagram. In this paper, we show that such comparisonsrnbased on simple eye checks are not sufficient since, in many cases, incorrectrnconclusions may be drawn from such plots. After estimating the Maximum Likelihoodrnparameters of empirical distributions, we generate theoretical distributionsrnbased on the estimated parameters. By conducting Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test Statisticsrnfor each generated inter-arrival time distributions, we find out, if it is possible tornrepresent the traffic into the cluster head by using theoretical distribution. Empiricalrnexponential arrival distribution assumption of wireless sensor networks holds onlyrnfor a few cases. There are both theoretically known such as Gamma, Log-normalrnand Mixed Log-Normal of arrival distributions and theoretically unknown such asrnnon-Exponential and Mixed cases of arrival in wireless sensor networks. The work isrnfurther extended to understand the effect of delay on inter-arrival time distributionsrnbased on the type of medium access control used in wireless sensor networks.
    Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks; Performance; Maximum-Likelihood Estimates of Empirical Distributions; Exponential Distribution; Non-Exponential Empirical Distributions; Gamma; Log-normal Distributions; Mixed Log-Normal Distributions;Histograms and Empirical Densities; Q-Q Plots; P-values; Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test Statistics; Theoretical and Empirical Densities and Cumulative Distribution Functions.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSNET.2016.10001413
  • Data Estimation with Predictive Switching Mechanism in Wireless Sensor Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Jyotirmoy Karjee, Martin Kleinsteuber 
    Abstract: In Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN), sink node needs to store data and torntrack data efficiently in a timely manner. As data is stored in a regular time interval, massive data is being collected which results in poor data tracking at a sink node. To overcome this problem, an Online Data Tracking and Estimation (ODTE) algorithm is developed at a sink node. ODTE algorithm does the following operations: (a) captures continuous data and does online data tracking at regular time interval; (b) it measures a Distortion Factor (D.F) which estimates an optimal data from massive data collected at a sink node. Moreover, data transmission overhead is another major issue at a sink node while transmitting continuous data from sensor nodes. To solve this, we develop Data Prediction Systems (DPS) models in WSN. It allows sensor nodes to transmit data to a sink node within a limit, controlled by a switching operation. This make a sink node for predicting data for sensor nodes thereby reducing transmission overhead in WSN. We validate ODTE algorithm and prediction models using simulation results.
    Keywords: Wireless sensor networks; spatial correlation; online tracking; estimation;rndata prediction.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSNET.2016.10001414
  • An Energy Efficient Routing Scheme by using GPS information for Wireless Sensor Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Byungseok Kang 
    Abstract: A wireless sensor network (or IoT network) is a collection of distributed nodes. These nodes gather data from various sensors and relay that information to a central point through a wireless network. There, the data can be aggregated and have something useful done with it. These types of networks deal primarily with the transmission of small amounts of data that needs to be sent very efficiently. In this paper we propose an energy efficient routing algorithm based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) information. Proposed scheme track the destinations location based on the beacon messages of the main route nodes. Through the experiments, proposed scheme shows improvements in the data packet delivery ratio and reduces the amount of routing control message overhead compared with existing routing protocols such as Energy-Efficient Ant-Based Routing Algorithm (EEABR) and Ladder Diffusion.
    Keywords: Energy efficient routing; GPS; Energy Efficiency; WSN.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSNET.2016.10001447
  • In-network Data Processing in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Compressed Sensing   Order a copy of this article
    by Vishal Krishna Singh, Manish Kumar 
    Abstract: One of the major energy consuming tasks in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is the task of data transmission. The lifetime of such a network can be significantly enhanced by, minimizing the in-network transmissions and dividing the transmission load symmetrically over the network. To overcome the issues of non-uniform energy dissipation and networks lifespan, a novel hierarchical compressive sampling (HCS) scheme is proposed. Based on the well-known hybrid compressed sensing scheme, the proposed HCS aims at minimizing the overall in-network communication during the data gathering process by obtaining correlated sensor readings through a hierarchical clustering scheme. The proposed HCS is able to identify the optimal position for the application of compressed sensing (CS) in the routing structure, to achieve symmetric load distribution in a randomly deployed network. The equal distribution of transmission load is validated through a heat map generated for showing the receiving and transmission activity at each node. An energy consumption model, based on the energy required by the radio, the processor and in the CS process, is proposed and the lifetime of the network is simulated for different sink positions. Simulations prove the efficacy of the proposed HCS over various CS based data processing schemes.
    Keywords: Hybrid CS; Energy conservation; In-network transmissions; Large scale sensor network; Symmetric load distribution.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSNET.2016.10001449
  • Lifetime Maximization of wireless sensor networks with multiple sinks using multiple paths and variable communication range   Order a copy of this article
    by Vasavi Junapudi, Siba Udgata 
    Abstract: Maximizing network life time in a wireless sensor network used for maintainingrncrucial events and parameters is an important research area. In this paper, we define the life time of the network as the number of messages it is able to transfer to the sink node. We consider multiple links and propose three different variants of the algorithm to enhance the network life time in terms of number of messages successfully transmitted to any of the sink. The first algorithm constructs tree with sink node as the root to every other node and the nodes choose the sink based on the shortest path. Sink shifting happens based on the predefined shift rate. In the second approach, we try to find alternate path to reach the same sink before finally shifting to other sink. In the third approach, we increase the communication range in stages such that, it can avoid crucial nodes and reach the sink node by spending more energy. The performance compared and shown that the network life time is enhanced with the help of second and third approach by 8.75% and 33.42% than Cluster based algorithm for sink Selection (CASS). Alternate Path with variable communication range has improved the network life time by 22.90% over Alternate Path approach.
    Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks; Multiple Sinks; Routing; Adjustable/Variable Communication Range; Network Life Time.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSNET.2016.10001453
  • Clustering algorithm for wireless sensor networks : the honeybee swarms nest-sites selection process based approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Ado Adamou Abba Ari, Nabila Labraoui, Blaise Omer Yenké, Abdelhak Gueroui 
    Abstract: The design of low-power, scalable and energy efficient clustering protocols in order to extend the lifetime of wireless sensor networks remain an active area of research. Cluster-based sensor networks with data aggregation on cluster heads is the most popular approach for optimizing the energy consumption of nodes, in order to maximize the overall network lifetime. Clustering is also used for optimizing QoS and scalability in sensor networks. In the case of large scale networks, the management of nodes becomes a challenge. It is therefore necessary that, these sensors act in a self-organized manner to perform tasks for the overall network. A number of novel protocols, architectures, algorithms and applications has been proposed and implemented. Swarm intelligence provides the most powerful models of social insects that provide a global intelligence through local and simple actions in a self-organized and distributed manner. In this paper, we proposed a distributed clustering approach based on the nest-sites selection process of a honeybee swarm. In the design of our proposed algorithm, we focused on the distribution of load balancing among each cluster member in order to extend network lifetime. The performance of the proposed approach was evaluated by performing extensive experiments and the results demonstrated that our algorithm delivers better performance in terms of network lifetime, amount of packets received by the base station, end-to-end delay, energy consumption and efficiency.
    Keywords: Wireless sensor networks; Clustering; Cluster Head; Swarm Intelligence; Honeybees; NEST.

  • Regression Model Based Consensus for Clock Synchronization of Wireless Sensor Network   Order a copy of this article
    by Guoyong Shi 
    Abstract: Consensus is a process of reaching an agreed state throughout a distributed network by exchanging local information. Stochastic averaging matrix operation on a subset of state vectors is an effective and scalable method for arriving at a consensus state in a finite-dimensional space. In this work we extend this principle to a novel modelbased consensus process. The model is a linear regression model that is associated to each network node. Each node updates the regression model coefficients by exchanging locally the model output only. Upon receiving a set of output messages from neighboring nodes, the receiving node makes a consensus operation (typically averaging) and uses the result to update the regression model coefficients. We show that this kind of regression-based averaging scheme is able to synchronize all model parameters throughout the network, consequently, the model outputs of all nodes would have achieved consensus as well. In the second part of this work we apply the developed method to clock synchronization problem of wireless sensor network (WSN). We treat both clock drift and offset uncertainty and model them as the regression model coefficients. By only locally exchanging clock readings between neighboring nodes, each node adjusts its drift and offset parameters. Simulation verifies that the network-wide clock readings can be synchronized gradually. The effectiveness of this synchronization method is compared to other traditional clock synchronization methods. The main advantage of the new method is its robustness and reduced variation of the clock errors, a measure that characterizes the degree of network clock consensus.
    Keywords: Clock synchronization; linear regression; model-based consensus; network coordination; wireless sensor network (WSN).
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSNET.2016.10001461
  • An Opportunistic Routing in Wireless Mesh Network   Order a copy of this article
    by Li Han, Huan-yan Qian 
    Abstract: In this article, the problem of multi-flow opportunistic routing in lossy wireless mesh network is considered. A heuristic algorithm, named MulSrc, is proposed. Building on backpressure scheduling and intra-flow network coding, MulSrc eliminates coordination between node as well as improves the fairness in rate allocation between different flows. To adjust the sources upper layer rate to network condition, a TCP-like rate control mechanism is adopted, which makes MulSrc suitable for delay-sensitive but loss-tolerant applications, such as adaptive audio/video streaming. Simulation results demonstrate that MulSrc outperforms both a singlepath backpressure routing algorithm that uses jointly optimal routing and flow-control approaches and the classical opportunistic routing algorithm MORE.
    Keywords: Network Coding; Multi flow; Scheduling; Opportunistic Routing; Multi-hop.

  • Lightweighted and Energy-Aware Mikey-Ticket For E-Health Applications in the Context of Internet of Things   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammed Riyadh Abdmeziem, Djamel Tandjaoui, Imed Romdhani 
    Abstract: E-health applications have emerged as a promising approach to provide unobtrusive and customizable support to elderly and frail people based on their situation and circumstances. However, due to limited resources available in such systems and data privacy concerns, security issues constitute a major obstacle to their safe deployment. To secure e-health communications, key management protocols play a vital role in the security process. Nevertheless, current e-health systems are unable to run existing standardized key management protocols due to their limited energy power and computational capabilities. In this paper, we introduce two solutions to tailor MIKEY-Ticket protocol to constrained environments. Firstly, we propose a new header compression scheme to reduce the size of MIKEYs header from 12 Bytes to 3 Bytes in the best compression case. Secondly, we present a new exchange mode to reduce the number of exchanged messages from six to four. We have used a formal validation method to evaluate and validate the security properties of our new tailored MIKEY-Ticket protocol. In addition, we have evaluated both communication and computational costs to demonstrate the energy gain. The results show a decrease in MIKEY-Ticket overhead and a considerable energy gain without compromising its security properties.
    Keywords: E-health; Internet of Things; MIKEY-Ticket; Security; Key Management; Data Confidentiality.

  • A Highly Efficient Human Activity Classification Method Using Mobile Data from Wearable Sensors   Order a copy of this article
    by Lihuan Yuan, Qiang Liu, Mengchi Lu, Sihang Zhou, Chengzhang Zhu, Jianping Yin 
    Abstract: Effectively recognizing human activity from wearable sensors is a valuable yet challenging task due to the intrinsic data complexity and the inevitable dynamic nature of diverse application scenarios. Existing works are weak to address human activity dynamics and to capture the low-level structural relationships between an activity and the context in a consecutive time window in a real- time manner. In this paper, we propose a novel bag-level human activity classification method that can efficiently recognize activities from sensing data. The proposed method hierarchically captures the low-level instance characteristics and the high-level intra-bag information. Meanwhile, this method leverages the learning speed by jointly using random projection and least squares, which inherits from extreme learning machine with solid theoretical foundation. Experiments results over the USC- HAD dataset demonstrate that the proposed method consistently outperforms the state-of-the-art instance-level and bag-level detection methods in terms of both recognition accuracy and learning speed.
    Keywords: activity recognition; wearable sensors; machine learning; multi-instance learning.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSNET.2016.10001462
  • Gateway Bandwidth Arrangement of Data Transmission in Cyber-Physical System   Order a copy of this article
    by Hao Wang, Jianzhong Li, Hong Gao 
    Abstract: Along with the development of wireless communication technology, different wireless technologies suitable for variety situations have been widely used. Wireless technologies with different characteristics have deeply promoted the development of Cyber-Physical System. Various kinds of devices such as sensors, actuators and data processors in a Cyber-Physical System have been used to complete different tasks and also be equipped with different kinds of wireless communication technologies in order to meet different needs of work. Meanwhile, all these devices have to make communication mutually to keep the whole system effective. Gateways have been used to connect these equipments with different kinds of wireless technologies. Different devoices pack information in data packets, and transmit them to each other through gateways. We propose a dynamic gateway bandwidth allocation algorithm, in order to maximize total packets delivery ratio. Simulation results have shown that this algorithm is efficient.
    Keywords: packet delivery; bandwidth allocation; hybrid wireless network; Cyber-Physical System.

  • Grid Routing: An Energy-Efficient Routing Protocol for WSNs with Single Mobile Sink   Order a copy of this article
    by Qi Liu, Kai Zhang, Xiaodong Liu, Nigel Linge 
    Abstract: In a traditional wireless sensor network with static sinks, sensor nodes close to the sink run out of their batteries quicker than other nodes due to the increased data traffic towards the sink. These nodes with huge data traffic are easy to become hotspots. Therefore, such networks may prematurely collapse since the sink is unreachable for other remote nodes. To mitigate this problem, sink mobility is proposed, which provides load-balanced data delivery and uniform energy dissipation by shifting the hotspots. However, the latest location update of the mobile sink within the network introduces a high communication overhead. In this paper, we propose Grid Routing, an energy-efficient mobile sink routing protocol, which aims to decrease the advertisement overhead of the sinks position and balance local energy dissipation in a non-uniform network. Simulation results indicate that the Grid Routing shows better performance compared with existing work.
    Keywords: hotspots; hierarchical structure; sink mobility; virtual infrastructure; non-uniform network.

  • CACA-UAN: A Context-Aware Communication Approach to Efficient and Reliable Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Qi Liu, Xuedong Chen, Xiaodong Liu, Nigel Linge 
    Abstract: Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks (UANs) have emerged as a promising technology recently which can be applied in many areas such as military and civil, where the communication between devices is crucial and challenging due to the unique characteristics of underwater acoustic-based environment, such as high latency and low bandwidth. In this paper, context awareness is applied to the design of an underwater communication approach, called Context-Aware Communication Approach for a UAN (CACA-UAN), which aims to improve the overall performance of the underwater communication. According to the results, the proposed CACA-UAN can increase the efficiency and reliability of the underwater communication system.
    Keywords: context-aware; underwater acoustic sensor network; context-aware communication; efficiency; reliability.

  • A New Compression Algorithm For Small Data Communication in Wireless Sensor Network   Order a copy of this article
    by Ammar Tuama, Mohamad Afendee Mohamed, Abdullah Muhammed, Zurina Hanapi 
    Abstract: Energy consumption is one of the most critical issues in wireless sensor network. For a sensor device, transmission of data is considered as the most energy consuming task, and it mostly depends on the size of the data. Fortunately, data compression can be used to minimize the amount of data that needs to be transmitted and thus extend sensors lifetime. However, existing data compression algorithms are not designed to cope with the specific characteristics and limitations of WSNs. Such algorithms normally require ample resources with high data correlation for good performance. Since the sensor deals with small data communication with less or no data correlation, the performance is still lacking behind. In this paper, we propose a new lossless compression algorithm that can handle small data communication in WSNs. Using compression ratio as a comparison parameter, the proposed algorithm is measured against a set of existing algorithms such as LZ77, LZMA, S-LZW, m-LZO, Gzip, and Huffman coding. Two different datasets have been used for this purpose; namely, self-generated dataset and real sensor dataset from Harvard Sensor Library. As a result, the proposed algorithm not only outclasses other existing algorithms but most importantly produces positive compression ratio throughout the whole test where most existing algorithms experience an expansion in data size when dealing with very small data. Moreover, memory usage, number of instructions and execution speed have been also measured for the proposed solution. The results show that the proposed solution imposes a very low memory requirement, less number of instructions per bit while maintaining a fast execution as compared to existing algorithms.
    Keywords: Lossless compression; Dictionary-based algorithm; Data correlation; m-LZO; Gzip; Huffman coding; LZ77; LZMA; S-LZW; Small Data.

  • Detection of In-Progress Phone Calls Using Smartphone Proximity and Orientation Sensors   Order a copy of this article
    by Huiyu Sun, Suzanne Mcintosh, Bin Li 
    Abstract: Smartphones are equipped with multiple embedded sensors, which have been widely used for human activity recognition, context monitoring, and localization. In this paper, we use smartphone sensors to detect in-progress phone calls and classify the caller's activity states. Although Android API provides a built-in listener class to monitor phone calls, it does not associate the caller's activity with each call. Also, the majority of calls (especially to overseas) made nowadays are internet phone calls, which is dicult to monitor with such listeners. Phone call detection has a number of practical uses: it can be used to monitor activities at places where calls are forbidden; it can be used to assist and enrich activity recognition schemes; and it can be used for health monitoring. We propose a real-time phone call detection scheme using smartphone proximity and orientation sensor data and design Android applications to record, upload and display sensor data. We classify the caller's activity states into three categories: sitting/standing, lying down, and walking. Features are extracted from proximity and orientation sensors to train classi ers using three di erent machine learning classi cation algorithms (Naive bayes, logistic regression, and support vector machine). Experiments show that our system achieves an overall accuracy of 91% in successfully detecting and classifying phone calls.
    Keywords: Human Activity Recognition; Smartphone Sensors; Phone Call Detection.

  • Optimal Gateway Placement for Hybrid BANETs-Sensor Networks in Urban Areas   Order a copy of this article
    by Chunyan Liu, Hejiao Huang, Hongwei Du, Xiaohua Jia 
    Abstract: For a given urban area, sensors are well deployed in each subareas divided by streets. We apply the existing Bus-based Adhoc Networks (BANETs) to collect and transmit information from subareas to the data center, which can significantly reduce the number of sensors and the information transmissions. WSNs and BANETs are heterogeneous, and minimal number of gateways are required to connect them because of the higher cost of gateways. In this paper, we propose two gateway placement problems: minimum gateways placement and minimal gateways placement with minimum average delay. We present a (1+ln r)-approximation algorithm and r-approximation algorithm to solve the two problems, where r is the maximum number of subareas covered by a gateway candidate. In the geometric topology of the grid urban area, r<= 4. Extensive comparison simulation show the performance of minimum gateways and minimal gateways with minimum average delay achieves significantly.
    Keywords: wireless sensor networks; Bus-based adhoc networks; gateway placement; approximation algorithm.

  • System-Level Analysis of IEEE 802.11ah Technology for Unsaturated MTC Traffic   Order a copy of this article
    by Aleksandr Ometov, Nader Daneshfar, Ali Hazmi, Sergey Andreev, Luis Felipe Del Carpio, Parth Amin, Johan Torsner, Yevgeni Koucheryavy, Mikko Valkama 
    Abstract: Enabling the Internet of Things, machine-type communications (MTC) is a next big thing in wireless innovation. In this work, we concentrate on the attractive benefits offered by the emerging IEEE 802.11ah technology to support a large number of MTC devices with extended communication ranges. We begin with a comprehensive overview of the novel features introduced by the latest IEEE 802.11ah specifications following by development of a powerful mathematical framework capturing the essential properties of a massive MTC deployment with unsaturated traffic patterns. Further, we compare our analytical findings for a characteristic MTC scenario against respective system-level simulations across a number of important performance indicators. Our analytical results give adequate performance predictions even when simulations are challenged by the excessive computational complexity. In addition, we study the novel IEEE 802.11ah mechanisms offering improved support for massive device populations and conclude on their expected performance.
    Keywords: IEEE 802.11ah; analytical modelling; simulations; MTC/M2M; unsaturated traffic; throughput; delay; power consumption.

  • Adaptive Synchronization of Small-World Networks with Lorenz Chaotic Oscillators   Order a copy of this article
    by Zhuqing Jiao 
    Abstract: Synchronization issues are important subjects in studying dynamical performance of small-world. The backgrounds of the Lorenz system are given in details, and an adaptive synchronization method is introduced to the small-world networks with Lorenz chaotic oscillators. The network achieves synchronization asymptotically through adjusting the coupling strength according to a certain adaptive law, without requiring additional conditions for coupling matrix like the existing works. The numerical examples are applied to demonstrate and verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. The comparisons of the simulation results show, the new method appreciably reduces the synchronization errors and increases the convergence speed to a certain extent.
    Keywords: complex networks; small-world networks; Lorenz chaotic oscillator; adaptive synchronization.

  • Architecture and Key Technologies for the Mission Planning System of Space Sensor Network   Order a copy of this article
    by Anning Meng, Yanchun Liang, Lining Xing, Hao Xu, Xu Tan 
    Abstract: Space information plays an increasingly important role in modern society. The acquirement and application capacities of space information are an important index of national power. Considering emerging technologies of the intelligent space and wireless sensor network, a business architecture, system architecture and technology architecture are proposed for the mission planning system of a space sensor network. The business architecture of a mission planning system is constructed from application flows, such as those of task modelling, planning and scheduling. The system architecture is designed from the software platform, resource configuration and node structure. The technology architecture is proposed according to applied key technologies. Key technologies are also proposed for the mission planning system of a space sensor network; e.g., modelling of user requirements, complex task processing, architecture construction and model design of the space sensor network, knowledge modelling, mining and merging for the space sensor network, and data-driven online autonomous mission planning technology. Through the strengthening of top-level planning and the innovation of the conception design, the exploration of the architecture and key technologies of the mission planning system of a space sensor network will promote technological innovation and provide comprehensive benefits.
    Keywords: Intelligent Space; Sensor Network; Architecture; Key Technology; Mission Planning System.

  • An Identity based Routing Path Verification Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Haibat Khan 
    Abstract: While the ability to express routing policies in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) has been well-studied, unfortunately, the ability to enforce these policies has not been. The core challenge is that if we assume an adversarial, decentralized, and high-speed environment, then how can the receiving node be sure that the path being announced by the incoming packet is the actual path followed by it? In this paper we describe the networking primitive, called Routing Path Verification (RPV), which serves as a tool to enforce routing policies and presents a solution to the defined core challenge. We assess the security of the proposed RPV construction in a formal way. More significantly we augment a suitable key exchange protocol with our proposed RPV construction, to achieve an overall RPV scheme. We also evaluate the computational, communication and storage overhead of our proposed scheme and the experimental results show that the approach is quite scalable.
    Keywords: wireless sensor networks; routing policy control; peer to peer protocols; security protocols; routing security; routing path verification; identity based cryptography.

  • An intelligent closed-loop learning automaton for real-time congestion control in wireless body area networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Samia Allaoua Chelloug 
    Abstract: Recently, a considerable literature has grown up around the theme of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) that are investigated in many applications. So far, Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) have emerged as a flexible solution for remote monitoring of mobile patients, nurses and elderly people. Nevertheless, WBANs are challenged by the real-time constraints of medical data. By another hand, WBANs have limited communication and computation capabilities. So, the collected physiological data should be aggregated before being sent to the base station. Moreover, the aggregation process may lead to the congestion problem. In this paper, we propose a closed-loop learning automaton that is based on conditional probabilities to assign each packet to the appropriate queue given the criticality of the sensed data. Our Omnet++ simulation results have been analysed using the Z-test. They confirm the performance of our scheme in terms of the drop ratio and the throughput.
    Keywords: WSNs; WBANs; congestion; learning; criticality; real-time; closed-loop; open-loop; drop ratio; throughput; Bayes rule; Omnet++; Z-test.

  • The Application of Distributed Fiber Sensors in Determination of Seepage in Derince Dam   Order a copy of this article
    by Ayhan Gurbuz 
    Abstract: Monitoring of civil infrastructure systems has emerged as a powerful tool for condition assessment of infrastructure performance. Structures could be monitored periodically from a central station located several kilometers away from the field with help of widespread use of modern telecommunication technologies. Fiber sensing technology is increasingly used in civil engineering applications. Distributed fiber optic sensing offers the ability to measure temperatures, strain, leakage etc. at thousands of points along a single fiber. A case of seepage along plinth of concrete faced Derince Dam, located in Turkey, is measured continuously and presented in this paper while an application of distributed fiber sensor technology is used. The case helps to disclose potential leakage along the plinth in order to minimize any risk.
    Keywords: Optical Fiber Sensing; Seepage; Derince Dam.

  • WiHumo : A Real-time Lightweight Indoor Human Motion Detection   Order a copy of this article
    by Hao Yang, Keming Tang, Hua Xu 
    Abstract: WiFi is one of the most popular techniques, which has been used to detect human motion. In this paper, we extract Channel State Information (CSI) of wireless signal to detect human motion and prototype a detection system, WiHumo. Firstly, we use a liner transformation to eliminate the shift of phases of different subcarriers. Subsequently, we design two criterions for the short-term case (SES) and the long-term case (LES). The former is to detect if someone is walking in indoor room and the latter is to detect whether the person is walking continuously. We prototype the detection system with the commodity WiFi infrastructure and evaluate its performances in various environments. Experimental results show that WiHumo has high accuracy with real-time detection and outperforms the existing methods.
    Keywords: CSI; phase; effectsize; human motion; real time.

  • On Reliable Data Delivery in Stochastic Energy HarvestingWireless Sensor Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Zheng Liu, Xinyu Yang, Wei Yu 
    Abstract: In wireless sensor networks (WSNs), sensor nodes with energy harvesting components have motivation to expend additional energy in conditions of excess, since the surplus energy would be wasted due to energy buffer overflow. In this paper, we focus on using such surplus energy to adjust the redundancy level of erasure codes, so that the data delivery reliability can be improved while the network lifetime is still well conserved. For a single flow, we formulate the problem as the maximization of end-to-end packet delivery probability under energy constraints. Considering the energy profile as a stochastic process, we propose a Lyapunov optimization based algorithm called the Erasure Coding Scheduling Algorithm (ECSA) to solve the problem. ECSA jointly manages the energy, adjusts the redundancy level of erasure codes and makes forwarding and receiving decisions for packet transmissions. ECSA does not require any knowledge of the harvestable energy and achieves an end-to-end packet delivery probability within $e^{-varepsilon-C}$ of optimal, while ensuring the required energy buffer size and the network congestion, which are bounded by size $O(1/varepsilon)$ for any $varepsilon>0$. Through a combination of both theoretical analysis and simulation, we show the effectiveness of ESCA in yielding a near-optimal data delivery reliability. We also show that ESCA can be easily adapted to multi-flow cases and implemented in a distributed manner.
    Keywords: Erasure Codes; Stochastic Energy Harvesting; and Lyapunov Optimization.

  • Localised Information Fusion Techniques for Location Discovery in Wireless Sensor Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Adnan Abu-Mahfouz, Gerhard Hancke 
    Abstract: Many wireless sensor network (WSN) applications and techniques require sensor location in order to work correctly. Information fusion in WSNs is crucial for location discovery and many information fusion techniques have been used in several location discovery algorithms. In this paper we provide an overview of information fusion techniques used by localisation algorithms in order to enhance and simplify the position computation process. Further, we analyse several approaches that can be used by localised information fusion algorithms and discuss how these approaches enhance the performance of information fusion and make information fusion play a leading role in localisation algorithms. This article provides an introduction to different localised information fusion methods for node location discovery in WSNs and could be used as starting point for implementing existing proposals or designing new techniques.
    Keywords: Localisation system; location discovery; information fusion; localised algorithms; wireless sensor networks; sensor’s position; nearest references; low-error references; malicious node removal; consistency of references; impact of geometry; noisy distance estimate.

  • Data Delivery in Wireless Sensor Networks with Uncontrollable Mobile Nodes   Order a copy of this article
    by Hosam Rowaihy, Ahmed Binsahaq 
    Abstract: Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of low-powered devices that have computation, wireless communication and environment-sensing capabilities. These low-cost sensors are usually deployed in a dense and stationary manner for the periodic sensing of environmental phenomena. WSNs open the door for many monitoring applications in the military, in healthcare, and in environmental and urban studies. Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks (MWSNs) are a subclass of WSNs in which some or all the sensors are mobile. Many environmental applications are designed and deployed on top of MWSNs in which the sensors hosts are uncontrolled by end users (e.g., the OpenSense project for air pollution monitoring in the city of Zurich). MWSNs pose many challenges for newly designed applications. In this paper, we evaluate MWSNs with a location-based application. We test various data delivery schemes used by sensors in MWSNs, including GPRS, Wi-Fi, and Hybrid (both GPRS and Wi-Fi). We perform extensive simulation-based experiments using the ns2 simulator.
    Keywords: WSNs; wireless sensor network; MWSNs; mobile wireless sensor network; mobility; mobile sensors; performance evaluation.

  • Improved Predictive Contention Window-Based Broadcast Optimization Strategy in Vehicular Cyber-Physical System   Order a copy of this article
    by Yan Huo 
    Abstract: Nowadays, huge amount of information gathered from various sensors in the Vehicular Cyber-Physical System (VCPS) may bring in the competition of transmission opportunity and the degradation of channel quality. Therefore, vehicles in communication should avoid intense competition by adjusting their contention window of the MAC protocol. According to the attribute set obtained by the vehicles' information preprocessing, in this paper, we propose an Improved Prediction Contention Window (IPCW) adjustment mechanism to optimize the broadcast performance. Also, the set should be updated via a feedback mechanism, so as to solve the problem of changeable vehicular communication scenarios. After that, an improved Markov model is designed to analyze the backoff procedure and to obtain the window sizes related to the attribute set, for the purpose of creating the reference table by Bayesian personalized ranking algorithm. Besides, an estimation mechanism based on hidden Markov is provided to predict the following vehicle's state and to generated a mapping table that consist of the attribute set and size of window. Comparing with traditional adjustment schemes, extensive simulations demonstrate that the proposed strategy could optimize the broadcast performance effectively in term of reducing collision probability and transmission delay.
    Keywords: Vehicular CPS; broadcast; contention window; fuzzy inference; Hidden Markov model.

  • Quality of Service Control in Proactive Wireless Sensor Networks via Lifetime Planning   Order a copy of this article
    by Peilin Zhang, Mohamed Abdelaal, Oliver Theel 
    Abstract: Successful exploitation of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is intuitively dependent on the enabling technologies as well as on the provision of application-relevant Quality of Service (QoS) metrics. Current research efforts mostly focus on maximizing the network lifetime without considering the predefined task time. In this article, we firstly provide a survey and a classification of the current state of QoS control methods in WSNs. Subsequently, we propose a novel QoS control method, referred to as lifetime planning. Based on design-time knowledge, lifetime planning provides users/applications with best-effort QoS, while meeting the time span required to complete the assigned task. To this end, an "upper" and a "lower" QoS boundary have to be defined for every QoS metric at the design-time. During run-time, a self-adaptation framework confines the QoS metrics between these boundaries. Lifetime planning outperforms other fixed heuristics and blind adaptation methods. As another proof of concept, we consider an office monitoring scenario with a cluster-tree WSN topology for performance evaluation. The scenario has been designed in the Contiki-OS network simulator, Cooja, using Tmote sky motes. Moreover, a novel QoS model has been engineered to determine the QoS boundaries. Simulation results show that lifetime planning tremendously improves the provided QoS while meeting the task lifetime.
    Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks; QoS Control; Survey; Energy Management; Lifetime Planning; Self-adaptation.

  • A joint routing and channel assignment in multi-radio multi-channel wireless mesh networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Xiaojun Wang, Lingzhen Meng, Jiangfei Peng 
    Abstract: Load balancing is critical for improving performance in wireless mesh networks. To reduce inter-link interference and balance networks loads, this paper presents and evaluates a Cross-Layer algorithm in this paper for multi-radio multi-channel wireless mesh networks, while conducting routing channel assignments. In channel assignment phase, we propose a greedy algorithm based on a multi-radio multi-channel interference model, and select the channel with minimum of interference degree. In the routing phase, a new routing parameter which comprehensively considers interference, delay, load balancing and other factors is proposed. The new algorithm is compared with existing algorithm that is multi-radio multi-channel wireless mesh network based on Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector Routing(MRMC-AODV) to illustrate the advantages. In the throughput, it approximately increases 14% than MRMC-AODV, when load reaches to 6Mbps. By increasing load to 6Mbps, its delay is nearly 80% of MRMC-AODV delay. Also it reduces about 12% of packet loss ratio when load reaches to 6Mbps. The simulation results show that this algorithm can effectively improve the network throughput, reduce delay and decrease packet loss ratio.
    Keywords: multi-radio multi-channel; wireless mesh network; cross algorithm; channel assignment; routing parameters.

  • Clustering-Based Energy-Efficient Routing Approach for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Gurkan Tuna 
    Abstract: As a result of the time-varying and harsh environment conditions, in underwater wireless sensor network (UWSN) scenarios, along with the excessive error rate of acoustic channels and long propagation delays, one of the most critical issues which must be addressed is to minimize energy consumption of sensor nodes. Moreover, it is hard to replace the batteries of the underwater sensor nodes frequently, therefore extending the lifetime of the nodes is one of the most important design objectives. In UWSNs, although energy dissipation in transmission mainly depends on employed routing algorithms and media access control (MAC) schemes, given the nature and challenges of the acoustic communication in water, all the layers of the protocol stack play an important role on achieving a high energy efficiency. Therefore, novel approaches that handle energy inefficiencies and extend the lifetime of UWSNs are required. In this paper, we propose an energy-efficient routing approach called Clustering-Based Energy-Efficient Routing (CBEER) to prolong the lifetime of UWSNs and evaluate its performance through extensive simulations. Based on a novel clustering-based scheme, the proposed approach can find shortest routing paths to carry data packets and is able to realize uniform network energy consumption profile in the entire underwater sensor network. The simulation based evaluation studies reveal that CBEER performs well in terms of packet delivery ratio and overall network energy consumption.
    Keywords: Clustering; Energy Efficiency; Routing; Underwater Wireless Sensor Network.

  • Cooperative Stackelberg Game Based Optimal Allocation And Pricing Mechanism In Crowdsensing   Order a copy of this article
    by Chunchi Liu, Rong Du, Shengling Wang, Rongfang Bie 
    Abstract: Crowdsensing has been earning increasing credits for effectively integrating the mass sensors to achieve significant tasks that one single sensor cannot imagine. However in many existing works in this field, some key information of the participants is incomplete to each other, hence causing the non-optimality result. Noticing that a potential cooperation between the players, we propose the cooperative Stackelberg game based optimal task allocation and pricing mechanism in a crowdsensing scenario. Aiming at different optimizing criteria, we propose two optimal Stackelberg games that are either with no budget constraint (No-Budget OpSt Game) or with budget constraint (Budget- Feasible OpSt Game). Analysis of their corresponding Stackelberg Equilibrium is then presented. Lastly, we perform extensive simulations to test the impact of the parameters on our model. Results of our two proposed games are progressively compared to show their optimizations in their respective criteria.
    Keywords: Crowdsensing; Stackelberg game; Optimal Mechanism; Budget Feasible; KKT conditions.

  • Malicious Device Inspection Home Area Network in Smart Grids   Order a copy of this article
    by Yang Xiao, Eric McCary 
    Abstract: The electricity industry is entering a new era, which adds powerful and innovative features to the current power grid. Home area networks (HAN) are integral in the operation of this cyber-physical infrastructure and has generally been considered one of the most insecure and vulnerable areas of the smart grid. Literature in the area is lacking and accountability in the HAN is seldom discussed. In this paper, accountability in the HAN is studied. We propose a method, which provides for grouping and inspection of the devices in a HAN in order to pinpoint malicious devices efficiently therein. With this, a higher level of fine-grained accountability can be achieved in the smart grid HAN. The experimental results show that the method is effective in its efficiency and scheme.
    Keywords: accountability; inspection; witness; smart grid.

  • Maximizing Influence in Sensed Heterogenous Social Network with Privacy Preservation   Order a copy of this article
    by Meng Han, Qilong Han, Lijie Li, Ji Li, Yingshu Li 
    Abstract: Maximizing influence in a specific scenario to improve the performance of marketing has a significant impact on targeted advertisements and viral product promotion, which has became one of the most fundamental problems in social data analysis. Many attentions have been paid to extensively analyze the influence in social data. However, most of the existing works, unfortunately, neglect the fact that the sensed location data in the cyber physical world could also play an important role in the influence prorogation process. Furthermore, even though a few works consider a little sensed information to enhance the influence maximization, the privacy protection issue of the sensed data (location, social relationship) was directly exposed to the public. This paper considers the problem of maximizing influence in both sensed location Data and Online Social Data with privacy preserving. We firstly merge both the sensed location data from cyber-physical network and relationship data from online social network into a unified framework with one novel model, then an efficient algorithm to solve the influence maximization problem are provided within our resolution. Besides, our model could not only support our influence maximization problem, but also support other applications related to both sensed location data and online social data. Furthermore, our privacy-preserving mechanism could protect the sensitive location and link information during the whole process of data analysis. Real life datasets are empirically tested with our framework and demonstrate the power of sensed and online data combination to influence maximization.rnThe experiment result also suggests that our framework is outperforming most of the existing alternative resolutions and succeeds in preserving privacy while other resolutions not.
    Keywords: Sensed Data; Location; Social Network; Data Privacy; Influence Maximization.

  • Rotation Based Coverage Control Algorithm and Protocol for Heterogeneous Sensor Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Quanlong Li, Qing Yang, Lu Su 
    Abstract: This paper studies the problem of coverage control, one fundamental issue in wireless sensor networks (WSN). In many applications of WSN, the target area is required to be covered for a certain degree. To satisfy coverage requirements, redundant sensors are usually deployed, which may cause unnecessary energy consumption on sensor nodes. To address this challenge, some coverage control methods have been proposed to reduce the number of active sensors and prolong the lifetime of sensor networks. However, none of them can be applied to heterogeneous sensor networks that are composed of different types of sensors with different sensing radii. In the previous work[1], this problem was solved by a novel coverage control mechanism for heterogeneous sensor networks. This mechanism, unfortunately, still suffers from a major limitation. That is, it may exhaust the energy of the active sensors, leading to unbalanced energy consumption among the sensor nodes. To tackle this problem, in this paper, we propose a novel distributed rotation based coverage control strategy for heterogeneous sensor networks. This strategy only needs to analyze a few special points coverage to determine each sensor node's working schedule, and thus can significantly reduce the complexity of coverage computation. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the proposed coverage control algorithm and protocol can outperform prior work in terms of not only the energy saving but also the energy balancing.
    Keywords: Rotation-based Coverage; Coverage Control; Wireless Sensor Networks.

  • A Novel Task Recommendation Model for Mobile Crowdsourcing Systems   Order a copy of this article
    by Yingjie Wang, Xiangrong Tong, Kai Wang, Baode Fan, Zaobo He, Guisheng Yin 
    Abstract: With the developments of sensors in mobile devices, mobile crowdsourcing systems are attracting more and more attention. How to recommend user-preferred and trustful tasks for users is an important issue to improve efficiency of mobile crowdsourcing systems. This paper proposes a novel task recommendation model for mobile crowdsourcing systems. Considering both user similarity and task similarity, the recommendation probabilities of tasks are derived.\r\nBased on dwell-time, the latent recommendation probability of tasks can be predicted. In addition, trust of tasks is obtained based on their reputations and participation frequencies. Finally, we perform comprehensive experiments towards the Amazon metadata and YOOCHOOSE data sets to verify the effectiveness of the proposed recommendation model.
    Keywords: Mobile crowdsourcing systems; Recommendation model; Similarity; Dwell-time; Trust.

  • Minimum Cost Flow Based Approach for Connectivity Restoration in WSN   Order a copy of this article
    by Eman Shaaban 
    Abstract: A WSN consists of resourced-constrained sensor nodes that cooperate to accomplish specific tasks. In many applications, WSNs operate unattended in harsh environments, which make sensor nodes susceptible to failure due to physical damage or depletion of onboard energy supply. Some of the nodes are critical to the network connectivity and their failure may partition the network into multiple disjoint segments. WSN can autonomously recover from this failure through relocation of some nodes. However such a recovery process remains challenging since tolerating the failed nodes individually is not a globally optimal solution and may cause resource conflict. This paper presents a Recovery approach that forms a topology with Increased Robustness against recurrent failure (RIR). RIR tolerates the failure of multiple connectivity-critical nodes through repositioning of non-critical healthy nodes. RIR can handle multiple simultaneous failures of either collocated or scattered nodes. The approach favors substituting a failed node with one with the highest residual energy in order to sustain the network connectivity for the longest time possible. RIR models the recovery as a Minimum Cost Flow (MCF) problem to determine the best set of node relocations for repairing the network topology while minimizing the motion overhead of the recovery process. The performance of RIR is evaluated through extensive simulation experiments. The simulation results have confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
    Keywords: wireless sensor networks; connectivity restoration; node relocation; minimum cost flow; WSN recovery.

  • Multipath Routing Technique for Responding to Sniffing Attacks in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Network Environment   Order a copy of this article
    by Seongsoo Cho, Changho Seo, Jeong Hyun Yi, Bhanu Shrestha 
    Abstract: As the image sensor modules which can collect multimedia data from such as complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) camera sensors and digital microphones are developed, security is required in technology such as data storage and transmission in wireless multimedia sensor network technology and application. Data transmitting through existing sensor network routing path has the problem of high vulnerability to effective information leakage by sniffing attacks that maliciously eavesdrop information. Threrefore, the study proposes one of the protection technique from a sniffing attack, that protects from attacking for a multipath routing technique to physically separate data transmission path from risk factors. The proposed technique is based on the movement of risk factors that sets priority of the geographically proximal sensor nodes according to defense readiness condition (DEFCON) and data importance. Based on this, DEFON and data priority are taken into consideration, and the risk bypassing multipath routing is performed through a secure path. According to the simulation results, it achieved about 5.8% transmission delay time compared to existing sensor network path but the security was confirmed as eavesdropping rate where risk factors can attack and eavesdrop decreased by about 18.5%.
    Keywords: DEFCON; CMOS; Sniffing Attack; Wavelet Transform.

  • Accuracy-aware Data Collection in Wireless Sensor Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Xu Zheng, Ran Bi, Guozhen Tan 
    Abstract: Data collection is a fundamental task in Wireless Sensor Networks. In many practical applications, approximate results with error bound guarantee can satisfy user requirements. To approximate sensed data, the filter based approach is to maintain the filters of each node at both sensor node and base station. The filter of each node is represented by an interval. For a given filter, the sensor node sends the update to the base station if the sensed data is beyond the range of the filter. In this paper, we investigate the accuracy-aware approach for approximate data collection. The filter assignment for optimizing the average of valid filter time is formalized as an integer optimization problem and the hardness of this problem is proven to be NP-Complete. A greedy heuristic based algorithm with low computation overhead is proposed. Moreover, to balance the valid filter time, the filter assignment for optimizing the minimum valid time is formalized as a general max-min problem. We analyze the hardness of the problem and propose an approximation algorithm. The experimental results show that our algorithms achieve better results in terms of communication cost and expected time of valid filters.\r\n
    Keywords: Data Collection; Sensed Data Model; Approximate Algorithms; Wireless Sensor Networks.

  • Energy-Efficient MAC Protocols for Wireless BANs: Comparison, Classification, Applications and Challenges   Order a copy of this article
    by Athar Ali Khan, Nadia N. Qadri, Amna Mahbub, Muhammad Yasir Qadri, Muhammad Iqbal, Muhammad Naeem 
    Abstract: Recent developments in wireless networks, MicroElectroMechanical Systems technology, and integrated circuits has enabled miniaturization of micro/nano sensor nodes. These low-power and intelligent nodes are placed in or around the human body in a strategic manner for numerous new, practical and innovative applications. These applications provide improved data speed, accuracy, and reliable communication of sensors and actuators. This exciting new area of research based on miniaturized sensor nodes is called Body Area Networks. With majority of applications in healthcare, BAN utilizes IEEE 802.15.6 and IEEE 802.15.4j standards. A lot of work is going on to develop communication protocols for BANs. The design of an efficient MAC protocol is an important requirement for BANs applications and a considerable work has been done to achieve this. In this paper, we provide a survey on BAN with special attention given to energy-efficient MAC protocols, its classification, and comparison. This article also discusses an in-depth review on BAN applications and fundamental research challenges.
    Keywords: Body Area Networks; Energy-efficiency; MAC Protocols; Wireless Sensor Networks; Frame Structure.

  • Performance Comparison of Detection Schemes for Spectrum Sensing   Order a copy of this article
    by Quoc Kien Nguyen, Taehyun Jeon 
    Abstract: Internet of things (IoT) is one of the popular terminologies and is expected to be an essential part of the next generation 5G mobile communication systems. IoT includes massive number of devices with different communication interfaces. Therefore, without a proper collision detection method, these devices will be the source of interference to the primary user. There exist numerous spectrum sensing techniques in cognitive radio areas. However, each type of spectrum sensing technique has its pros and cons. In the recent researches about spectrum sensing approaches, the combination of conventional digital signal processing and collaboration in signal detection has been exploited in order to obtain more accurate results. This paper provides performance comparison of different spectrum sensing techniques. Particularly, energy and cyclostationary based detection techniques are reviewed. Furthermore, the two-layer detection procedure, which includes energy-based cyclostationary, is examined and applied to collaborative scenario. The collaborative sensing utilizes signals coming from different receivers with different propagation paths to cope with the high level of noise environment. Furthermore, the information of the received signal at each terminal is exchanged among the others in order to obtain the high accuracy decision. The information from different terminals are combined at the fusion center where the decision is finally made. The simulation result illustrates that with the collaborative spectrum detection the better performance is achieved.
    Keywords: collaborative spectrum sensing; cyclostationary; internet of things; cognitive radio.

  • An Interdisciplinary Approach to Bus Information System : Bus Sensor Networking and Drivers Cognition   Order a copy of this article
    by HyungWoo Park, SangWoo Hahm 
    Abstract: Seoul is one of the most densely populated cities in the world. There are a number of different means of transport available in Seoul, including subway, electric railway, express buses, local buses and taxis. Of particular interest to us, buses are connected to Seoul Transport Operation and Information Service (TOPIS) by the Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) network. Seoul TOPIS collects traffic information from traffic related systems such as the Bus information and management system, the Bus card system, the unmanned traffic control system, traffic broadcasting, the police and the Korea Expressway Corporation. It is a comprehensive traffic management center. The Bus Information System (BIS) is a sensor network system that scientifically deals with information about the real-time location and control of buses. Using the BIS, bus companies can identify and manage bus operations and bus driver status. Use of this bus sensor network also reveals that bus drivers have different cognition, preferences or attitudes about the two component parts of the system, the support system and the surveillance system. Further, they have a more positive attitude to the support system sensor network than the surveillance system. We investigated the perceptions of bus drivers in Seoul city for sensor networks, which transportation companies can utilize in the future. Sensor networks are convenient tools for improving the quality of human life. However, in the workplace, sensor networks do not always guarantee positive results. Therefore, we elaborate on a support sensor network, which can positively influence motivation, and a surveillance sensor network, which may have a negative influence on motivation. Indeed, sometimes sensor networks can hinder workers' levels of motivation. This study is valuable as convergence research for the individual cognitive dimensions of sensor networks. We suggest ways for the sensor network to move forward in order to satisfy employees and improve performance in transportation companies. In conclusion, this study suggests that we need to better understand both sensor network technology and human psychology in order to improve the performance of workers using sensor networks.
    Keywords: Bus Information system; Public transport networks; Bus operation system; Driver cognition.

  • GRACO: a geographic GReedy routing with an ACO based void handling technique   Order a copy of this article
    by Mouna Rekik, Nathalie Mitton, Zied Chtourou 
    Abstract: Geographic routing has gained much attention as a basic routing primitive in wireless sensor networks due to its memory-less, scalability, efficiency and low overhead features. Greedy forwarding is the simplest geographic routing scheme, it uses the distance as a forwarding criterion. Nevertheless, it may suffer from communication holes, where no next hop candidate is closer to the destination than the node currently holding the packet. For this purpose, a void handling technique is needed to recover from the void problem and successfully deliver data packets if a path does exist between source and destination nodes. Many approaches have been reported to solve this issue at the expense of extra processing and or overhead. This paper proposes GRACO, an efficient geographic routing protocol with a novel void recovery strategy based on ant colony optimization (ACO). GRACO is able to adaptively adjust the forwarding mechanism to avoid the blocking situation and effectively deliver data packets. Compared to GFG, one of the best performing geographic routing protocols, simulation results demonstrate that GRACO can successfully find shorter routing paths with higher delivery rate, less control packet overhead and shorter end-to-end delay.
    Keywords: wireless sensor networks ; geographic routing ; guaranteed delivery ; swarm intelligence ; ant colony optimization.

  • Wideband Open Stub BPF for Cognitive Radio System Applications   Order a copy of this article
    by Seongsoo Cho, Bhanu Shrestha, Jeong Hyun Yi 
    Abstract: In this paper, a compact wideband open stub bandpass filter (BPF) is designed, fabricated, and characterized for cognitive radio system (CRS) application which is an emerging technology in the wireless communication system. The designed bandpass filter can be implemented to a front end of CRS system which can pass the desired signal rejecting all other signals and noise. We fabricated on Teflon substrate with dielectric constant of 2.54 and thickness of 0.54 mm and characterized using vector network analyzer. The experimental results of wideband BPF are found in good agreement with simulated results, showing fractional bandwidth from 4.4 to 8.0 GHz (≈59%), insertion loss (S21) of 33.6 dB, and minimum return loss (S11) of 0.10 dB at 6.2 GHz. The group delay of wide bandpass filter is below 0.19 ns. The features of the design are size reduction, wideband, higher insertion loss, feasibility in implementing to CRS, The designed wide bandpass filter occupied the size of 0.394λg
    Keywords: wireless cognitive radio system; wideband BPF; bandpass filter ; microstrip BPF; CRS; open stub BPF; UWB.

  • Range Adjustable Hybrid Multi Path Routing Algorithm for WSNs   Order a copy of this article
    by Nishant Joshi D, Muralidhar Kulkarni, Shivaprakasha K S 
    Abstract: Multipath routing is an effective way to achieve reliability in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). Node disjoint multipath routing could achieve better load balancing along with reliability. In this paper, an attempt has been made in proposing a novel node disjoint multipath routing algorithm, the Range Adjustable Hybrid Multipath (RAHM). RAHM uses hybrid routing approach which combines the centralized node disjoint multipath selection and localized distributed route reconfiguration. Node disjoint path selection is based on the objective of minimizing the end to end communication drain on each path. The distributed route reconfiguration initiates on the localized node failure events and the route re-establishment is based on the objective of residual energy of the nodes. Data transmission over node disjoint multiple paths of RAHM uses variable transmission ranges. The performance of the proposed algorithm is validated through simulations and compared with Collection Tree Protocol (CTP) and multipath ring routing protocol. RAHM performs around 36% and 76% better in terms of network lifetime parameter compared to CTP and multipath ring routing protocol respectively.
    Keywords: Multipath Routing; Energy Efficient; Hybrid Routing; Variable Transmission Range; Node disjoint.

  • Development of Integration Platforms for Interworking of Smart Home Devices for Heterogeneous Data Security   Order a copy of this article
    by Sang-Hyun Lee, Jeong-Gi Lee 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to develop a system that can ensure safety for users of necessary services through a platform that can integrate and encrypt data from diverse smart devices utilized in daily living, such as sensors, information devices, communication devices, and health devices. The platform directly or indirectly transmits the data safely. The system will be developed to facilitate user access to energy management systems for monitoring, performance checking, and fault diagnosis of building and living environment management systems, which have been manually managed through an Android based integration control platform. It also provides for development and expandability. In addition, since the data exchange systems of smart home related products are different from one other, a platform that can integrate the systems will eventually be developed so that heterogeneous networks can be easily connected and security processed data communications can be integrated when external data are transmitted.
    Keywords: Integration Platform; Cryptography; Android; Smart Home; IoT ; PHD ; USN .

  • A Radio Link Reliability Prediction Model for Wireless Sensor Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Wei SUN, Qiyue Li, Jianping Wang, Liangfeng Chen, Daoming Mu 
    Abstract: The Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) has great prospects in monitoring and control of industrial plants and devices. One of the main challenges of developing WSNs for industrial applications is to satisfy their requirements for reliability with strict bounds. Accurate prediction of a radio links reliability is helpful for upper layer protocols to optimize network level Quality of Service performance. In this paper, to predict the bounds of the confidence interval of the Packet Reception Ratio (PRR), a Radio Link Reliability Prediction (RLRP) model is proposed for describing the relation between the reliability metrics bounds and factors that affect it. Based on the RLRP model, the adaptive extended Kalman filter algorithm is adopted to predict the reliability metric. Real world experiments were performed to demonstrate the proposed model. The results indicate that our RLRP model is accurate in predicting the bounds of link reliability, can better reflect the random characteristic of the radio link, and is more sensitive to dynamic changes of the radio link.
    Keywords: Link Reliability Model; Reliability Prediction; Wireless Sensor Network; Kalman Filter.

  • Cross-layer control of wireless sensor network for smart distribution grid   Order a copy of this article
    by Ruju Fang, Jianping Wang, Wei Sun 
    Abstract: This article presents an integrated modeling method providing cross layer control for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) communication which is suitable for Smart Distribution Grid (SDG). There are multiple protocol layers in WSNs communication. In order to meet the Quality of Service (QoS) of application for WSNs, as well as more resource-efficient for the resource-constrained nodes, a cross-layer control algorithm based on theory of Fuzzy Cognitive Map (FCM) is proposed. The cross layer control model of the whole communication system is established by utilizing different influence coefficients among fuzzy cognitive map concepts which represent the subordinate relationships of different protocol layers, such as application layer, network layer, MAC layer and physical layer. Influence coefficients among fuzzy cognitive map concepts can be obtained self-learning and self-training way, which can timely adjust the physical layer,MAC layer,transport layer parameters and routing strategy based on the network environment and control needs.rnFinally, communication performance of cross layer control algorithm is evaluated by received data of WSNs network,the average delay and effective throughput, and so on. Results show that cross layer control scheme based on fuzzy cognitive map proposed in paper can meet the real-time and reliability requirements.rn
    Keywords: Smart distribution grid; Wireless sensor network; Fuzzy cognitive map; Back-off strategy; Cross layer control.

  • Aggregation Aware Early Event Notification Technique for Delay Sensitive Applications in Wireless Sensor Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Sukhwinder Singh Sran, Jagpreet Singh, Lakhwinder Kaur 
    Abstract: In this paper, an aggregation aware early event notification technique (AAEENT) is proposed for WSNs characterized by unpredictable events. The novelties of the proposed technique are two folds. First, reliable routing policy is proposed to deliver events data over high throughput paths to final destination as early as possible. This reliable routing policy minimizes the number of retransmissions, which in turn reduces network congestion. Second, temporal data aggregation has been used to minimize redundant data at each intermediate node. The proposed technique has been implemented by incorporating proposed policy in Collect protocol of Contiki operating system and is evaluated over Cooja network simulator. For performance analysis, the results are compared with the Constant Delay based aggregation, Random Waiting based aggregation policy and the existing Collect Protocol. From the results, it has been observed that due to reduced network bottlenecks in the proposed technique, the event notification time declined upto 35% and overall power consumption is reduced upto 37% in contrast to existing solutions.
    Keywords: Data Aggregation; Energy Consumption; Energy Efficient Routing; Event Notification Time; Wireless Sensor Networks.