International Journal of Security and Networks (13 papers in press)
A Black Hole Attack Model using Topology Approximation for Reactive Ad-hoc Routing Protocols
by Christopher W. Badenhop, Barry E. Mullins
A Promising Security Protocol for Protecting Near Field Communication Devices from Networking Attacks
by Abu Asaduzzaman, Shanta Mazumder, Sergio Salinas
Abstract: Due to the popularity of the Near Field Communication (NFC) applications, NFC technology is being adopted by a wide variety of devices suitable for the internet of things (IoT). However, NFC is vulnerable to numerous networking attacks such as tag manipulation. In this work, a security protocol for the NFC chip is introduced to protect the NFC devices and associated data from several attacks. In addition, the NFC Data Exchange Format (NDEF) message is modified with a certificate record and the alert mechanism is improved to enhance security. The proposed secure protocol in the NFC system checks the authenticity of the incoming NDEF messages sender (by checking the signature record) and validity of the message/data (by checking the certificate), then if appropriate, stores the incoming NDEF messages in the devices memory for further processing. MATLAB simulation results suggest that the proposed protocol offers better security by detecting certificate modification, message modification, etc. It is also observed that the processing time remains almost the same for various record sizes and the processing time increases linearly as the certificate size increases. The proposed secure technique for NFC can be extended to enhance security in mobile IoT devices.
Keywords: Security-Aware Architecture; Near Field Communication; NFC architecture; Systems security; Secure protocol;.
CRT based Multi-Secret Sharing Schemes: Revisited
by Appala Naidu Tentu, Venkaiah V Ch, Kamakshi Prasad V
Abstract: Secret sharing is a cryptographic primitive, which is used to distribute a secret among a set of participants in such a way that an authorized subset of participants can uniquely reconstruct the secret and an unauthorized subset can get no information about the secret. Several schemes are proposed in the literature. Some of these schemes are extended to share multiple secrets. Efficient techniques such as Lagrange interpolation, Chinese Reminder Theorem (CRT), Error correcting codes, etc. are used to construct these schemes.
This paper reviews some of these schemes that are based on CRT. It also proposes a new multi-stage multi-secret sharing scheme that uses the Mignottes sequence and a multi-level multi-secret sharing scheme that uses the Asmuths Bloom sequence. Advantage of the proposed schemes is that the secret space is larger than that of the existing schemes and multiple secrets can be shared. There is no leakage of information through public values. Proposed schemes are computationally perfect and the novelty of these schemes is that the participants can reuse their shares for each new set of secrets as long as is required without refreshing their shares. Moreover, the first scheme can verify the honesty of both the dealer and the participants. Correctness of the proposed schemes is discussed and show that the proposed schemes are computationally secure.
Keywords: Multi-Stage; Multi-Secret; Mignotte’s sequence; CRT; Secret sharing scheme;Cheating detection.
Evaluation of Anonymous Digital Signatures for Privacy-Enhancing Mobile Applications
by Lukas Malina, Petr Dzurenda, Jan Hajny
Abstract: Privacy-enhancing mobile applications that employ anonymous digital signature schemes can be beneficial for users who strongly concern about their privacy and security. This paper deals with anonymous digital signature schemes and their usability on smartphones. We implement seven anonymous digital signature schemes on smartphones in order to get the practical results. Further, we discuss the usability of these schemes in different scenarios such as data collection, access control and data notification. We believe that our analysis and performance assessment can help engineers and security experts to choose a proper anonymous digital signature scheme into their secure and privacy-friendly mobile applications.
Keywords: Anonymous Digital Signature; Cryptography; Group Signature; Performance Evaluation; Privacy.
An ID-based Authentication Scheme to Achieve the Security of Smart Card
by Ning Xu, Haiping Huang, Zhengtao Li, Yunqi Wang, Chao Sha
Abstract: With the rapid development of cloud computing and social network service, customers' lives have become more and more convenient due to the wide use of mobile payment and online transaction. When customers enjoy the benefits from these pervasive electronic applications, what we cannot ignore is that the adversaries may infringe privacy by cracking the authentication information between users and servers. As an effective countermeasure, smart-card-based ID authentication scheme is currently paid more attention, and many researchers have proposed considerable ID authentication methods based on smart card and they have claimed that their methods can withstand most known attacks, such as impersonation attack and smart card stolen attack. However, these proposed methods are found actually more or less vulnerable to some certain attacks. Therefore, we propose an authentication scheme based on smart card's mutual authentication mechanism, which can completely hide all the information concerned with the user's ID and defeat most known attacks launched by the adversaries. When the user uses the same identity and password to register different accounts in different websites, the attacker cannot obtain the user's password even if he knows the user's corresponding identity and cannot achieve a password guessing attack. Compared with several prevalent schemes, without sacrificing the computational efficiency, our solution can achieve higher security.
Keywords: smart card; ID-based authentication; password authentication; security; computational efficiency.
An Android Malware Static Detection Scheme Based on Cloud Security Structure
by Yu Bencheng, Song Peisen, Xu Xiaoyuan
Abstract: With the popularity of Android system mobile phones, the security threat brought by its own security mechanism flaws is increasingly severe. Therefore, it is necessary to design a highly efficient and accurate detection scheme for Android malwares. In this paper, an Android malware static detection scheme which is based on cloud security structure is designed. For one thing, the main detection works of the detection scheme are deployed on the cloud servers, which can make the detection work efficient and fast. For another, use highly efficient classifying algorithm to make static analysis on the source code of targeted APK (Android Package) file can determine whether the application (app) is safe or malicious more accurately. Finally, in order to estimate the detection efficiency and accuracy, 1143 malware app samples and 2937 normal applied app samples are collected.
Keywords: Android Malware; Cloud Security; Static Detection; Black-and-White List Mechanism; Decompile Technology; Accuracy of Sample Classification.
Privacy-Aware Transmission Scheme Based on Homomorphic Proxy Re-Encryption for NDN
by Xian Guo
Abstract: NDN (Named Data Networking) is data-centric network architecture. NDN has got great attentions due to its features such as data-centric, in-network caching etc. It is the most competitive Future Internet Architecture. Although some security mechanisms have been introduced in interest and data packets of NDN, security is still a significant problem. In this paper, we propose a Privacy-Aware Transmission Scheme for NDN (PATS_NDN) based on homomorphism and proxy re-encryption mechanism. To resolve name privacy in PATS_NDN, a content consumer can subscribe the interested content from the network by using a blinded alias of a content name, and a data source can publish the produced content to the network by using a blinded name. The alias of a content name can be gotten from a constructed quadratic function. To protect privacy information, we use the blinding algorithm on a content name and alias. In addition, two mechanisms such as homomorphic encryption and proxy re-encryption are used to achieve secure content transmission between a content consumer and a content producer. It has been proven that only a legitimate user can publish and access content on the network. Finally, we analyze security attributes of our scheme and make a simply comparison with other related schemes.
Keywords: Content-Centric Networking; Named Data Networking; Homomorphic Encryption; Proxy Re-Encryption; Privacy Protection.
A secure electronic voting protocol with a simple ballot's encryption function
by Wafa Neji, Kaouther Blibech, Narjes Ben Rajeb
Abstract: In this paper we present a new electronic voting protocol. It is based on the ballot's encryption function defined by Schoenmakers in 1999. We use this encryption function in a different way such that we reduce time, communication and computational complexity. In addition, compared to Schoenmakers' protocol, we satisfy the receipt-freeness property. For this, we rely on the protocol defined by Lee and Kim in 2002 and we use a secure hardware engine called SE. This engine re-encrypts ballots through the use of randomization technique. Our protocol uses a simple encryption function which requires less computational costs than the one used by Lee and Kim. Our protocol becomes then more secure than the protocol of Lee and Kim. Moreover, an extended version with a multi-way election is provided to allow voters to choose between a number of several candidates.
Keywords: Electronic voting; receipt-freeness; secret sharing; zero-knowledge proofs.
A Cloud/Edge Computing Streaming System for Network Traffic Monitoring and Threat Detection
by Zhijiang Chen, Sixiao Wei, Wei Yu, James Nguyen, William Hatcher
Abstract: The unyielding trend of increasing cyber threats has made cyber security paramount in protecting personal and private intellectual property. In order to provide the most highly secured network environment, network traffic monitoring and threat detection systems must handle real-time big data from varied and branching places in enterprise networks. Although numerous investigations have yielded real-time threat detection systems, how to handle the large volumes of network traffic data (big network traffic data) in enterprise networks, while simultaneously providing real-time monitoring and detection, remains unsolved. In this paper, we introduce and evaluate a streaming-based threat detection system that can rapidly analyze highly intensive network traffic data in real-time, utilizing streaming-based clustering algorithms to detect abnormal network activities. The developed system integrates the streaming and high-performance data analysis capabilities of Flume, Sharp, and Hadoop into a cloud-computing environment to provide network monitoring and intrusion detection. Our performance evaluation and experimental results demonstrate that the developed system can cope with a significant volume of streaming data in a high detection accuracy and good system performance. We further extend our designed system for edge computing and discuss some key challenges, as well as some potential solutions, aiming to improve the scalability of our designed system. Finally, we discuss other issues related to extending our designed system.
Keywords: Streaming Analysis; Network Traffic Monitoring; Threat Detection; Big Network Data Analysis; Cloud Computing; Edge Computing.
Toward signature extraction of Metasploit encoding algorithms using static analysis
by Mohammad Reza Ramezani Chemazi, Maede Ashouri-Talouki
Abstract: Shellcode is a code injected by the attackers to vulnerable software to gain access to the command prompt. Byte patterns of shellcodes help the intrusion detection systems to detect this type of shellcodes. To avoid detection, encoding algorithms is used by the attacker to encode the byte patterns. Detection of these encoded shellcodes is a challenging problem. To detect these encoded shellcodes, we perform a static analysis of encoding algorithms of Metasploit engine to extract the byte patterns (signature) of these algorithms. Then, we introduce a regular expression-based language called GtS to express these signatures. Experimental results show the effectiveness of our signatures in terms of accuracy and false positive rate.
Keywords: shellcode; metasploit; encoding algorithms; static analysis; signatures.
Preserving Source and Destination Location Privacy with Controlled Routing Protocol
by Rajorshi Biswas, Jie Wu
Abstract: Efficiency in routing and security are two competitive design issues in wireless sensor networks. The most efficient and least secure routing protocol is shortest path routing. On the other hand, the most secure and least efficient routing protocol is random routing. In this paper, we propose the controlled routing protocol, a mixture of these two routing protocols that maintains a good balance between security and efficiency. Our proposed protocol is based on two principles: if all the messages do not follow the same path, then backtracking to the source node is not possible and when an adversary is very far away from the source and destination locations, then efficiency is more important than security. Based on these principles, we proposed the controlled routing protocol, in which the forwarding node forwards the message either to the node on the shortest path or a random neighbor with a variable probability. The probability of taking the shortest path increases by distance from the source and the destination node. In this paper, we also present our simulation results compared to other routing protocols.
Keywords: Source Location Privacy; Security; Random Routing; Routing Protocol; Controlled Routing Protocol.
Enhanced Source Location Privacy Mechanism for WSNs
by Mourad Amad, Lachemi Khenous, Abdellah Boukerram
Abstract: Source location privacy in wireless sensor networks is an important security issue when a wireless sensor network is used in monitoring valuable assets or the source is a sensitive object. However, the open nature of a sensor network makes relatively easy for an adversary to detect message flows and trace back the message hop-by-hop to it source by moving in the reverse direction of the flows. Many schemes have been proposed recently to provide source location privacy but all peforms poorly, because either with insu
Keywords: Source-Location Privacy; Context Privacy; Wireless Sensor Networks.
Information Centric Approach to Analyzing Security Threats and Node Behavior in Underwater Senor Networks
by Robert Martin, Sanguthevar Rajasekaran
Abstract: Underwater Sensor Networks (UWSN) have a range of applications such as aquatic mammal tracking, exploration, and pollution monitoring. Such applications require accurate and efficient data management, especially in UWSN's harsh environment. Additionally, due to the restricted energy of underwater modems, we must ensure transmissions are efficient. Due to the open nature of many UWSN applications we must consider the possibility of mobile malicious nodes interjecting false packets into our network. Information-centric architectures have proven to be a potential solution through the integration of security for better data protection. But, with the proper incite, a Denial of Service (DoS) attack can still drastically effect an UWSN using adapted information-centric techniques. In this work we first analyze different types of DoS attacks in which UWSNs may be vulnerable. Next, we purpose an adapted algorithm to help detect and restrict potential malicious nodes. And finally, we analyze node behavior using three different machine learning techniques to find statistical, adaptive, and predictive approaches to DoS restriction. Simulation results of our proposed algorithm are depicted for single and multiple DoS attackers. Our findings show a strong correlation between DoS defensive methods and decreased network traffic in typical attack scenarios. Furthermore, we introduce more advanced attacker scenarios to test our machine learning techniques in various network topologies.
Keywords: Underwater Sensor Networks; Secuirty; Information-Centric; Denial of Service Attack; Routing; Interest Flooding.