International Journal of Social Media and Interactive Learning Environments (20 papers in press)
A Literature Review of Designing Flipped Classroom to Engage Students
by Linh Nguyen, Qiyun Wang
Abstract: The purpose of this article is to review the recent studies about using flipped classroom to engage students and propose a flipped classroom model which actively engages students in learning. Some five year recent articles have been reviewed to critique, compare, and summarise previous investigations about flipped classroom in order to propose the effective flipped classroom model to engage students. The proposed model based on principles, recommendations and suggestions from prior studies as guidelines for designing flipped classroom. The aims of proposed model are to maximize the advantages and overcome some challenges of flipped classroom to become an effective flipped classroom model to promote student engagement.
Keywords: flipped classroom; designing flipped classroom; flipped classroom model; student engagement; active learning; interactive learning environments.
The Research on Programming Education in Elementary Schools from Five Countries
by Yuhe Tian, Jiayi Xiao, Jinjin Jiang, Hongyan Wang, Yuan Yuan
Abstract: The purpose of this article is to review current developments focusing on the use of programming education in primary and secondary schools in various countries. The aim of the review is not only to introduce the different types of individual countries in promoting programming education, but also to help governments, enterprises, educational practitioners and researchers to understand the current developments of the programming education and to provide a reference for promoting programming education. The review is organized into four parts that cover different aspects of current research: (a) governments attention, (b) enterprises support, (c) colleges and universities assistance; and (d) implementation in primary and secondary schools. We summarized four findings：(a) governments attention is the foundation of developing programming education effectively, (b) the enterprises can make people touch and understand the programming education more easily, (c) colleges and universities play their roles in connecting schools and programming education, and (d) the schools are like bricks in the whole programming education development framework. The overall conclusions suggest that the governments, enterprises, colleges and universities and schools work together to promote programming education.
Keywords: programming education; review; enterprises.
A Review of Social Media in Education: Effects and Attitudes
by Ning Zu, Zhen Chen, Zhichen Duan, Li Li, Meng Zhou
Abstract: The purpose of this article is to review previous studies focusing on the use of social media by teachers, students and educational researchers. The aim of the review on the current research studies is to find out what has been done with the use of social media for learning purposes, discuss their practical applications and discover its educational values. The emphasis of this review will be upon empirical findings rather than theoretical explanations. This review is organized into three sections that cover the major topics of current research: (a) applications of social media in education (e.g., methods applied in various researches, the findings of different empirical researches); (b) the effects of using social media (e.g., positive impacts of social media, negative impacts of social media); and (c) peoples attitudes towards social media (e.g., students' perceptions of social media use in learning, faculty attitudes towards social media for teaching). The overall conclusion suggests that the social media may have the potential to improve learning. But there may be more positive effects if the social media tools are combined with the real interaction in class.
Keywords: Social Media; Empirical research; Review.
A Literature Review on Learning Analytics
by ShiJie Lei, Ya Ru Wang, Hong Wang, Ding Hui Sun, Yuan Guang Cao, Zhong Zheng
Abstract: Learning Analytics (LA), through the collection and analysis of the relevant data of students to assess, predict, and optimize teaching and learning, provides a reliable technical support for the implementation of individualized-teaching. The purpose of this article is to review currently published research studies focusing on learning Analytics. This review focuses on the theoretical and practical studies of LA. We summarize the accumulated state of knowledge concerning LA :(a) theoretical frameworks and models of LA;(b) practical research including the data collection dimension of LA, tools and methods for data mining and analysis, and the relationship between the learners data and outcomes (c) the current application status of LA. The conclusions overall suggest that LA has potential to realize individualized teaching and learning. However, it also encounters some challenges.
Keywords: learning analytics; framework; data mining.
Teaching with Tech: Supplemental Journalism Instruction Using YouTube for the Millennial Generation
by Kevin Hull, Alex Luchsinger
Abstract: This exploratory study examines how journalism students use online instructional videos to learn skills needed to create successful broadcast stories. Students from an introductory reporting class were provided three videos demonstrating video editing skills. Approximately two months later, survey results found that the vast majority of the students had a positive impression of the videos. Further results demonstrate that while students enjoyed the videos, they did not view them as a replacement for face-to-face instruction.
Keywords: YouTube; e-learning; education; Cognitive Multimedia Learning Theory.
Teachers\' Beliefs about Using Technology to Enhance The Learning Process of At-Risk-Students
by Paulo Moekotte, Saskia Brand-Gruwel, Henk Ritzen
Abstract: In this case study we explore the beliefs of teachers (AKA teachers) who work with at risk students and consider using social media in their learning environment. We interviewed and observed a group of teachers who, as a project team, explored social media use in order to develop their practical knowledge and make informed decisions. We used a two-phased exploratory sequential design, combining qualitative and quantitative instruments to explore how and why AKA teachers consider and approach social media use. The teachers beliefs were challenged and changed by the encounter with lived, practical examples of social-media use in education. This is consistent with other research. Quantitative data indicate that teacher beliefs are also strongly influenced by the opinions of team managers and the practices of colleagues. What is most remarkable about these external influences is that these opinions have not been explicitly expressed and these practices have not been explicitly witnessed.
Keywords: social media; teacher beliefs; at-risk students; teaching strategy.
The effects of peer feedback on ESL writing revision among university students in China
by ZHIQIANG MA, JING WANG, QINQIN LONG
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of peer feedback on acceptance and revision in English as second language (ESL) writing. We investigated the relationship between the types of students feedback, its acceptance by the receiver, and its use for the revision of students writings in the University of Mainland China. Structural equation model was used to analyze the relationship. The key findings included that the revision feedback and analysis feedback were easier to be accepted by students compared with other types of feedback, but only revision feedback was adopted by the students. It showed a significant relationship between the acceptance of feedback and the utilization of this feedback.
Keywords: peer assessment; peer feedback; online writing.
The Adolescent Bricoleur: Constructing Identities Through Social Networking Sites
by Janette Hughes, Anne Burke, Laura Morrison
Abstract: Adolescents are at a stage in life where their sense-of-self and identity are evolving. With increasing access to ever-more advanced technologies, it is important to explore the implications for the adolescents who use them. This research aimed to examine the construction, deconstruction and reconstruction of adolescent identities through an exploration of the design choices and social practices of elementary students on two social networking sites. Using a mixed-method research approach of qualitative case study analysis and quantitative surveying, we investigated the relationship between a multiliteracies pedagogy and the development of adolescent digital literacies and identity. Findings from the research indicate that social networking sites provide youth a platform in which to explore their identity. With such features as status updates, video/photo uploads, discussion threads, and the like and comments functions, these sites facilitated social interaction and identity performance amongst the students during class time and after-school. To maximize the academic and social affordances, however, it is necessary to build in lessons and/or scaffolding to encourage thoughtful and genuine online interaction.
Keywords: social media; social presence; multiliteracies; adolescent bricoleur; constructing identities; digital literacies; Ning; Edmodo; pedagogy; mobile devices; social practices.
Impact of Personality on Facebook Usage: Special Reference to Young
Sri Lankan Users
by Tharaka Wijesundara, Xixiang Sun
Abstract: Personality of Facebook users can be identified as the leading factor in the way they behave in the Facebook context. Current study examines the impact of personality traits on Facebook usage by considering it as features usage (status updates, comments, wall post, private messages, chat, groups and applications) and as general usage (time spends in Facebook site). This research is based on primary data collected through a self-administered questionnaire, administered to a sample of 182 undergraduates in Sri Lanka. Findings revealed that there is a significant impact of personality traits on Facebook feature usage as well as general usage. Further, we found differences between personality traits for both Facebook features usage and general Facebook usage. Findings will contribute to social media literature by identifying feature usage and general usage separately and help marketers to develop Facebook campaigns by considering consumers personality traits. Effects of cultural motives, values and beliefs of the groups were recognized as areas for further research.
Keywords: Facebook; Personality Social media; Specific features.
An Analysis of Foul Language Usage in Social Media Text Conversation
by Kailas Patil, Sumit Kawate
Abstract: The use of social media is the most common trend among the activities of todays people. Social networking sites offer todays teenagers a platform for communication and entertainment. They use social media to collect more information from their friends and followers. The vastness of social media sites ensures that not all of them provide a decent environment for children. In such cases, the impact of the negative influences of social media on teenage users increases with an increase in the use of offensive language in social conversations. This increase could lead to frustration, depression and a large change in their behaviour. Hence, we propose a novel approach to classifying bad language usage in text conversations. We have considered the English and Marathi languages as the medium for textual conversation. We have developed our system based on a foul language classification approach; it is based on an improved version of a decision tree that detects offensive language usage in a conversation. As per our evaluation, we found that teenage user conversation is not decent all the time. We trained 3651 observations for six context categories using a Na
Keywords: Children Behavior; Context Detection; Cyber bullying; Decision Tree; Depression; Educators; Emotion Detection; Foul Language; Hashing; Issues and concerns with social media; Interactive Learning; Naïve Bayes; Offensive Language; Sentiment Analysis; Teenage Users; Trench; Social Media.
The Use of Social Media for Teaching and Learning in Recent Years
by Syafiqah Ryaihanny Sahrom
Abstract: Social media applications have shown its potential in enhancing teaching and learning in the educational field. Hence, the objective of this paper is to review 30 published articles to find out how social media has been used in recent years, dated from 2014 to 2017. This paper focused on three social media applications: Facebook, Twitter and WhatsApp. Positive and negative outcomes of these three social media applications for teaching and learning were identified. Measures to be taken by teachers and school leaders when incorporating these social media applications were then discussed.
Keywords: Facebook; Twitter; WhatsApp; Learning; Education.
Active User or Lurker? A Phenomenological Investigation of Graduate Students in Social Media Spaces
by Enilda Romero-Hall
Abstract: This phenomenological study describes instructional design (ID) graduate students perceptions of their programs social media spaces. Ten graduate students were recruited for participation in this investigation. Data sources included individual interviews. The researcher conducted a phenomenological data analysis seeking to grasp and elucidate the meaning, structure, and essence of the graduate students participation in the social media spaces. In summary, the results of this investigation show that graduate students access resources from each other, feel as part of a community, enjoy reading others views and perspectives about the field, and experience moments of informal learning while participating in the social media spaces of their graduate programs. However, graduate students also have concerns regarding these social media spaces impact on privacy, time management, and distraction.
Keywords: Informal Learning; Social Media; Graduate Students; Virtual Communities; Networking; Instructional Design; Graduate Education; Higher Education.
Effects of Forum-based Online Peer Assessment on Students Academic Performance
by Yu Zhang, Pingxiu Niu, Lu Cui, Fengling Zhou, Wenjun Zhao
Abstract: As one of formative assessment strategies, peer assessment has become a hot topic in the instructional evaluation field. This research designed the peer assessment (PA) rule based on instructional objectives so that students could use it to evaluate others works explicitly, and apply the PA strategy in the course of Educational Technology Research Methods in Central China Normal University. An Experimental study was conducted to compare the impact of traditional teachers evaluation and the network forum PA on students outcomes. Finally, a questionnaire and an interview were designed to investigate students perceptions of PA in the experimental group. The results showed that online PA could improve students academic performance and also reduce or increase cognitive load, and students keep a positive attitude toward forum-based assessment.
Keywords: Network forum; Peer assessment; Formative assessment.
A Review of Blended Synchronous Learning
by Wan Yu Ho
Abstract: This paper reviews the main benefits and challenges teachers, students and institutes may face while using blended synchronous learning and some possible strategies to overcome them. This paper also looks at the main factors to consider for designing effective blended synchronous learning. For example: having common display across all users, choosing a suitable platform and features, modes of blended synchronous learning. Strategies like: enhancing students and teachers E-learning competence, explaining the structure of the course to students, teachers preparation and delivery of lessons and support from various parties, can be used to effectively carry out blended synchronous learning.
Keywords: Blended synchronous learning; blended learning; benefits of blended synchronous learning; challenges of blended synchronous learning; effective blended synchronous learning.
Affordances of Twitter as a pedagogical tool in education: critical analysis of doctoral research studies
by Myint Swe Khine
Abstract: Twitter as a microblogging platform often used to communicate each other in real time is a dominant practice of digital generation. Since its inception 10 years ago, the use of Twitter in educational settings has been growing considerably. Studies have been conducted to find out the affordances of Twitter and reported the advantages and drawbacks of the tool to use for teaching and learning in educational contexts. This study analyses research on Twitter as part of the doctoral dissertations in the universities in the USA. It identifies major categories and topics, describes the findings and discusses gaps in the research area from the educational technology perspective. The study selects 17 doctoral dissertations and examines the research aims, methodologies and results. The study proposes five overlapping categories. The analysis reveals that Twitter research in educational technology is still fragmented using diverse theories, and methodical advances are necessary for future research.
Keywords: educational technology; engagement; learning; professional development; review; social networks; twitter.
Students' perspectives on RateMyProfessors.com: an empirical investigation of perception and attitude
by Kuan-Pin Chiang
Abstract: Since its inception in 1999, the website of RateMyProfessors.com has been popular and has gathered more than 15 million ratings of approximate 1.5 million professors from more than 7,000 schools. It provides college students opportunities to rate and comment on their instructors and helps them with course selection. The purpose of this study was to investigate the college student perception and attitude towards this website. We analysed survey data from 166 undergraduate students. Our findings suggest that overall students have positive experiences and find RMP as a reliable source of information for course selection. About 25% of participants who have posted ratings have stronger positive attitude towards the website and higher tendency to check the website before registering classes.
Keywords: attitude; faculty evaluations; faculty ratings; perception; RateMyProfessors; student evaluations.
Using community-mediated learning tools for informal learning online
by Jenny Eppard
Abstract: Individuals are using the internet in increasing numbers to engage in informal learning either alone or in a group. This study aims to determine which types of learning tools participants used in a specific online community to negotiate possible learning. The scope of this study was not to determine if learning occurred but to provide insight into the tools used in an online community that encompassed characteristics of learning. The methodology was a qualitative case study including detached observations, participant observations, interviews and document analysis. The study found that there were two types of learning tools used on the blog cognitive (discourse, action, reflection and checking for accuracy) and physical (text, videos, images and links).
Keywords: activity theory; artefacts; informal learning; learning tool; social media.
Motivations for using social media: comparative study based on cultural differences between American and Jordanian students
by Heba AL-Quraan, Emad Abu-Shanab, Shadi Banitaan, Heyam Al-Tarawneh
Abstract: Social network sites (SNSs) have gained popularity over the last decade. Students use SNSs according to their personal differences, which are influenced by cultural and demographic factors. This paper proposed a model that included four basic factors that act as predictors of continuous use of SNSs. The factors are personal, social, educational and entertainment. The first objective of this study is to investigate the influence of the predictors on the dependent variable. Results indicated a full support of our proposed model, with an R2 = 0.296. The second objective is to explore the differences between US and Jordanian students. An Analysis of variance (ANOVA) test was conducted and results yielded significant cultural differences and stronger than gender differences. The test yielded 17 significant differences compared to 10 based on gender. This research calls for more research that tries to explore what cultural factors cause such differences.
Keywords: comparative study; continuous use of SNs; cultural differences; Jordan; social networks; USA.
Social media adoption in higher education: a case study involving IT/IS students
by Kerstin Siakas, Pekka Makkonen, Errikos Siakas, Elli Georgiadou, Harjinder Rahanu
Abstract: This paper discusses the adoption and use of social media in Higher Education (HE). The aim of the research reported in this paper was to identify the main factors and problem areas in the adoption and use of social media in HE. Our study included a survey involving students of Information Technology and Information Systems in Greece and in Finland. In order to verify the findings from the survey, a follow-up survey was also undertaken. The unified technology adoption approach was identified to be a suitable underlying theory for this study. The analysis of viewpoints of students was needed in order to understand converging and diverging viewpoints. The results showed that infrastructure is the most important issue in the planning of learning/teaching activities based on social media, followed by the role of social influence. Based on the analysis, guidelines for planning social-media-based learning activities are proposed. Indications of further work complete the paper.
Keywords: case study; IS students; IT students; learning; social media; social media adoption; social media in higher education; social networking; social network sites; teaching.
Promoting strategy research on blended teaching mode reform in colleges and universities: a case study in China
by Hongtao Yu
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to construct promoting strategies for effective blended teaching reform for higher education. Based on the literature review of promoting strategy research on blended teaching model reform in colleges and universities both in China and abroad, this paper puts forward five promoting strategies for blended teaching mode reform in China. After the practice during a semester, the promoting strategies have proved to be effective in creating a suitable atmosphere for the blended teaching reform, promoting teachers' teaching ability and improving students' study initiative and competency.
Keywords: blended teaching; guarantee system; reform; research.