International Journal of Social Media and Interactive Learning Environments (18 papers in press)
- A Literature Review on Mobile Learning
by Harun Bin Sinen
Abstract: Mobile learning has been increasingly used in the educational context. This article reviews the literature on mobile learning published in the recent five years and summarizes its definition, benefits and limitations, and additional concerns with the adoption of mobile learning. The definition of mobile learning is closely related to the mobility of technology, mobility of learners, and mobility of learning. The benefits of mobile learning include extending learning beyond the classroom; supporting situated, collaborative, and personalized learning; and also improving interactions. Limitations of mobile learning include small size of mobile devices, difficulty in inputting text, and high variability and low accessibility. Additional concerns involve social, cultural and organizational factors, advancement and cost of technology, readiness of faculty and students, and professional development of faculty.
Keywords: Mobile learning, mobile technology, mobility, collaborative learning, interaction
- DEVELOPING A LEARNING MATHEMATICS ENVIRONMENT ON TELEVISION
by Ratu Ilma
Abstract: The purposes of this paper are (1) to share the process of designing a Learning Environment (LE) of two dimensional geometric shapes on Television (TV) for learning and teaching using Realistic Mathematics Education (RME), and (2) to describe how a learning mathematics environment on television was used by the teacher in a classroom. Design Research approach was used in this study. The participants of this research were 20 primary school students. The data were collected from video recordings of classroom events. In this research, a sequence of instructional activities was designed and developed. Result shows that using education programs on TV can improve education in Indonesia and the dissemination of the Indonesian version of Realistic Mathematics Education (PMRI) in Indonesia.
Keywords: Television (TV), PMRI, Two dimensional geometric shapes, Learning environment
(LE), Design Research
- Asynchronous Online Discussion Activities to Support University Students Self-directed Learning: Opportunities and Challenges Identified
by Wing Sum Cheung, Khe Foon Hew
Abstract: Singapore has identified self-directed learning (SDL) as one of the key learning outcomes for her Information Technology in Education Master plan 3. However, teachers may not know how to design activities that could cater for student SDL, and students themselves may face difficulties in using this approach in their learning. We believe that the use of a particular social media tool, the asynchronous online discussion forum, could support students' SDL. The purpose of this paper is to share how we planned and implemented the use of an asynchronous online discussion forum along with the specific pedagogical activities. We will explain why this particular approach was able to foster students' self-direction in learning based on the empirical findings collected from 20 participants at the National Institute of Education (Singapore). We also discuss the opportunities and challenges of using this particular approach and suggest several relevant areas for future research.
Keywords: Self-directed learning, Asynchronous online discussion forum, pedagogical activities.
- A Case Study of Learner and Instructor Perceptions of Flipped Course Design and Interactive Learning Environment
by Kimberly Hurley
Abstract: Student learning preferences have changed dramatically over the past decade aligned with the fast-paced changes in technology, however, university courses, instructors and classroom spaces have lagged behind technology advances. Emerging, innovative alternatives to traditional learning in higher education classes are on-line or distance education, flipped course design or learning model, and hybrid or blended courses. The focus of this study was to determine students and teacher perceptions of flipped course design and learning in a technologically advanced, interactive learning space. Quantitative and qualitative data revealed positive, reflective responses to student and teacher experiences with the flipped learning model (flipped content, pace of information delivery, in-class homework) and interactive classroom environment (learning environment, innovative technology, transparent problem-solving). The interactive technology in the class environment allowed students to experience multiple methods and opportunities for mastering content and skills. This environment also encouraged risk-taking in both teaching and learning.
Keywords: flipped learning, flipped course design, student perceptions, interactive learning space, innovative pedagogy
- SOCIAL MEDIA USE AND ITS IMPLICATIONS ON CHILD BEHAVIOUR: A STUDY OF A BASIC SCHOOL IN GHANA
by Naomi Amofah-Serwaa, Perpetua Dadzie
Abstract: The study explores the implication of social media use on child behaviour in a basic school in Ghana. A survey was conducted among pupils, teachers and parents of the school. Fifty-six (56) pupils were served with questionnaires while ten (10) teachers and twenty-two (22) parents were interviewed. The findings reveal that Facebook is the most preferred social media site. About half the pupils indicated that the models they observe on social media sites have not affected their behaviour. Some positive implications reported by parents and teachers include improvement in reading habits, dressing and communication. Negative implications also reported involve distraction of pupils attention from their studies, frequent use of Pidgin English as well as unnecessary fashion consciousness. The study recommends that parents should visit their childrens online friends to see what they post and receive from friends. Furthermore, teachers must explain the advantages and danger of using social media to children and advise them of beneficial sites to visit.
Keywords: social media, child behaviour, pupils, Ghana
- Facebook research from educational technology perspective: Analysis of doctoral dissertations in the US universities
by Myint Swe Khine
Abstract: Facebook has been growing exponentially as a dominant social networking site among users including students, teachers and administrators in the schools to faculty and administrative staff members in the universities. In recent years the use of Facebook as an educational technology tool ignites frequent discussion among educators and researcher alike in the academia. This study analyses doctoral dissertations on Facebook research submitted to the universities in the United States. It identifies major categories and topics, describes the trends and discusses gaps in the research area from the educational technology perspectives. The study selects 15 doctoral dissertations and analyses the research aims, methodologies and the findings. The study proposes four overlapping categories namely, Facebook as a tool, Facebook effects, Facebook usage and Privacy and disclosure. The analysis reveals that Facebook research in educational technology is still largely exploratory, using diverse theories. (140 words)
Keywords: Facebook; Review; Educational Technology; Social networks; University; Learning; Students
- Exploring Web-based Design and Technology Lessons in Lower Secondary Classrooms: A Case Study
by Kian Leng Tay, Choon Lang Quek
Abstract: This study investigated the use of Google sites as the web-based technology to support secondary school students learning of Design and Technology (D&T). Using qualitative survey, students reported their prior knowledge of e-learning and how the e- learning supported their learning. It was found that students did have certain misconceptions about what e-learning was about based on their prior e-learning experience. Despite these misconceptions, students were still able to recognize the benefits which e-learning brings. Students reported positive and negative experiences in using Wikis supported by Google sites to engage their learning and the implications for educators and researchers will also be discussed in this paper.
Keywords: Design and technology, e-learning , secondary school, Wikis
- Use of iPad for teaching and learning: a review of the literature
by Chrystella Lee
Abstract: The use of iPad in schools is increasingly prevalent. However, being a new technology, there is a need to ascertain how best the iPad could be leveraged on to enhance teaching and learning. This paper aims to find out students and teachers experiences in using the iPad for teaching and learning. For this purpose, 18 empirical, peer-reviewed articles were read to investigate the perceptions of students and teachers on the use of the iPad. While the iPad is found to enhance learning and teaching processes, provide seamless learning spaces and increase time for learning due to better productivity, tensions arise due to the distraction posed by the device, disparity in students and teachers views on its use and the need for teachers to change their roles when teaching and learning with the iPad. Considerations for better integration of the iPad in teaching and learning include providing adequate technical support and time for initial iPad familiarisation and focusing the professional development for teachers to build their skills, knowledge and attitudes towards the use of the iPad.
Keywords: iPad; technology; iPad in education, iPad for teaching; iPad for learning; tensions; schools; student perceptions; teacher perceptions; device limitations, integration considerations
- A Literature Review on Peer Assessment
by Hiang Meng Low
Abstract: The use of peer assessment as an alternative form of assessment is reported to be helpful in learning and is increasingly being adopted in higher education overseas and even in Primary Schools in Singapore. People had been talking about peer assessment way back in the 20th century 1980s. Drawing on literature until end January of 2013, we reviewed past empirical research studies and peer-reviewed articles on peer assessment in the educational settings. This review is organized into two topics: the implementation strategies of peer assessment and the problems encountered and potential problems during implementation of peer assessment. The conclusions suggest that peer assessment can be implemented and its benefits are evident. Several limitations of previous literature were discussed. We conclude by providing some recommendations to some of the discussions and also some recommendations for future research related to peer assessment in the educational settings.
Keywords: peer assessment; peer evaluation; peer review; peer feedback.
- Using social media to reach Chinese and South Asian communities in British Columbia: The story of a peer-led diabetes prevention program on Facebook
by Erica Amari, Rebecca Barry, Xian Chong, Helen Novak Lauscher, Kendall Ho
Abstract: Minority populations can face cultural and accessibility barriers when seeking education and support for diabetes self-management. While culturally adapted education programs have been studied, it has not been combined with the benefit of peer-support and the accessibility of social media. This project aimed to create and assess the feasibility, acceptability, and usability of a peer-led, culturally relevant diabetes prevention program to be delivered over a popular social networking platform, Facebook, using mixed methods. Six participants of Chinese and South Asian ethnicities completed the 12-week program led by a peer leader for each group. Interviews and scales were conducted before, during, and after the program. Results indicated that the delivery of health information over Facebook is feasible and acceptable for those who are comfortable with social media. The peer leaders were engaged and the ability to view discussions was useful, though a larger group would have led to more robust discussions.
Keywords: social media, social network, Chinese, South Asian, Punjabi, Canada, peer leader, prevention, diabetes, Facebook, culture, peer support, feasibility, acceptability, usability
- A case study of using LinkedIn for Professional Development
by Lynn, Eng Li Yap, Qiyun Wang
Abstract: LinkedIn, one of the worlds largest professional networks, has the potential to become a professional development tool for adults. This mixed-methods research provides an insight on how adults use LinkedIn group and explores adults perception on using LinkedIn group for their professional development. Findings show that adults use LinkedIn for sharing resources professionally. The results show that while adults are basically satisfied with the technological and pedagogical affordances LinkedIn offer for professional development, there are mixed-responses with regards to its social affordances. Using LinkedIn as a professional development tool also has its limitations such as privacy and professional authentication. This paper examines the content of an Instructional Design and E-learning Professionals Group in LinkedIn, analyses findings of the study and offers suggestions for future research.
Keywords: Social networking; social networking site; social media; web 2.0 learning; LinkedIn; professional development; professional use; constructivist learning theory; communities of practice; network of practice; technology
- Twitter in the Collaborative Classroom: Micro-blogging for in-class collaborative discussions
by Emma Mercier, Julie Rattray, Janet Lavery
Abstract: While small group discussion during undergraduate classes is an important pedagogic strategy, there are two primary concerns for instructors how to monitor the conversation that goes on within groups, and how to ensure that ideas that emerge within the groups become part of the classroom discourse. In this paper, we describe a design-experiment conducted in two sections of the same undergraduate education class, exploring the use of Twitter, and a shared display of the Twitter-chat, to address these issues. We describe three iterations of the use of Twitter in the classes, and our reflections on how it influenced the teaching experience. Data from student surveys indicates that students had minimal experience using Twitter for academic activities prior to participation in this class and that they felt Twitter was a valuable tool to support their in-class learning activities. The teaching team found that the use of Twitter kept students on task and focused on the activity, but expressed some concern about the depth of engagement with ideas during the task.
Keywords: Twitter; CSCL; collaborative learning; micro-blogging; higher education; technology-enhanced learning in classrooms.
Special Issue on: "Flipped Classrooms with Technology,"
- College students perception of the flipped classroom: A phenomenographical study
by Christopher Seitz, Muhsin Orsini
Abstract: The flipped classroom has become popular among educators; however, research on the topic has been relatively sparse, especially in terms of qualitative research. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore student perceptions of the flipped classroom. Undergraduate students who enrolled in a flipped public health course were invited to participate in the study. Thirteen students participated in semi-structured interviews to discuss their thoughts and experiences regarding the flipped classroom. Students viewed the flipped classroom according to out-of-class and in-class activities. Students felt that out-of-class activities were convenient, accommodated different learning styles, and were important for being prepared for class time. In terms of in-class activities, students enjoyed interactive activities (e.g., hands-on activities, class discussions), but some viewed the activities as anxiety provoking. Students also viewed in-class activities as useful for building student-instructor rapport. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.
Keywords: Flipped; inverted; classroom; college; university; higher education; interactive; rapport; WNQ
- Flipping a high school classroom as a response-to-learner intervention
by Lenie George, TJ Kopcha
Abstract: This study examines a flipped, high school classroom that used instructional videos as a performance intervention over the course of one academic year. Seventy-five high school students in an urban setting used a flipped model of instruction to support their mastery of mathematics benchmarks. Survey data and benchmark assessment results were collected to determine whether students preferred having access to online course material, how students interact with online course material outside of the classroom, and if the online course material adequately prepared students to pass benchmark assessments. This study suggests that transferring course material online to flip instruction can promote student responsibility, control, satisfaction, and success.
Keywords: blended learning; differentiated instruction; flipped; flipped classrooms; inverted; inverted classrooms; mathematics; student responsibility; remediation; technology integration; urban
- What the Flip: Impact of Flipped Instruction on Self-Regulated Learning
by Kimberly Hewitt, Wayne Journell, Revital Zilonka
Abstract: Flipped instruction, while becoming a more common pedagogical approach, is still a nascent area for empirical research. This comparative case study of the use of flipped instruction in two coursesone face-to-face and the other onlineby the same instructor examines how flipped instruction can be used differently in different courses. The study examines how students interact with flipped video content and how their use of it supports self-regulated learning. Findings suggest that flipped instruction both requires and cultivates self-regulated learning. Flipped instruction provides temporal space for metacognition and increases student self-efficacy and motivation. While flipped instruction has limitations, it makes online learning more palatable. The paper concludes withrecommendations for future research.
Keywords: self-regulated learning; SRL; flipped instruction; reverse instruction; classroom flip; blended learning; inverted classroom
- Teachers who use Flipping the Classroom: Professional development, feelings of autonomy and TPACK
by Nadira Saab, Shirley Stengs
Abstract: This paper reports on a study that investigates whether teachers who use the Flipping the Classroom approach carry out different professional learning activities, feel more autonomous and have more knowledge about the integration of pedagogy, technology and content than teachers who do not do so. The study was conducted through two questionnairescompleted by 71 and 41 secondary education teachers respectively. The results indicate that teachers who apply the Flipping the Classroom approach stated that theyperformed more individually oriented professional learning activities and were more developed in TPACK compared with teachers who do not use Flipping the Classroom. Keeping up to date by reading and through work-relatedtraining, trying out new methods by experimenting, and evaluating newly applied methods by reflecting were the activities they used to develop themselves the most. No differences were found for feelings of autonomy between the groups of teachers.
Keywords: flipping the classroom; flipped learning; professional development; autonomy; tpack; teachers; secondary education.
- Thats A Wrap: Overcoming Obstacles for Successful Video Design in Flipped Classes
by Kevin Yee, Christina Partin
Abstract: The flipped classroom offers benefits for students, faculty, and institutions. Yet, there are obstacles which sometimes prevent implementation of this pedagogical model. This article reviews existing literature and the authors experiences to suggest that there are four common challenges which impede on the process of flipping a classroom. These barriers include: the time commitment, a lack of institutional support, fear of technology, and budgetary constraints. Overcoming these barriers is essential to successfully flipping a classroom, particularly in the area of video design. The authors review existing literature and offer suggestions for improving best practices to overcome these barriers and create a positive experience for students, instructors, and institutions. Specifically, we aim to offer suggestions for best practices in video design for a successful flipped classroom experience.
Keywords: flipped classroom; video design considerations; overcoming challenges, barriers, implementation issues; time commitment; lack of institutional support; fear of technology; budgetary constraints
Special Issue on: "Video-supported Online Virtual Classrooms,"
- Collaborative video blended learning for exercising higher-order thinking evaluation using Community of Inquiry Framework
by Etsuko Toyoda
Abstract: This paper presents findings from an examination of different learning experiences in students engaged in intercultural learning activities in a collaborative blended learning environment using video sharing, within a university foreign language course. Learning experience in the video collaborative blended learning environment was evaluated using Community of Inquiry Framework, focusing on cognitive presence in students with different cultural backgrounds. It was hypothesised that multicultural experience would enhance cognitive presence, as profound life experience could fuel higher-order thinking. The results of an in-depth analysis of diaries kept by six students (two international students, two local students with an Asian background, and two local students with a relatively monocultural background) indicated that while prior intercultural experience of individual students plays a key role, both teaching presence and social presence also affect the exercise of higher-order thinking.
Keywords: Community of Inquiry, intercultural-learning, collaborative-blended-learning, video, foreign language, learning experience, higher-order-thinking