International Journal of Social Media and Interactive Learning Environments (16 papers in press)
- Notebooks, blogs and commercial video games as evocative objects in classrooms
by Pilar Lacasa, Rut Martinez-Borda, Sara Cortes
Abstract: From the theoretical perspective offered by socio-cultural psychology and the concept of evocative objects, the main goal of this paper is to explore what happened in a primary education classroom where digital objects (commercial video games and blogs) coexisted with more traditional objects such as notebooks. Adopting an ethnographic and action research point of view, we explored the conversations and practices that took place during the school year, when three consecutive workshops were organized around three commercial video games. We focus on one-second year elementary school group and their teacher. Three main results were obtained. First, the number of references to notebooks, the Internet and video games made by the participants differed depending on the role they played in the workshop. Second, mediated by evocative objects the children, the teacher and the researchers created several innovative scenarios in which specific abilities emerged in relation to particular video games. Finally, evocative objects were mediators in the collaborative situations arising in the classroom.
Keywords: Evocative objects, collaboration, classroom, multimedia, games, blogs
- A Literature Review on Mobile Learning
by Harun Bin Sinen
Abstract: Mobile learning has been increasingly used in the educational context. This article reviews the literature on mobile learning published in the recent five years and summarizes its definition, benefits and limitations, and additional concerns with the adoption of mobile learning. The definition of mobile learning is closely related to the mobility of technology, mobility of learners, and mobility of learning. The benefits of mobile learning include extending learning beyond the classroom; supporting situated, collaborative, and personalized learning; and also improving interactions. Limitations of mobile learning include small size of mobile devices, difficulty in inputting text, and high variability and low accessibility. Additional concerns involve social, cultural and organizational factors, advancement and cost of technology, readiness of faculty and students, and professional development of faculty.
Keywords: Mobile learning, mobile technology, mobility, collaborative learning, interaction
- Cognitive Load Theory meets the real world: Worked examples on a popular homework help forum
by Carla van de Sande
Abstract: Open online help forums connect students with volunteer helpers who provide assistance with specific problems from coursework. Cramster, the most popular existing mathematics help forum, is an advocate of Cognitive Load Theory and promotes the provision of worked solutions as the best way to help students. The intent is that students can use these worked solutions as problem-solving models and learn from them. This project investigated this possibility by analyzing 194 responses from the Algebra thru Pre-Calculus archives from two perspectives: First, student ratings of solution helpfulness were examined. Second, a rubric based on the accuracy and construction of the solutions was developed, applied, and compared with student ratings. The results indicate that Cramster helpers provided students with worked solutions that contain steps and sometimes goals, as opposed to final answers only. However, there were also many responses containing errors, and students did not show much discernment in their ratings.
Keywords: Community question answering, cognitive load theory, homework help forums, mathematics help, quality of online homework help, student ratings, tutoring, worked solutions
- DEVELOPING A LEARNING MATHEMATICS ENVIRONMENT ON TELEVISION
by Ratu Ilma
Abstract: The purposes of this paper are (1) to share the process of designing a Learning Environment (LE) of two dimensional geometric shapes on Television (TV) for learning and teaching using Realistic Mathematics Education (RME), and (2) to describe how a learning mathematics environment on television was used by the teacher in a classroom. Design Research approach was used in this study. The participants of this research were 20 primary school students. The data were collected from video recordings of classroom events. In this research, a sequence of instructional activities was designed and developed. Result shows that using education programs on TV can improve education in Indonesia and the dissemination of the Indonesian version of Realistic Mathematics Education (PMRI) in Indonesia.
Keywords: Television (TV), PMRI, Two dimensional geometric shapes, Learning environment
(LE), Design Research
- Asynchronous Online Discussion Activities to Support University Students Self-directed Learning: Opportunities and Challenges Identified
by Wing Sum Cheung, Khe Foon Hew
Abstract: Singapore has identified self-directed learning (SDL) as one of the key learning outcomes for her Information Technology in Education Master plan 3. However, teachers may not know how to design activities that could cater for student SDL, and students themselves may face difficulties in using this approach in their learning. We believe that the use of a particular social media tool, the asynchronous online discussion forum, could support students' SDL. The purpose of this paper is to share how we planned and implemented the use of an asynchronous online discussion forum along with the specific pedagogical activities. We will explain why this particular approach was able to foster students' self-direction in learning based on the empirical findings collected from 20 participants at the National Institute of Education (Singapore). We also discuss the opportunities and challenges of using this particular approach and suggest several relevant areas for future research.
Keywords: Self-directed learning, Asynchronous online discussion forum, pedagogical activities.
- Benefits, Challenges and Strategies of Implementing Blended Learning in Tertiary Institutes
by Ruo Hui Chan, Choon Lang Quek
Abstract: This literature review examines first and foremost the benefits and challenges faced in implementing blended learning in tertiary institutes. It also reviews the strategies deployed by institutes in implementing blended learning. The reported key benefits were the increased passing rates of learners, decreased drop-out rates from blended learning classes and the mutual beneficiaries between the learners and the institutes. Two challenges reported that were pedagogically related were the increased complexity in the instructions and the lack of institutional support. Strategies used for implementing blended learning were found to be varied but largely fall under the Kotters change management process (as cited by Quinn et al, 2012, p. 21-23) to the use of Alonso et al framework (2005) pointing to further research to successful implementation strategies and framework. rnrn
Keywords: benefits, blended learning, challenges, strategies, tertiary institutesrn
- A Case Study of Learner and Instructor Perceptions of Flipped Course Design and Interactive Learning Environment
by Kimberly Hurley
Abstract: Student learning preferences have changed dramatically over the past decade aligned with the fast-paced changes in technology, however, university courses, instructors and classroom spaces have lagged behind technology advances. Emerging, innovative alternatives to traditional learning in higher education classes are on-line or distance education, flipped course design or learning model, and hybrid or blended courses. The focus of this study was to determine students and teacher perceptions of flipped course design and learning in a technologically advanced, interactive learning space. Quantitative and qualitative data revealed positive, reflective responses to student and teacher experiences with the flipped learning model (flipped content, pace of information delivery, in-class homework) and interactive classroom environment (learning environment, innovative technology, transparent problem-solving). The interactive technology in the class environment allowed students to experience multiple methods and opportunities for mastering content and skills. This environment also encouraged risk-taking in both teaching and learning.
Keywords: flipped learning, flipped course design, student perceptions, interactive learning space, innovative pedagogy
- SOCIAL MEDIA USE AND ITS IMPLICATIONS ON CHILD BEHAVIOUR: A STUDY OF A BASIC SCHOOL IN GHANA
by Naomi Amofah-Serwaa, Perpetua Dadzie
Abstract: The study explores the implication of social media use on child behaviour in a basic school in Ghana. A survey was conducted among pupils, teachers and parents of the school. Fifty-six (56) pupils were served with questionnaires while ten (10) teachers and twenty-two (22) parents were interviewed. The findings reveal that Facebook is the most preferred social media site. About half the pupils indicated that the models they observe on social media sites have not affected their behaviour. Some positive implications reported by parents and teachers include improvement in reading habits, dressing and communication. Negative implications also reported involve distraction of pupils attention from their studies, frequent use of Pidgin English as well as unnecessary fashion consciousness. The study recommends that parents should visit their childrens online friends to see what they post and receive from friends. Furthermore, teachers must explain the advantages and danger of using social media to children and advise them of beneficial sites to visit.
Keywords: social media, child behaviour, pupils, Ghana
Special Issue on: "Flipped Classrooms with Technology,"
- College students perception of the flipped classroom: A phenomenographical study
by Christopher Seitz, Muhsin Orsini
Abstract: The flipped classroom has become popular among educators; however, research on the topic has been relatively sparse, especially in terms of qualitative research. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore student perceptions of the flipped classroom. Undergraduate students who enrolled in a flipped public health course were invited to participate in the study. Thirteen students participated in semi-structured interviews to discuss their thoughts and experiences regarding the flipped classroom. Students viewed the flipped classroom according to out-of-class and in-class activities. Students felt that out-of-class activities were convenient, accommodated different learning styles, and were important for being prepared for class time. In terms of in-class activities, students enjoyed interactive activities (e.g., hands-on activities, class discussions), but some viewed the activities as anxiety provoking. Students also viewed in-class activities as useful for building student-instructor rapport. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.
Keywords: Flipped; inverted; classroom; college; university; higher education; interactive; rapport; WNQ
- Flipping a high school classroom as a response-to-learner intervention
by Lenie George, TJ Kopcha
Abstract: This study examines a flipped, high school classroom that used instructional videos as a performance intervention over the course of one academic year. Seventy-five high school students in an urban setting used a flipped model of instruction to support their mastery of mathematics benchmarks. Survey data and benchmark assessment results were collected to determine whether students preferred having access to online course material, how students interact with online course material outside of the classroom, and if the online course material adequately prepared students to pass benchmark assessments. This study suggests that transferring course material online to flip instruction can promote student responsibility, control, satisfaction, and success.
Keywords: blended learning; differentiated instruction; flipped; flipped classrooms; inverted; inverted classrooms; mathematics; student responsibility; remediation; technology integration; urban
- What the Flip: Impact of Flipped Instruction on Self-Regulated Learning
by Kimberly Hewitt, Wayne Journell, Revital Zilonka
Abstract: Flipped instruction, while becoming a more common pedagogical approach, is still a nascent area for empirical research. This comparative case study of the use of flipped instruction in two coursesone face-to-face and the other onlineby the same instructor examines how flipped instruction can be used differently in different courses. The study examines how students interact with flipped video content and how their use of it supports self-regulated learning. Findings suggest that flipped instruction both requires and cultivates self-regulated learning. Flipped instruction provides temporal space for metacognition and increases student self-efficacy and motivation. While flipped instruction has limitations, it makes online learning more palatable. The paper concludes withrecommendations for future research.
Keywords: self-regulated learning; SRL; flipped instruction; reverse instruction; classroom flip; blended learning; inverted classroom
- Teachers who use Flipping the Classroom: Professional development, feelings of autonomy and TPACK
by Nadira Saab, Shirley Stengs
Abstract: This paper reports on a study that investigates whether teachers who use the Flipping the Classroom approach carry out different professional learning activities, feel more autonomous and have more knowledge about the integration of pedagogy, technology and content than teachers who do not do so. The study was conducted through two questionnairescompleted by 71 and 41 secondary education teachers respectively. The results indicate that teachers who apply the Flipping the Classroom approach stated that theyperformed more individually oriented professional learning activities and were more developed in TPACK compared with teachers who do not use Flipping the Classroom. Keeping up to date by reading and through work-relatedtraining, trying out new methods by experimenting, and evaluating newly applied methods by reflecting were the activities they used to develop themselves the most. No differences were found for feelings of autonomy between the groups of teachers.
Keywords: flipping the classroom; flipped learning; professional development; autonomy; tpack; teachers; secondary education.
- Thats A Wrap: Overcoming Obstacles for Successful Video Design in Flipped Classes
by Kevin Yee, Christina Partin
Abstract: The flipped classroom offers benefits for students, faculty, and institutions. Yet, there are obstacles which sometimes prevent implementation of this pedagogical model. This article reviews existing literature and the authors experiences to suggest that there are four common challenges which impede on the process of flipping a classroom. These barriers include: the time commitment, a lack of institutional support, fear of technology, and budgetary constraints. Overcoming these barriers is essential to successfully flipping a classroom, particularly in the area of video design. The authors review existing literature and offer suggestions for improving best practices to overcome these barriers and create a positive experience for students, instructors, and institutions. Specifically, we aim to offer suggestions for best practices in video design for a successful flipped classroom experience.
Keywords: flipped classroom; video design considerations; overcoming challenges, barriers, implementation issues; time commitment; lack of institutional support; fear of technology; budgetary constraints
Special Issue on: "Using Social Media for Collaborative Learning"
- Creating Virtual Communities of Practice with the Visual Social Media Platform Pinterest
by Julie Delello, Rochell McWhorter
Abstract: This paper reports results of a mixed methods study on the use of the visual social media platform Pinterest in the higher education classroom. Research methods included data collection of Pre-Experience and Post-Experience student surveys from two disciplines, Education and Business, regarding students experiences in using Pinterest for learning. A total of 227 students (189 undergraduate and 38 graduate students) participated in the study. Findings included student perceptions regarding the usability of Pinterest in the classroom setting, student learning and development, and ways Pinterest facilitated the development of a virtual community of practice. Recommendations for future use is given.
Keywords: Case studies; career development; communities of practice; Pinterest; social media; usability; visual technologies; visual literacy; Web 2.0; visual network
- Establishing wiki design principles to advance wiki-based learning: An eyetracking study
by Haijun Kang
Abstract: A review of research studies on the integration of wiki into curriculum indicates the necessity of establishing wiki design principles if to capitalize on the learning opportunity wiki technology offers. Utilizing eye-tracking technology, this study explores wiki design principles by examining students reading patterns when they study a learning topic presented in wiki format. Over twenty-one hours of eye movement data were collected, analyzed and compared. Post-experiment interviews were conducted to obtain demographic and background information. Based on the data analysis, three wiki design principles were developed. This study concludes by calling for more attention on the development of scientific-research-based wiki design principles to help students capitalize on wiki-based learning opportunity.
Keywords: Wiki; design principles; learning; eye tracking; perceived usefulness; self-efficacy.
- Research of the Blog Platform-assisted Collaborative Learning Model in the Teaching of "Micro-controller Principles and Applications"
by Tong Yanrong
Abstract: "Micro-controller Principles and Applications" is a significantly important course to be taken by an Optoelectronic Information Science and Engineering major. The course is both comprehensive and practical. The main aim of the course is to enhance students learning initiative and their ability to apply a micro-controller. This article discusses the new methodology found in the curriculums design, implementation and evaluation. The new teaching method employs a collaborative learning model assisted by a blog platform, which is not only conducive to strengthening the teachers leading role and promoting the ability of students to self-teach, but this method also encourages and develops the students spirit of teamwork and improves their overall ability to learn.
Keywords: Blog; collaborative learning; curriculum design; curriculum evaluation.