International Journal of Sustainable Manufacturing (7 papers in press)
Assessing the performance of manufacturing sustainability: a conceptual approach
by Muhamad Zaki Yusup, Wan Hasrulnizzam Wan Mahmood, Mohd Rizal Salleh
Abstract: Sustainability in manufacturing can be achieved through the implementation of practice that incorporates each sustainability component consisting of economic, environmental and social. To support this objective, manufacturers must always measure the current performance of sustainability practice. This is to make sure the aim of its implementation can be improved and strengthened. However, to develop a balance of strategy of each sustainability element is quite difficult if its implementation not able to be assessed accurately. This most likely caused by the weaknesses and confusion in identifying the suitable mediators to support the implementation and assessment of the manufacturing sustainability performance. Therefore, this article tries to disclose through the literature several mediators that can be used to measure the performance of sustainability in promoting the sustainability practice in manufacturing. Six mediation aspects, namely design, materials, process, quality, safety and competency, were identified as noteworthy in assessing the sustainability practice to balance its implementation. A total of 22 sub-mediators of economics, 18 sub-mediators of environmental and 23 sub-mediators of social competency were proposed to be integrated in each mediation aspect to support the assessment process. Through focus and the tendency of each mediator, the conceptual framework was proposed to guide the development of assessment strategies to evaluate the sustainability performance in manufacturing. The findings from this study can provide a starting point to diversify the sustainability performance assessment through the quality-oriented mediator in achieving better manufacturing sustainability practices.
Keywords: manufacturing; sustainability; mediation aspect; performance assessment mediator; conceptual approach.
An assessment of environmentally conscious lubrication techniques in grinding: use of minimum quantity lubrication, solid lubricants and cryogenic cooling
by Mayur Makhesana, Kaushik Patel
Abstract: The quality of work pieces produce by the grinding operation greatly depends on the heat generated owing to friction and the high specific energy of surface. The heat generated owing to friction not only affects the integrity of the work piece surface but also limits the applicability of the work piece material being ground. To overcome the effects of high heat generation in grinding, cooling and lubrication is generally provided. In this study, an effort is made to review the status on various newer, efficient and environmentally conscious lubrication techniques in grinding operations. It includes the method of minimising the quantity of lubricants, the application of solid lubricants and cryogenic cooling. Such techniques can reduce the cost and environmental hazards in the grinding process and also lead towards cleaner production. The performance and limitations of these methods of lubrication are highlighted here. The review also suggests some possible avenues of future research in cutting fluid application for grinding processes.
Keywords: grinding; environmentally conscious lubrication techniques; minimum quantity lubrication; solid lubricants.
Specific energy analysis for the manufacturing of light-weight automobile bodies
by Mohammad Omar, Safa Al Ameri, Ahmad Mayyas
Abstract: This manuscript analyses the specific energy requirements to produce two hybridised vehicle structures on current automotive assembly lines. It provides a quantitative and a specific, electric (kWh/vehicle) and fossil-fuel (MMBtu/vehicle) energy predictions of the Body-In-White (BIW) manufacturing processes, including body panel forming, welding, painting, and final assembly, in addition to the facility HVAC consumption. Two hybridised BIW design criteria are analyzed; the first is based on minimising the added cost per unit weight saved (+$/-kg), while the second is based on maximising the percentage of weight saved (% -kg), also a new criteria; the added specific energy per unit weight saved or (+kWh/vehicle / -kg) is proposed. The light-weight structures comprise body parts made of aluminium and steel. To compute energy consumptions, the study uses the Energy Performance Index (EPI) stochastic model in addition to complementing it with a panel-forming energy model, for both the steel and the aluminium intensive BIW. Cost analysis is also provided for all the major vehicle body-panels using an in-house Excel macro. The study reverse engineers a passenger vehicle BIW using a full-size Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM).
Keywords: light weight; body-in-white; energy performance index; long-term energy forecasting,.
Sustainable approach of heat treatment-free surface hardening by deep rolling
by Daniel Meyer, Jeannine Kämmler
Abstract: Cold surface hardening is a sustainable approach to generate surface-hardened steel components without a time- and energy-consuming heat treatment. The mechanical energy induced by a deep rolling process enables martensitic surface-hardening of metastable austenitic steels and thereby the combination of hardening and finishing in one single step. Using spray-formed special alloys, a specific adjustment of the stability of the microstructure is possible by the alloy composition. In this paper, spray-formed alloys (X120CrMn5-2 and X150CrMn9-3) are investigated with respect to the potential of mechanically induced martensitic hardening, and compared with the results for conventional AISI D3 (X210Cr12). The resulting surface integrity is analysed concerning the hardness penetration depth and the content of martensite.
Keywords: surface hardening; deep rolling; metastable austenite; spray-formed special alloy.
House of sustainable waste management: an implementation framework
by Georgy Kurien, M.N. Qureshi
Abstract: Manufacturing industries consume large amounts of natural resources as inputs to production in order to generate much lower amounts of useful products, leaving major part of the inputs as by-products which are wastes. Waste disposal, in the present form, has significant adverse impacts on the environment as it can result in pollution of many forms. The present research critically examines the various revolutionary concepts of Cradle to Cradle (C2C), Design for Green (DfG), Triple Top Line and Waste is Food as applied to industrial waste management. The exploratory study examines the prevailing practices and suggests approaches for sustainable industrial waste management. The paper proposes the House of Sustainable Waste Management, which is a reference framework for industrial waste management that consists of three parts, the hierarchy, the pillars and the foundations. The proposed framework is conceptual in nature and provides a direction for implementation of sustainable industrial waste management.
Keywords: cradle to cradle; C2C; design for green; DfG; hierarchy of waste; house of sustainable waste management; industrial waste management; waste management; waste is food.
Sustainability analysis of Ti-6Al-4V machining using statistical design methods: effects of cooling techniques and machining strategies
by Hussien Hegab, Ali Hosseini, Ibrahim Deiab, Hossam Kishawy
Abstract: Minimising energy consumption and making machining processes more environmentally friendly are the two essential requirements of sustainable machining. As a result, development of technologically advanced yet efficient machining processes with minimum energy consumption and least toxic waste is an evolving field of research and study. In this paper, the effects of several lubrication techniques as well as different machining strategies (classic and hybrid), when machining Ti-6Al-4V, have been studied. Three different factors, namely energy consumption, surface quality, and flank wear, have been measured to evaluate the effectiveness of different lubrication techniques and machining strategies. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) has also been employed to analyse the influence of process parameters on the above-mentioned factors to determine the optimum levels of machining parameters and verify the experimental results. the accuracy of the model has finally been verified using the ANOVA results.
Keywords: sustainability; Ti-6Al-4V; minimum quantity lubrication; hybrid machining.
Disassembly system design and analysis with environmental and economic parts selection using life cycle inventory database by input-output tables
by Tetsuo Yamada, Yusuke Suzuki, Yuki Kinoshita, Tadayuki Masui, Norihiro Itsubo, Masato Inoue
Abstract: To prevent material starvation and global warming caused by manufacturing, disassembly systems for End-of-Life (EOL) products should be environmentally and economically designed to promote a closed-loop supply chain for assembly products. With parts selection in the disassembly systems, parts/materials with higher CO2 volumes should be recycled for environmental reasons. On the other hand, parts/materials with higher profit, which is the difference between the revenue of recovered materials and disassembly costs, should be disassembled for economic reasons. A disassembly system design considering not only the environmental loads but also the recovered parts/materials are proposed by using a Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) tool. However, from a technical and financial standpoint, it is not easy for the disassembly factory sites to create the 3D-CAD models and obtain the environmental information using the PLM tool. This paper proposes a disassembly system design with the environmental and economic parts selection using a life cycle inventory database by input-output tables.
Keywords: CO2 emissions; reuse and recycling; product recovery values; environmentally conscious manufacturing; sustainable manufacturing; closed-loop supply chains.