International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Management and Informatics (5 papers in press)
Designing a sustainable livelihoods model with an emphasis on drought management
by Maryam Omidi Najafabadi, Seyedeh Fatemeh Moazaeni, Seyed Jamal Farajollah Hosseini
Abstract: The present study has used the sustainable livelihoods framework to identify the antecedents of drought management. The main purpose of the study is to investigate the influence of factors of the sustainable livelihood model. The data were collected from a survey given to experts at Agricultural ministry of Iran. The survey received 162 effective responses based on Proportional stratified sampling. Based on the findings from the confirmative factor analysis, the order of effect of latent variables was physical capital (infrastructure) (89%), human capital (85%), political capital (80%), financial capital (79%) and social capital (54%). According to the results, some suggestions are presented.
Keywords: Sustainable rural livelihood; Drought management; livelihoods assets.
Creating Sustainable Supply Chain for Palm Oil
by Indra Thangavelu, Choy Leong Yee
Abstract: The palm oil industry is vital for the economies of Indonesia and Malaysia and a key commodity in the oil and fat sector for the rest of the world. Therefore, sustainability of the supply chain for this industry is a concern among varied stakeholders. Sustainable supply chain can only be achieved with Buyers and Sellers engaging in sustainable practices supported by sustainability Governance. The Producers need to develop sustainability centric people, invest in resources and change processes for orientation towards sustainable productions whilst the Buyers need to become sustainability centric leaders who arrest opportunistic behaviors in the supply chain and look beyond profit. Supply chain governance by private and public bodies facilitates the progress of the supply chain towards sustainability which can be further enhanced with joint collaboration in three areas namely development of a generally accepted sustainable standards for palm oil, compliance reporting and enforcement and formation of an alternative dispute resolution. A conceptual model is developed for the creation of sustainable supply chain for palm oil, constituted by Sellers, Buyers and Governance held together by the overriding theory of mitigation of risk. The palm oil supply chain is an extensive one as palm oil is used for food and non-food such as oleo-chemical downstream activities hence the focus for sustainable practice must be centered on the upstream plantations and crude palm oil buyers. The findings reveal that the creation of sustainable supply chain can only be achieved with the integrated effort of Producers, Buyers and the joint private-public Governance as the market dynamism impedes the presence of one without the others.
Keywords: Sustainable Production; Sustainable Procurement; Supply Chain Governance.
Projections of food demand and supply in Bangladesh: Implications on food security and water demand
by S.M. Fakhrul Islam, Rezaul Karim Talukder
Abstract: The objectives of this study was to project demand for and supply of key food commodities in Bangladesh by 2030 and 2050 and assess their demand-supply gap. The scope of the forecast was confined with selected 11 food items and used All Most Ideal Demand System (AIDS) and Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models. Projections showed that food consumption in Bangladesh will diversify over time, cereals will provide a major part of the calorie intake, but their share in total calorie supply will decrease by 2030 and 2050. The consumption of animal products and non-cereal crops will have increasing trend during same time period. The projections showed that Bangladesh will have surplus productions of rice and maize by 2030 and deficit productions of wheat, potato, pulses, vegetables, meat, egg and fresh water fish. It will have surplus productions of rice, maize, potato, vegetable and milk by 2050 and deficit productions of wheat, pulses, fruits, meat and fresh water fish. Water demand for Boro rice production in 2030 and 2050 will increase considerably and may cause much stress on ground water source.
Keywords: Projections of food supply and demand; AIDS and ARIMA models; food security; water demand.
A duration model for the investigation of the adoption spell of improved maize varieties in Ethiopia
by Sisay Diriba Lemessa
Abstract: This paper presents a mixture of descriptive, parametric (Weibull), semi-parametric and non-parametric duration model employed to investigate and analyze the adoption spell of Improved Maize Varieties (IMVs) in Ethiopia. The study based on data gathered from a sample of 898 households. The non-parametric result showed that the speed of adoption of IMVs was expedited in the early years but slugged as the number of years from first awareness increased. The parametric and semi-parametric duration model estimates showed that socio- demographic, social capital and organizational factors curtail the adoption spell of IMVs. Among institutional factors, access to credit and extension contact was found as a significant factor for shortening awaiting time of IMVs adoption. Besides distance from information centers such as market, cooperatives and agricultural extension also significantly determine adoption spell of IMVs. Likewise, input cost, drought stress, pest and diseases have been the main factors that have impede speedy IMVs adoption.
Keywords: Duration ; Static model ; technology ; Weibull ; cox proportional hazard model; Ethiopia.
Effects of Manure Application Rates on Soil Loss and Crop Yields
by Taffa Tulu
Abstract: Application of manure is one of the cost effective and important methods of soil and water conservation for it has the capacity of improving soil chemical and physical properties to affect runoff, soil loss and crop yield. With the above point in view, a study was carried out in a region of Ethiopia with the objective of analyzing the effect of manure application rate on soil erosion and crop yield. Twenty-four experimental plots were established and eight rates of manure applications with three replicates arranged in randomised complete block design were used for the investigation. The manure application was kept uniform as much as possible. Each plot was uniformly broadcasted with wheat. The effectiveness of the manure application rate in preventing the detachment of soil particles was analyzed. Application of manure had improved soil properties reducing runoff and soil loss; and increased total biomass, straw and grain yields. The data were fitted well to the exponential model. The achieved results are useful to farmers, Extension Services and Policy Makers.
Keywords: biomass; crop yield; exponential model; manure application rate; runoff; soil loss.