Forthcoming articles


International Journal of Networking and Virtual Organisations


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International Journal of Networking and Virtual Organisations (62 papers in press)


Regular Issues


  • Privacy-Invading Mechanisms in E-Commerce A Case Study on German Tourism Websites   Order a copy of this article
    by Tatiana Ermakova, Anke Hohensee, Ines Orlamunde, Benjamin Fabian 
    Abstract: In the digital age, the careful handling of personal data plays an important role, since privacy is vital for users. Therefore, it is of utmost importance for users that data collection is minimized and their data is treated strictly confidential. This paper analyzes the data a user needs to provide for an E-Commerce website. Specifically, our case study focuses on German tourism websites since the tourism sector in Germany was shown in related work as very actively adopting mail tracking technology. For a sample of 50 highly visited web sites, we collect and analyze the quantity as well as the type of data both mandatory and optional for registration. We further examine the extent to which personal data is collected in the background, and particularly, the extent to which other third-party web pages are communicated with, cookies are spawned and trackers are triggered. The collection of background data is often not obvious for the user and not communicated at all or only in a short subordinate clause in the privacy policy of the web page. Against user beliefs of higher protection in the presence of a privacy policy, we further explore whether the background data collection can be associated with its visibility during the registration process, as well as other website design elements. Our results show that privacy-invading mechanisms are prevalent in the tourism sector of e-commerce, with an average of 24 contacted third-party websites, 42 generated cookies and 15 active trackers. Websites, where general terms and conditions and privacy policies are visible during registration, are connected with a significantly higher number of third-party services. Websites inviting users to follow them on Twitter contact significantly more third-party services and store significantly more cookies. There are high correlations of over 0.7 between the numbers of contacted third-party services, generated cookies and activated trackers.
    Keywords: e-commerce; privacy; web tracking; personal data; data collection.

  • Driving Factors of Digital Strategic Actions in Competitive Dynamics   Order a copy of this article
    by LeWei Hu, Jing Zhao, Jiao Huang, Yajing Li 
    Abstract: Based on the competitive dynamics theory and from the exploitation/exploration perspective, this study explored the impetus and differences in incremental and radical digital strategic actions (DSAs) using 250 cases. We found that the quantity and diversity of partners were the core factors for launching successful incremental DSAs, and partnership strength was the core condition to start successful radical DSAs. We also found that digital assets depth and breadth were the necessary prerequisites to initiate the two types of DSAs. This study aimed to help managers formulate and initiate competitive actions more effectively in a digital environment.
    Keywords: digital strategic actions; digital assets; partnership; competitive dynamics.

  • An Efficient Adaptive Genetic Algorithm (GA) Technique to Improve the Neural Network (NN) Performance with aid of Adaptive GA Operators   Order a copy of this article
    by Kishor Kumar Katha, Suresh Pabboju 
    Abstract: The neural network (NN) performance improvement is one of the major topics. Thus an Adaptive Genetic algorithm (AGA) technique is proposed by making adaptive with respect to genetic operators like crossover and mutation. Our adaptive GA technique starts with the generation of initial population as same as the normal GA and performs the fitness calculation for each individual generated chromosome. After that, the genetic operators crossover and mutation will be performed on the best chromosomes. The AGA technique will be utilized in the NN performance improvement process. The AGA will utilize some parameters obtained from the NN by back propagation algorithm. The utilization of NN parameters by AGA will improve the NN performance. Hence, the NN performance can be improved more effectively by achieving high performance ratio than the conventional GA with NN. The technique will be implemented in the working platform of MATLAB and the results will be analysed to demonstrate the performance of the proposed Adaptive Genetic Algorithm (AGA).
    Keywords: Adaptive Genetic algorithm (AGA); Genetic algorithm (GA); Back propagation algorithm (BPA); Artificial Neural Network (ANN); crossover and mutation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJNVO.2019.10007705
  • A Survey on Data Stream, Big Data and Real-Time   Order a copy of this article
    by Eliza Helena Areias Gomes, Patricia Della Mea Plentz, Carlos Roberto De Rolt, Mario Antonio Ribeiro Dantas 
    Abstract: Real-time concept is being widely used by a society that seeks to speed communications, decisions and their daily activities. Even though this term is not used with the necessary conceptual precision, it makes clear the importance that time exerts on computer systems. Nowadays, the big data scenario, this concept is important and used with different meanings, which can define failure or successful of applications. This article aims to present a systematic literature review on the topics of data stream, big data and real-time. For this, we developed a protocol revision in which were determined research questions, the search term, the search source and the inclusion and exclusion criteria of articles. After an extensive study, we classify the articles selected in seven categories according to real-time concept used. Finally, we present a discussion that shows that there is not convergence on real-time concepts in the Big Data literature, authors usually adopt the most appropriate concept for their proposal.
    Keywords: Real-time; Big Data; Data Stream; Stream Processing; Big Data Stream Tools.

  • An adaptive redundant reservation admission in virtual cloud environment   Order a copy of this article
    by Dongbo Liu, Yongjian Li 
    Abstract: In cloud platforms, resource reservation service is an effective approach to providing desirable quality of service (QoS) for user applications. However, conventional reservation service might result in lower resource utilization and higher rejection rate if it is excessively applied. In this paper, we proposed an adaptive redundant reservation strategy, which uses overlapping technique to implement reservation admission and enable resource providers dynamically determine the best redundant degree at runtime. By overlapping a new reservation with an existing one, a request whose reservation requirements can not be satisfied in a traditional way might be accepted. Also, by dynamically determining the best redundant degree, the proposed strategy can obtain optimal tradeoffs between performance and reliability for cloud platforms. Experimental results show that the proposed reservation service can bring about remarkably higher resource utilization and lower rejection rate when using redundant reservation service at the price of a slightly increasing of reservation violations.
    Keywords: cloud computing; resource virtualization; quality of service; resource reservation.

  • Motivation, Governance, Efficacy and Contribution: A Social Practice Model of Commons-Based Peer Production.   Order a copy of this article
    by Rong Wang 
    Abstract: This study examines how individual motivation and governance structure of online collaboration affect individual contribution and efficacy in a Commons-based Peer Production (CBPP) community. Using survey data and structural equation modeling, this study demonstrates motivational factors alone cannot fully predict CBPP outcomes. How people perceive their freedom in setting their own agenda affects their confidence in producing artefacts for reuse. It also provides evidence that how individuals perceive their own ability in peer production significantly affects their relationships with the collective. Built upon a social practice view, this study highlights that efficacy at both individual and community levels should be viewed as important outcomes of cooperative human activity. This study contributes to the literature on CBPP and virtual communities by demonstrating the value of open governance and self-efficacy (128 words).
    Keywords: Commons-based peer production; self-efficacy; collective efficacy; online community; collective action; governance; structural equation modeling; social practice; online collaboration.

  • A novel QoS negotiation model based on intelligent learning technique in clouds   Order a copy of this article
    by Dongbo Liu, Yongjian Li 
    Abstract: As more and more high-end applications have been deployed on cloud platforms, the quality-of-service (QoS) of cloud platform has become an important issue that need to be addressed. To achieve desirable QoS, an efficient negotiation model plays a critical role because cloud application often requires plenty of resource during their execution. In this paper, we propose a novel QoS negotiation model which applies intelligent learning technique to adjust the negotiation policy, in this way, QoS agreement between application and resource provider can be quickly achieved even when multiple resource requests are involved concurrently. The proposed negotiation model is implemented in an integrated QoS negotiation framework, in which negotiation agents help to make resource reservations while allocations agents are responsible for committing those reservation requests. The proposed framework is tested in a real cloud platform, and the results indicate that it can significantly improve the negotiation efficiency comparing with other negotiation methods. In addition, the experimental results also show that by using the proposed negotiation model, large-scale workflow applications can reduce their makespan by about 7%~11%.
    Keywords: cloud computing; negotiation model; resource allocation; workflow.

  • A novel scheduling algorithm for data-intensive workflow in virtualized clouds   Order a copy of this article
    by Feng Li 
    Abstract: In cloud platforms, workflow applications have been widely used to solve the complicated problems, which often need to process a large volume of data. However, the characteristic of data-intensive for these applications are easily to result in low execution efficiency due to networking traffic or congestion. In this paper, we present a workflow scheduling algorithm which is capable of minimizing the cost of networking communication and therefore improving the execution efficiency of those workflow applications. Extensive experiments are conducted on some real-world workflows to examine the performance of the proposed algorithm, and the results show that it can significantly reduce the communication cost and improve the execution efficiency of data-intensive workflows comparing with existing algorithms.
    Keywords: cloud computing; virtual machine; workflow; task scheduling.

  • An efficient replication scheme based on living-replicas estimation for distributed storage platforms   Order a copy of this article
    by Ying Hu 
    Abstract: In the past few years, massive storage platforms are playing critical roles in many practical distributed systems (i.e., grid or cloud). To ensure desirable data availability, replication mechanism has been widely applied in those massive storage platforms. Meanwhile, a high level of data redundancy inevitably degrades the performance of storage management and bandwidth utilization. In this paper, we propose an intelligent replication scheme which leverages failure pattern of storage nodes to estimate the actual number of living-replicas in a storage platform. In this way, the storage platform can make more accurate decisions on how many replicas should be generated for maintaining a given data availability. Extensive experiments based on real-world traces indicate that the proposed replication scheme can significantly reduce the overall data redundancy and maintain desirable data availability at the same time.
    Keywords: data replication; cloud computing; distributed storage; probability model.

  • Stochastic Demand Side Management in Smart Grid System   Order a copy of this article
    by MANISH KUMAR, Cherian Samuel 
    Abstract: Two-way communication of smart grid gives customer involvement and allows them to see their energy consumption to make the decision in demand side management, and it also makes the energy supplier informed to manage economic dispatch based on load demand. This leads the sustainable development of the smart grid along with the reduction of operational cost and carbon emission levels. Statistical analysis of demand-side management gives us the fitness of hourly load demand with proposed probability density functions. This help in decision making to know about load consumption trend of consumers demand. We proposed Lognormal, Gamma and Weibull probability density function for estimating the load demand at Banaras Hindu University (BHU) campus. We have collected the hourly load demand data of BHU campus for a year taken from the Electricity & Water Supply Service Center, BHU. The fitness of data with theoretical probability density function has been analyzed with three goodness-of-fit tests named Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Anderson-Darling, and Cramer-von Mises test. Modern R programming language software has been used for the computational work and graphical analysis. With this analysis, we can manage optimal power flow between demand-supply and increased system reliability. This shows that the two-way communication and secured information sharing through smart grid give better control over the power distribution.
    Keywords: Demand Side Management; Smart Grid; Stochastic demand; Load demand; Probability distribution; Goodness-of-fit test.

  • PTRE: a probabilistic two-phase replication elimination policy in large-scale distributed storage platforms   Order a copy of this article
    by Ning Han, Dongbo Liu 
    Abstract: To support large-scale data-intensive applications, massive distributed storage platform are being widely deployed in more and more IT-infrastructures. One of the most mentioned issues on distributed storage platform is how to maintain desirable data availability without too many extra costs. Therefore, data replication service plays a key role to achieve this goal. Unfortunately, many existing replication policies are designed for small-scale or centralized storage platforms, and their performance tends to be dramatically degraded when a system consists of thousands of autonomous storage nodes. In this paper, we present a novel replication policy that allows a storage platform to eliminate useless replicas and maintain sufficient data availability at the same time. Through theoretical analysis, we have proven that the costs of the proposed policy is linearly increased with the number of underlying storage nodes, which means that it can be easily applied in large-scale distributed storage platform. The experimental results indicate that the proposed replication scheme can significant improve the effective utilization of storage resources comparing with other existing policies. In addition, it exhibits a better robustness when the underlying storage platform is in presence of dramatically fluctuant workload.
    Keywords: distributed storage; replication scheme; availability; probability theory.

  • Topology-Aware Approach for Reducing Power Consumption in Backbone Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammed Hussein, Abdallatif Abu-Issa 
    Abstract: According to several studies, line cards are the major source of energy savings in green networks because they contribute up to 42% of the total energy consumption of a backbone router. Since these networks are overprovisioned, during periods of low-demands shutting down network links seems like a good approach to reduce energy consumption. In this paper, we propose a novel topology-aware approach to exploit the sleep mode capabilities of links in IP networks. We leverage the algebraic connectivity metric, adopted from spectral graph theory on IP networks in order to identify the set of links, that can be powered off by decreasing the network connectivity the least. Exhaustive searching for the optimal link shutting down is computationally infeasible. Hence, we propose several strategies that select single link for removal, based on topological and spectral metrics. Moreover, the proposed algorithms do not require the knowledge of traffic matrix, being able to run in real-time, where this information would not be available. Results, obtained on real topologies prove that our algorithms are able to achieve performance comparable to a pioneering more complex traffic-aware approaches, called Benchmark [1] and Least-Flow [2].
    Keywords: Energy efficiency; Wired networks; Graph theory.

  • (De)Mystifying the Information and Communication Technology Business Model Concept   Order a copy of this article
    by Trevor Clohessy, Thomas Acton, Lorraine Morgan 
    Abstract: Modern enterprises are currently experiencing volatile and rapid information and communication technology (ICT) change. A key challenge for business leaders is to ensure their organisations are ready for that change. This is particularly challenging when it comes to emerging ICT that may disrupt the management of existing enterprise information systems or business processes. The business model has been cited as an effective tool which organisations can use to prepare for ICT related change. However, there is evidence to suggest that the business model remains largely a nebulous concept to most organisations. This is compounded by the siloed nature of existing business model research. Using a content analysis research approach, this paper provides a holistic review of contemporary academic literature to ascertain and classify the various approaches to the study of ICT enabled business models. The literature examined is classified into nine specific thematic descriptors which underpin these specific business models. A comprehensive definition is also developed for ICT business models. This paper therefore extends our understanding of the business model concept and can be used to guide and coalesce future research on illuminating how organisations can operationalise effective business models in order to leverage new digital ICT.
    Keywords: Business model; Information systems; Information and communication technology; content analysis; thematic descriptors.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJNVO.2019.10007891
  • Mobile Learning Adoption in Jordan: Technology Influencing Factors   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammad Al-Nawayseh, Aladdin Baarah, Mohammad Alnabhan, Sultan Al-masaeed 
    Abstract: Massive progress in ICT and the emergence of mobile internet as a primary platform for information delivery has spurred the development of mobile learning. In order to utilize m-learning in Jordan, it is vital to explore the factors that impact university students adoption. This quantitative study examines factors affecting students intention to adopt m-learning using the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT). The results show that students in Jordanian universities believe that m-learning performance expectancy, effort expectancy and social influence will positively affect their intension to adopt m-learning, while facilitating conditions will not.
    Keywords: m-learning; adoption; technology acceptance; Jordan.

  • An efficient data transfer service for scientific applications in cloud environments   Order a copy of this article
    by Ying Hu, Changsong Liu 
    Abstract: Recently, more and more data-intensive scientific applications have been deployed in cloud environments. Therefore, how to improve the efficiency of data transfer becomes an important issued that needs to be addressed. In this paper, we present an efficient data transfer framework which provides an integrated platform for data transfer, data scheduling and performance monitoring. Unlike those existing studies that focus on the utilization of bandwidth resources, the proposed framework is implemented by integrating data transfer service and data scheduling service through a performance prediction service. In this way, it provides a flexible mechanism to enable a cloud system to improve the efficiency of data transfer. The implementation of the proposed framework has been deployed in a real-world cloud system, and experimental results have shown that in can significantly improve the efficiency of massive-data transfer comparing with many existing approaches.
    Keywords: cloud computing; data transfer; data scheduler; performance prediction.

  • Hybridization of Oppositional Center based Genetic algorithms for resource allocation in cloud   Order a copy of this article
    by Uma Maheswari K.M., Govindarajan S. 
    Abstract: Cloud computing is an attractive computing model since it allows for the provision of resources on-demand. In cloud computing, resource allocation is one of the challenging problems; because when the clients want to allocate the resource to particular task while attaining minimum cost. To overcome the problem, in this work we introduce a novel technique for resource allocation in cloud computing using Oppositional Center based Genetic algorithm. For optimization, we hybridize the center based genetic algorithm with Opposition-based learning (OBL), where OBL is improving the performance of the center based genetic algorithm while optimizing the bi-objective function. The main aim is to assign the corresponding resources to each subtask within the minimum cost. The generated solution is competent to the quality of service (QoS) and enhances IaaS suppliers believability. For experimentation, we compare our proposed hybrid algorithm with GA, and CGA algorithm.
    Keywords: Resource allocation; cloud computing; HCFA; Scheduling; deadline; hybridization; bi-objective.

  • WBMR: A new Communication Scheme for Multicast Routing in MANETs   Order a copy of this article
    by Arappali Nedumaran, V. Jeyalakshmi 
    Abstract: There is a great demand for multicast route deployment and time varying link strategies which makes routing difficult in ad-hoc networks. Thus finding the optimal routes with multicast behavior in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANETs) is a critical issue. The deployed route should fulfil the necessary requirements of MANET, like power utilization, efficient utilization of bandwidth, loop free communication, link stability and minimized usage of control overheads. Thus in research, the proposed Weight Based Multicast Routing (WBMR) protocol addresses the critical issues like loop free communication and link stability, which simultaneously yields the optimum routes and reduced energy utilization of the nodes in MANETs. This proposition uses the weight based routing approach which is based on the distance and (Signal to Noise Ratio) SNR of the demanding links. This WBMR protocol minimize the number of nodes participated in the communication in association with link stability and thus minimize the unnecessary utilization of bandwidth and energy. The simulated results show that the implemented approach outperforms well when compared with the existing approaches in multicast routing schemes.
    Keywords: MANET; Multicast Routing; SNR; Distance; Loop free; Energy Utilization.

  • A QoS-aware resource allocation framework in virtualized cloud environments   Order a copy of this article
    by Yuan Tian 
    Abstract: In cloud platforms, resource allocation service plays an important role for running user applications efficiently. However, current allocation mechanism in many cloud platforms only provides best-effort service for users jobs, which means that users quality-of-service (QoS) requirements can not be well guaranteed. In this paper, we present a novel QoS-aware resource allocation framework, which applies feedback control technique to achieve the goal of fair resource allocation between multiple virtual machine (VM) instances. Theoretical analysis of the proposed control model has proven that it can meet the feasibility and stability requirements. Experimental results conducted on a real-world cloud platform show that the proposed resource allocation framework can significantly improve the effective resource utilization as well as the overall task execution efficiency. In addition, the proposed framework also shows better robustness when the cloud platform is in presence of highly dynamic workload.
    Keywords: cloud computing; virtual machine; resource allocation; quality of service.

    by Gayathri VM, Nedunchelian R 
    Abstract: Mobile ad-hoc network plays a vital base for the future networking ideologies. A MANET is a part of wireless network which forms a topology based on their communication range or distance. Each node in the network is responsible for efficient communication. Each node acts as router and passes data packets from source to destination. Nodes may be either in static or mobile in nature. If any malicious node enters into the network it might result in loss of data packets. However, it is possible to identify the malicious nodes based on send and receive packet information and change the route from source node to destination node. The malicious path can be identified by calculating the packet drop count.
    Keywords: MANET;Intruder;Packet delivery ratio;Mobility;WSN;VANET;DTN.

  • A Novel Approach for Intrusion Detection in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Bhushan Chaudhari, Rajesh Prasad 
    Abstract: Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) consists of various nodes and they interact with each other cooperatively. However, the cooperative nature of MANET provides a gateway for intruders to interrupt the communication. Two types of approaches have been proposed for the IDS in the literature. The first approach has been used for the improvement in the conventional models and the second approach based on the unconventional models. Our focus is on the unconventional methods since they perform better in the diversified environment. A number of unconventional methods viz. Watchdog, EAACK etc have been discussed in the literature. However, intrusion detection model based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) for distributed and advanced attacks have not been discussed yet. In this paper, we proposed a novel approach based on PSO for the IDS in MANET. The proposed model is compared with existing models like Watchdog and EAACK. Comprehensive objective function in the evaluation of node trustworthiness is a key point of this model.
    Keywords: Mobile Ad-Hoc Network; Intrusion Detection System; Particle Swarm Optimization; Watchdog; EAACK.

  • Towards Geographical Analysis of the Autonomous System Network   Order a copy of this article
    by Uri Yacobi-Keller, Evgeny Savin, Benjamin Fabian, Tatiana Ermakova 
    Abstract: The Internet is an important global critical infrastructure. Yet, it has remained unclear how it is organized in different regions and areas of political influence. This explorative study analyses geographic aspects of the Autonomous System networks in different countries. By using Internet geolocation information for locating autonomous systems, we demonstrate the feasibility of discovering physical regions, rather than purely topological clusters, in a graph representing the backbone network of autonomous systems. We further explore the characteristics of these central regions across different countries. We identify and discuss a general pattern in the surveyed countries, but also some important exceptions. Our study can serve as a starting point for investigating potential geographical and political points of control.
    Keywords: Internet Governance; Autonomous Systems; Geography; Geolocation.

  • Success factors for national eHealth strategies: A comparative analysis of the Australian and German eHealth system   Order a copy of this article
    by Isabella Eigner, Andreas Hamper, Nilmini Wickramasinghe, Freimut Bodendorf 
    Abstract: The Australian and German healthcare systems share similar traits in insurance and healthcare management. Both nations have also embarked upon national eHealth strategies to connect stakeholders and enable collaboration in healthcare services throughout their respective countries. While Australia has focused on a platform-based approach initially termed Personally Controlled Electronic Health Record, Germany introduced the Electronic Health Card, mandatory for every publicly insured person. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the Australian and German eHealth systems to determine commonalities, barriers and success factors of both strategies. A combined PESTLE/SWOT-analysis is used. Results show the key advantages and obstacles of both approaches and identify relevant areas for successful eHealth implementation.
    Keywords: eHealth; Australia; Germany; SWOT analysis; PESTLE analysis; PCEHR; MyHealthRecord; Electronic health card.

  • Mobility and Load Based Vertical Handoff Decision in 4G Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by N. Divya Lakshmi, V. Khanaa 
    Abstract: 4G network is the most efficient technology today. Its effectiveness in providing very high data rate and supporting various technologies simultaneously is very helpful in this fast developing world. Hence 4G has emerged out as a highly promising network. This wireless network is capable of supporting a number of technologies and so it is necessary to assure that the mobile terminal is being handed off to the right technology. This decision has to be taken by considering several factors related to the base station, access point and received signal strength. So, in this paper, we develop a vertical handoff technique which performs handover only after confirming that the handoff will be valid so as to avoid any false handoff occurrence. Then the decision related to the technology to which the mobile terminal has to be connected is made by using the decision function. Thus, in this paper the mobile terminal is handed over to the right wireless technology without carrying out any false handoff process.
    Keywords: 4G network; wireless technology; handoff process; Mobility.

  • An efficient bandwidth reservation policy for data-intensive applications in cloud   Order a copy of this article
    by Yongjian Li, Dongbo Liu 
    Abstract: Recently, more and more data-intensive applications have been deployed in cloud platforms due to its cost-effective and elastic capability. Although computing resources (i.e., CPU and RAM) can be provisioned in on-demand manner, the network bandwidth has enforce certain admission controlling for providing desirable quality-of-service (QoS). As a result, data-intensive applications often suffer from high delay during the phase of bulk data transferring between computing nodes. In this paper, we present an integrated bandwidth reservation algorithm, which combines different admission controlling policies and minimizes the finishing time for all jobs in an online manner. Performance evaluation on a real-world cloud platform shows that the proposed reservation algorithm can ensure efficient bulk data transferring even when the system is facing heavy workloads.
    Keywords: cloud computing; bandwidth reservation; relaxed policy; constrained optimization.

  • A QoS ranking and controlling framework in virtualized clouds   Order a copy of this article
    by Tienan Zhang 
    Abstract: In cloud computing, quality of service (QoS) has become an important issue either from the perspective of cloud providers or users. In this paper, we present a lightweight framework, namely Cloud QoS Ranking and Controlling (CQRC), which integrates a QoS ranking service and a fine-grained QoS controller. The QoS ranking service provides an effective approach to quickly evaluating the QoS level of any cloud resources or services based on historical performances; the QoS controller is designed by using feedback control technique and is capable of self-tuning the underlying virtual machine (VM) configurations. The proposed framework is implemented and evaluated in a real-world cloud platform through a set of experiments, and the results indicate that its QoS ranking service can significantly reduce the frequency of QoS violations, and the QoS controller can achieve better tradeoffs between performance and cost for cloud providers.
    Keywords: cloud computing; resource virtualization; virtual machine; scheduling algorithm.

  • A QoS-enhanced data replication service in virtualized cloud environments   Order a copy of this article
    by Tienan Zhang 
    Abstract: In recent cloud systems, data-intensive applications have been widely deployed for solving non-trivial problems, which often involve large amount of dataset. As a standard service for offering data availability and reliability, data replication service plays an important role and is proven to be effective in many real-world cloud environments. However, many existing replication services are designed for improving the system-oriented metrics instead of user-oriented metrics. In this paper, we first formulate the quality-of-service (QoS) constrained replication placing problem in different manners, and then a novel replication service is proposed which uses multi-objective technique to solve the replica placement problem via a time-efficient approach. A set of experiments are conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed service, and the results indicate it can significantly reduce the average response time metric comparing with other existing replication services and therefore improve the QoS for user applications. In addition, it also exhibits a good robustness when the cloud storage system is facing intensive replication workloads.
    Keywords: cloud computing; data replication; quality-of-service; response time.

  • A novel Machine Learning based Attacker Detection (MLAD) system to secure Location Aided Routing in MANETs   Order a copy of this article
    by Suma R, Premasudha B G, Ravi Ram V 
    Abstract: The proposed work deals with the improvisation of the performance of location based routing in Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET). A Machine Learning Based Attacker Detection (MLAD) algorithm that uses multipath routing is proposed to facilitate efficient routing even in the presence of attackers. The proposed algorithm adopts the Location-Aided Routing (LAR) to optimize the search process and to reduce the search area for new routes in MANETs. Learning Automata (LA) is implemented to optimize the path selection and to reduce overhead in the network. Extended Identity-Base Cryptography (EIBC) is used for efficient key management in providing system security. The proposed system implements Privacy Preserving Communication System (PPCS) for maintaining privacy in end-to-end communication. This method decouples the location information from the nodes identifier and abstracts the communication happening among nodes. The simulation results of the proposed method reveal its reliability and strength in securing LAR in MANETs.
    Keywords: MANET; Learning Automata; Optimization; Routing; Fault tolerance; Identity Based Cryptography; Key Management; Privacy Preservation.

  • Literature Review of QoS and Related Issues of Vehicular Adhoc Network   Order a copy of this article
    by Sivasubramanian Karthikeyini, Subramanian Shankar 
    Abstract: Vehicular communication system delivers two main types of communications that is vehicle to vehicle and vehicle to infrastructure. It offers information sharing, cooperative driving, and value added services like navigation, internet access and etc. Communication between V2V and V2I are ad hoc in nature that is why it's called as a vehicular ad hoc network. There is an opportunity for that it will become a world largest ad hoc network. Even though there is so many advantages in VANET, some consequences are there to defeat. In this paper, we have concentrated on a survey study of VANET issues and solved by various authors. Our study demonstrates the overall works and results concerning different routing algorithms and its performance, collision issues, broadcast mechanism, message alerts creation for vehicles, cluster formation for communication, real time emergency health care at vehicles and so on.
    Keywords: AODV; BP-MDF; DSRC; MAC protocol; PTMAC; TDMA; VANET; WWAN.

  • QoS Integrated Energy Aware Routing for Wireless Sensor Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Satish Kumar T, Reshma J, Krishna Prasad R 
    Abstract: Quality of Service (QoS) in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) has got limited attention due to multiple bottlenecks such as limited bandwidth and energy storage. Until now, most of the focus has been to develop energy efficient routing schemes for WSN. It is important to provide effective QoS mechanism along with energy efficient data transmission. In this work, QoS mechanism is incorporated inside energy aware routing protocol proposed in (Rahul, 2011). This new integrated protocol achieves dual goal of energy efficient data transmission and effective QoS functionalities. Empirical results are demonstrated on NS3 simulator. The proposed approach is compared against existing state of the art technique. The proposed approach outperforms the existing state of the art technique in prolonging the network lifetime.
    Keywords: Quality of Service ;Energy Aware Routing ; WSN.

  • Implementation of inter-organizational mediums: Synthesizing framework as a design exemplar   Order a copy of this article
    by Antti Ylä-Kujala, Salla Marttonen-Arola, Tiina Sinkkonen, Timo Kärri 
    Abstract: The field of management research has a utilization problem. A considerable avenue in which the translation from theory to practice has been only partial is the management control of inter-organizational relationships. In this particular stream of management (accounting) research, open-book accounting (OBA) is a key concept. Based on the OBA literature, our ambition is to develop an implementation framework for inter-organizational mediums (IFFIM). The first part of the framework, IFFIM_1: the relational view, is concerned with the multidimensional nature of inter-organizational relationships by illustrating relational complexities through the OBA dimensions. The second part of the framework, IFFIM_2: the process view, is an outlook to the stepwise implementation process, where the factors that influence OBA implementation have been integrated to the phases of the so-called enterprise system experience cycle. Unlike most contemporary research, our work is based on the idea of design science, the aim of which is to develop general knowledge to support the design of solutions to field problems. IFFIM is a design exemplar to practitioners, i.e. a guideline to follow in the design of interventions.
    Keywords: inter-organizational relationships; inter-organizational mediums; open-book accounting; implementation framework; implementation; framework; design science; design exemplar.

  • Unified Enterprise Modelling Language Based interoperability for collaborative access control framework in Critical Infrastructures   Order a copy of this article
    by Amine BAINA, Khalid BENALI, Mostafa BELLAFKIH, Nawal AIT AALI 
    Abstract: Due to physical and logical vulnerabilities, a Critical Infrastructure (CI) can encounter failures of various degrees of severity, and since there are many interdependencies between CIs, simple failures can have dramatic consequences on the whole infrastructure. In this paper, we mainly focus on malicious threats that might affect the communication and information systems (the Critical Information Infrastructure, or CII) dedicated to Critical Infrastructures. We define a new collaborative access control framework called PolyOrBAC, to address the security problems that are specific of CIIs. This approach offers each organisation taking part in the CII the capacity of collaborating with the other ones, while maintaining a control on its resources and on its internal security policy. The approach is demonstrated on a practical scenario, based on real emergency actions in an electric power grid infrastructure.
    Keywords: Critical Infrastructure; Critical Information Infrastructure; Security; Access Control Policies and Models; Collaboration; and Interoperability.

  • An efficiency virtual resource auction mechanism based on reserve-price strategy in cloud environments   Order a copy of this article
    by Peng Xiao 
    Abstract: In economic-based cloud models, resource pricing mechanism plays a key role to regulate the supply and demand for resources, provides an incentive for providers, and motivates the users to trade-off between deadline, budget, and the required level of quality of service. In this paper, we formulate the problem of resource auction as a distributed constrained programming problem; then we propose an effective and efficient auction algorithm, which use reserve-price strategy to guarantee that users pay at least a given amount determined by cloud providers. In this way, we can significantly improve the efficiency of auction process as well as provide sufficient incentive for cloud providers to share their spare resources. To evaluate the proposed auction algorithm, extensive experiments are conducted in a real-world cloud platform, and the results indicate that it can significantly increase the provider revenue as well as improve the quality-of-service (QoS) satisfactory.
    Keywords: cloud computing; resource market; auction model; resource price.

  • A reliable peer-to-peer storage framework based on virtual peers model   Order a copy of this article
    by Hong He 
    Abstract: Peer-to-peer (P2P) networks have become popular applications due to their ease of communication and resource sharing patterns in unfixed network infrastructures. However, typical P2P systems often suffer from the problem of unreliable network transferring and unstable availability of data files. In this paper, we propose a novel P2P-based storage framework, which introduces a set of virtual peers to improve the reliability of networking transferring and storage by using the networking coding technology. Also, we present a detailed theoretical analysis on storage performance and management cost, which indicates that the proposed framework is capable of achieving better tradeoffs between reliability and efficiency. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed framework, extensive experiments are conducted in a real-world P2P storage platform, and the experimental results show that our P2P storage framework outperforms the existing solutions in terms of many performance metrics, including data availability, resource utilization, and communication cost.
    Keywords: distributed storage; virtual peer; data availability; communication cost.

  • A novel replica placement algorithm for minimizing communication cost in distributed storage platform   Order a copy of this article
    by Changsong Liu 
    Abstract: In large-scale distributed systems, replication service has been playing a critical role to improve the availability and reliability of user data. Conventionally, the existing replication services mainly concentrate on how many replicas are needed to maintain desirable availability and reliability rather than how to place replicas on the most suitable storage nodes. As a result, the communication-related costs when accessing data are significantly increased, which in turn degrades the execution performance of user applications. In this paper, we propose a novel replica placement algorithm which is designed to minimize the communication cost when accessing or managing replicas in a large-scale storage platform. In the proposed algorithm, the replica placement problem is formulized a classical multi-knapsack problem, and two heuristic metrics are introduced to obtain the sub-optimal solution of this problem. A lot of experiments are conducted to investigate the performance of the proposed algorithm. The experimental results indicate that our replica placement algorithm outperforms many existing approaches in terms of different performance metrics. In addition, the proposed algorithm can also significantly improve the execution efficiency for data-intensive applications, which are very common in nowadays large-scale distributed systems, such as grid and cloud.
    Keywords: data replication; replica service; distributed storage; cloud computing.

  • A novel virtual resource pricing policy based on game model in federated clouds   Order a copy of this article
    by Yuan Tian 
    Abstract: In recent years, more and more cloud providers are unified together to form a federated cloud market, where a suitable pricing strategy plays a key role to help they attracting more users. However, many existing pricing policies can not deal with the competition between different cloud providers. In this study, we take efforts on the resource pricing policy in federated cloud market. To obtain an optimal pricing scheme among multiple ISPs, we firstly use learning curve model to model the production supply behaviours of ISPs, and then we use a standard Markov decision process to describe the pricing game model and present an efficient algorithm to solve this game model in a distributed manner. The proposed pricing model has been fully investigated and evaluated in a real-world federated cloud platform, and the results indicate that it can significantly improve the profits of ISPs comparing to several existing pricing mechanisms.
    Keywords: cloud computing; virtual machine; pricing scheme; federated market.

  • Technology-induced Job Anxiety during Non-work Time: Examining Conditional Effect of Techno-invasion on Job Anxiety   Order a copy of this article
    by Jinnan Wu, Nannan Wang, Wenjuan Mei, Lin Liu 
    Abstract: Although work-related use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) during non-work time leads to techno-invasion, little is known whether employee techno-invasion causes job anxiety. Also, it remains unclear when techno-invasion is particularly or less correlated to job anxiety. Based on the stress, appraisal and coping theory and the theory of conservation of resources, we examined whether techno-invasion increases employee job anxiety, and investigated whether computer self-efficacy and perceived organizational support can buffer this effect. The results show that techno-invasion positively predicts job anxiety, while both employee computer self-efficacy and perceived organizational support can significantly weaken this association. More importantly, we find a larger moderating effect of computer self-efficacy when employee perceived a low level of perceived organizational support.
    Keywords: techno-invasion; job anxiety; computer self-efficacy; perceived organizational support; stress; appraisal and coping theory; conservation of resources; technostress; work-life balance; moderating effect; China.

  • A fairness-enhanced resource trading system in federated cloud environments   Order a copy of this article
    by Tienan Zhang 
    Abstract: As more and more complicated applications are deployed on federated cloud infrastructures, resource provisioning and allocation across multiple resource providers become a challenging issue. However, most of existing studies focused on how to improve resource utility or resource revenue, while ignores the efficiency and fairness of the resource market. In this study, we mainly focus on these two issues when trading and allocating resources in a federated cloud environment. We first introduce the definitions of efficient market and fairness criterion based on the classical economic theory; then, we design a distributed resource trading protocol which is capable of offering topology-wide efficiency and fairness as long as the resource providers follow certain payment rules in resource market. Theoretical analysis indicates that the proposed resource trading model is beneficial for pushing resources to resource providers who value them more, which in turn means that resource providers can always increase the social welfare by repeatedly performing ration deals. To evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed resource trading model, plenty of experiments are conducted in a real-world cloud platform. The experimental results show that it can significantly improve the resource revenues for resource providers and make better task mapping decisions for upper level applications.
    Keywords: cloud computing; resource trading model; virtual machine; multi-agent model.

  • A Multilayer Graph Model of the Internet Topology   Order a copy of this article
    by Georg Tilch, Tatiana Ermakova, Benjamin Fabian 
    Abstract: The application of Internet maps for developing more effective routing algorithms, security mechanisms, and resilience management for both companies and Internet service providers can be advanced through their more detailed structural decomposition. This article carefully integrates traceroute datasets from various large-scale measurement campaigns such as iPlane, CAIDA, Carna, DIMES, RIPE Atlas, and RIPE IPv6L into Internet graphs of a previously unknown large and thus solid scale. It further works with different well-established abstraction levels such as the IP interface, router, Point of Presence (PoP), Autonomous System (AS), and Internet Service Provider (ISP). Finally, by employing a broad diversity of graph measures, this study creates an exhaustive snapshot of the global Internet topology. This work creates a baseline for future Internet research. Repeated measurements and automated data integration could enable a better understanding of the Internet dynamics.
    Keywords: Internet; Internet topology; Computer networks ; Graph analysis; Complex networks.

  • Formal and relational mechanisms of network governance and their relationship with trust: substitutes or complementary in Brazilian real estate transactions?   Order a copy of this article
    by Adriano Carnauba, Joao Boaventura, Cristina Pereira, Ana Azevedo, Emanuela Todeva 
    Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate whether formal and relational mechanisms of network governance act as substitutes or are complementary in their relationship with trust in the intermediation activity of real estate transactions. A quantitative research was conducted to test the hypotheses. Data was collected via a survey and the context was Brazilian real estate business networks. A non-parametric approach was used to investigate the associations among the key variables indicated in the theory. The results confirm the hypothesis that formal and relational mechanisms of network governance act as complementary and reject the possibility of substitution between them. Both mechanisms are important to build trust-based relationships between actors, and formal governance mechanisms have a significant positive relationship with interorganisational trust, while relational mechanisms are positively associated with interpersonal trust. This study not only contributes to the discussion of governance mechanisms and their relationship with trust, but also broadens this debate by considering trust at different levels and present in more complex structures where these relationships are still little explored, such as is the case of business networks.
    Keywords: Network; Mechanisms of Governance; Trust; Inter-Organisational Relationships; Real Estate Network; Brazil.

  • Causal Cross-Impact Analysis for Identification and Assessment of Strategic Options for Industrial Clusters   Order a copy of this article
    by Heiko Duin 
    Abstract: Strategic planning for industrial clusters differs compared to strategic planning for corporations. Industrial clusters are characterised by the existence of non-focal organisational networks within the cluster representing different roles like manufacturing companies, suppliers, research institutions and regional development agencies. This paper shows how strategic planning can be carried out with the help of cross-impact analysis in networked structures found in such clusters using a German aviation cluster as an example. For this purpose, a planning team of ten persons was put together, which unifies the different perspectives of the different types of partners. Using an adapted strategic planning process, the team developed, analysed and used a causal cross-impact model to derive strategic options for the cluster. These options were further developed into sets of measures and integrated into the cross-impact model. This approach allowed the review of the effectiveness of the various strategic options including the assessment of their robustness.
    Keywords: Industrial cluster; aviation cluster; causal cross-impact analysis; enterprise networks; networked organisations; strategic planning.

    by Demokaan Demirel 
    Abstract: Improvements in today's information society have also changed the working styles of the organizations. Organizations are more focused on services and operate in a virtual environment. In an environment where organizational innovation takes place rapidly, virtual teams can perform activities with their expertise. In the emergence of virtual teams, increasing competition, changing customer needs, positive developments in information technologies and the widespread use of the internet in the business world have been effective. In virtual teams, staffs don't meet in a specific the place; teams in different venues coordinate each other with communication channels. The origins of virtual teams are knowledge and expertise, and they also depend on the basic abilities of a virtual team's members. In virtual teams, the needs of team members are constantly considered and members can work in multiple projects and organizations at the same time. In this respect, the organizational structures of virtual teams are more flexible. The aim of this study is to determine how to achieve coordination in processes such as communication, trust, technology usage, leadership, and differences while performing the activities of virtual teams. The main problem of the work is which process and/or processes affect the functioning of the virtual teams and which play a more important role in team effectiveness. The study is based on qualitative methodological evaluations and has a rich literature references about the subject. Empirical researches in other academic articles are also mentioned and the coordination of virtual teams has been analysed. Finally, it is recommended that processes be supported with result-oriented practices and that team members should be interdependent with a strong communication network.
    Keywords: Virtual Organization; Virtual Team; Trust; Communication; Leadership; Technology.

Special Issue on: I-SMAC 2017 IoT Based Next Generation Systems for Medical Internet Applications

  • Complexity Estimation by Using Multiparadigm Approach: A Proposed Metrics and Algorithms   Order a copy of this article
    by Neelamadhab Padhy, Suresh Chandra Satapathy, R.P. Singh 
    Abstract: The factors upsetting directness of a software code were calculated manually using traditional approach which is not suitable in these days. There are numerous software tools are available in the market but they are not reliable due to vast number of metrics are available and each and every metrics are not specific definitions. This paper investigated factors which are affecting for understanding the procedural and object oriented code and found that software metrics can be calculated by using the Web-Engineering technology especially Multi-paradigm language. The most important parts of this paper are propped algorithms for estimating an object oriented metrics. The planned metrics were empirically authenticated in diverse paradigms. The exigent task of this paper is all about the evaluation strategy of an object oriented metrics by using Multi-paradigm language (Java Script).The proposed model is developed to analyze the CK metric suite. This model extracts the number of classes available in the Java Script programs. Basically this model works in two different phases. In first phase the parser is able to find and generate the full abstract syntax tree and second stage the identification of the classes and generated the metrics itself.
    Keywords: Code quality; Meaning software complexity;Complexity Measurement; Multiparadigm ;Proposed Metrics and Algorithms for OO.

  • Intelligent decision making service framework based on analytic hierarchy process in cloud environment   Order a copy of this article
    by Sivaraman Eswaran, Manickachezian R 
    Abstract: Outsourcing corporate procedures to a cloud domain is seen among the arrangements helping small and medium-sized corporate to rise in business sector and improve their additional worth. When deciding to outsource some portion of its corporate procedure to the cloud, small and medium-sized corporate ought to examine a few variables that define its particular connection. Given different variables on which depends the corporate process subcontracting to the cloud environment, a venture clearly needs a basic leadership technique. We define an endeavor setting that contains distinctive elements that help in outsourcing choice to the cloud. The manuscript demonstrates how corporate incentive model of venture additionally improves the outsourcing basic leadership by considering the corporate arrangements and vision of the undertaking. Finally, it proposes an outsourcing choice strategy that depends on expository order procedure to choose whether or not to outsource a corporate procedure to the cloud and through which administration sort.
    Keywords: corporate; small and medium-sized corporate; corporate process subcontracting; corporate incentive model (CIM); information and communications technology (ICT).

    by Ramesh Palanisamy, Mathivanan V 
    Abstract: The beginning of wireless communication gives birth to cognitive radio mobile ad hoc networks (CRAHNs). Routing is the main factor in both wired and wireless networks. Three major types of routing can be performed in CRAHNs such as proactive, reactive and hybrid. This research work aims in design and development of a hybrid protocol named efficient zone based routing protocol shortly termed as EZBRP, SACBRP and BIABRP. NS2 simulation tool is used to examine the performance of the proposed protocols. Communicating systems use well-defined formats (protocol) for exchanging various messages. Efficient Zone Based Routing Protocol (Ezbrp),Spectrum Aware Cluster Based Routing Protocol (Sacbrp),Bee Inspired Agent Based Routing Protocol (Biabrp).This Research on optimized path selection and detection in manet and a considerable research effort is still required for secured communication.
    Keywords: Cognitive; Protocol; CRAHN; EZBRP; SACBRP and BIABRP; Ad Hoc; MANET.

  • Controlling Industrial Parameters Through Server Using Li-Fi & Wi-Fi Communication Protocols   Order a copy of this article
    by Surendar Aravindhan, Puligadda Bhanu Subrahmanyeswara Rao 
    Abstract: In the present day scenario industrial automation is the most prominent and very common phenomena. Normally to establish communication among different modules, in industrial applications CAN (controlled area network) protocol is very popular. As the number of devices connected to CAN bus increases, response time also increases for devices connected to CAN, which may lead to catastrophic effects in the system. As CAN deals with electrical signals it may generate EMI (electromagnetic interference) in signal sensitive areas. To avoid EMI and to reduce response time due to CAN bus protocols, other alternatives are to be thought of. So, to overcome the limitations and to resolve the problems due to CAN bus in industrial controlling a novel idea is proposed by the authors for controlling and monitoring the remote plant using Li-Fi. Remote plant is a signal sensitive area, where first a communication link based on Li-Fi is developed to monitor various modules of the plant and then the necessary control signals are sent through the Wi-Fi protocol to the plant to control it. This novel idea provides the unique features of high speed data transfer with reduced EMI effects greatly with higher speed of response.
    Keywords: Industrial automation; CAN (controlled area network); EMI (electromagnetic interference); Li-Fi (Light fidelity); Wi-Fi module.

  • A Comparative Study of various existing Malware Analysis Methods   Order a copy of this article
    by Shilpa Mahajan 
    Abstract: With the advancement of technology todays world is a digital world where digital technology is generating new world of possibilites and opportunities and we are abandonded with digital data over the network that needs to be exchanged with many organizations, devices and users. This data needs to be a secure data and malware is one type of threat to this data.There are many forms of malware that can damage this sensitive data. This paper includes various malware detection techniques to detect various known and unkown binaries and presents a detailed analysis of current methods of malware detection and a malware analyzer tools.
    Keywords: Malware; Analysis; Static; Dynamic;Hybrid.

  • Survey on Testing Technique for Modern Web Application- Rookies vantage point   Order a copy of this article
    by Vijaya Bharathi Manjeti, Koteswara Rao K. 
    Abstract: Ajax build 2.0 web applications depend in light of state full unique client and server correspondence and client side control of the DOM tree, which makes not the same as standard web applications. Provoking to more slip-ups and harder to set. Another methodology for this AJAX named ATUSA based web applications has been perceived for such accuses that can occur in any state and for making the test suite covering the ways. This approach called as ATUSA, realized by using a gadget which offers invariant checking of portions, module instrument. We portray this framework in three phases with six segments and furthermore accuse revealing limits, versatility, manual effort and level of motorization testing. This paper mainly concentrates on rookies vantage point of testing modern web application based on so far accomplished potential research done by software practitioners and experts.
    Keywords: Invariants; Automatic Testing; DOM; AJAX.

  • An Energy Efficient and Secure Data Forwarding Scheme for Wireless Body Sensor Network   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: Monitoring human bodies and collecting physiological information are the major healthcare applications for Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs). Due to the limited energy resource of body sensors, their energy depletions will cause severe network performance degradation such as latency and energy efficiency. To solve this problem existing system introduced an Energy-efficient Data Forwarding Strategy (EDFS) which is used to balance sensor energy consumption and improve network lifetime and collaborative operations of heterogeneous WBANs. Additionally Compressed Sensing (CS) is performed for reducing the data size to be transmitted. However the existing system only considered the energy function for optimal relay sensor node selection, does not considered the delay and hop count of node. Hence in this system, the topsis based Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm (Topsis based ABC) is proposed to select the optimal path selection for data transmission. In this approach topsis method is used for selecting the best fitness value. The objective function of this system includes minimizing path delay, maximizing the energy and minimizing hop count. The ABC algorithm is selecting the best path by using this fitness value. To reduce the network congestion CS is performed. The compressed data are sending to sink. Then hybrid robust support vector machines for regression are used for reconstruction at sink. The reconstructed data are sending to system via gateway. Especially access to patient-related data must be strictly limited only to authorized users; otherwise, the patients privacy could be abused. To solve this problem the proposed system introduced hybrid RSA and Diffie Hellman algorithm. By using this algorithm data in a system are encrypted and it is send to hospital server. To get an original data decryption is performed at server side. The proposed methodology is implemented by using NS-2 simulator. The experimental results show that the proposed system achieves better performance compared with existing system in terms of end to end delay, packet delivery ratio and throughput.
    Keywords: Compressed sensing; ABC algorithm; objective function; data reconstruction; optimal path selection and sink.

  • Improving the performance of MANETs to suit for IoT based applications   Order a copy of this article
    by Mamatha Balachandra, Prema K V 
    Abstract: Computation of multiple node disjoint paths is very much essential for Mobile Ad hoc Networks due to frequent topological changes. In the case of original AODV, since at a time only one path is identified, due to link break or node failure the current path becomes invalid, so immediate route discovery has to take place. In the case of original AOMDV, the path/paths that are existing in the routing table are not node disjoint. i.e., whenever there is link break or node failure in the network, the current path becomes invalid. Existing on-demand routing protocols doesnt provide efficient paths. In this work, route discovery of the original single path AODV protocol is altered by using the path accumulation feature of DSR to compute more than one path during route discovery. Among the multiple paths obtained at the destination, only node disjoint paths can be selected using the path matrix method. The modified multipath AODV i.e., Multipath Quality of Service Aware Routing Protocol (MQARP) is compared with the original AOMDV. In the context of IoT, MANETs could represent scenarios such as soldiers in military applications, people using mobile phones, disaster recovery operations etc. QoS plays a very The proposed MQARP gives better performance in terms of the QoS parameters like end-to-end delay, PDR and control overhead.
    Keywords: AODV; DSR; AOMDV; QoS; Multipath; IoT; Route discovery.

Special Issue on: Exploring Emerging Verticals in the Future of Wireless Technology

  • Energy efficient-Dynamic and Self-optimized Routing In Wireless Sensor Network Based on Ant Colony Optimization.   Order a copy of this article
    by Arindam Debnath, Mrinal Kanti Debbarma 
    Abstract: A wireless sensor network (WSN) consists of low power, low cost, limited memory and small in size sensor nodes, organize them in a cooperative network and perform three basic operations - sensing data from environment, computation, and data routing. Routing in WSN mainly focuses on data dissemination, data aggregation, life time of the network and limited bandwidth constraints in order to facilitate the efficient working of the network. Due to the limited battery power, the Energy Conservation is a critical aspect to design an efficient routing protocol in WSN. This paper proposes the Energy efficient dynamic and Self- optimized routing to prolong the life time of the network, QoS and solve the stagnation problem in the network.
    Keywords: Wireless Sensor Network; ACO; Forward Ant (FA); Backward Ant (BA); Local Edge Selection.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJNVO.2019.10011635
    by Feng Cui 
    Abstract: Building Information Modellingalso popularly known as the BIM is emerging to be one of the most rapidly advancing modelling techniques used in a wide range of applications. BIM drastically reduces the time involved in manual work which is characteristic of the past and completes automates the process of managing and disbursing required data for modelling and construction of civic structures. There has been a widespread investment in BIM by clients prior to commencement of new projects, pre construction analysis, interior designing and post construction. Since BIM is a recent trend, the motivation for the proposed work has been derived an exhaustive literature survey in key areas for research contributions which could greatly increase the quality and importance of BIM. The proposed work focuses on the input side of BIM system involved with acquisition and processing of information before being exported into the database management system. 3D to 2D modelling and feature extraction has been proposed in this paper with dimensionality reduction technique which drastically reduces the feature data set before being exported in to the BIS management system. A Principal component analysis (PCA) has been implemented in this paper and the two dimensional features have been exported into the BIM database. The most appropriate texture image is selected from aerial images according to geometry between building faces and external parameters of thephotos. The method has been tested with LIDAR data of two building images and extraction accuracy determined.
    Keywords: 3D image modelling and extraction; Polgonization; multi resolution approximation; feature import in BIS.

Special Issue on: WHICEB 2016 E-business

  • Study on core essential elements for O2O business model with value net theory   Order a copy of this article
    by Jiangping Wan, YaHui Zhu, Qiaowen Jiang 
    Abstract: The O2O business model concept was given based on literature review. The O2O business model framework was established and the most basic 7 major elements were identified in our research with value net theory as follow: customer, telecom operator, content provider, service provider, software provider, third-party payment platform and offline business entity. Then, we identified 8 secondary elements and 22 three-level elements of O2O business model with Delphi, and the O2O business model core essential elements evaluation model was also established. We analyzed the model systematically and figured out top 10 core elements with analytic network process as follow: network speed and stability, mining the customer subject requirements, insight to customer demand, control the trading risk, the core technology research and development, the life service payment platform, after payment platform, financial services platform development, outburst requirements fulfillment and maintenance of direct correlation among enterprises. The top 10 elements mainly concentrated in 4 dimensions as follow: customer, telecom operators, third-party payment platform, and software providers. We hope that the research can provide enlightenment to O2O business model essence and insight to O2O future trends.
    Keywords: O2O business model; core elements; value net theory; Delphi; analytic network process.

Special Issue on: Future Generation Wireless Networks

  • Error Free Backbone Tree Construction to Expand the Longevity of Wireless   Order a copy of this article
    by Vimal Kumar Stephen K., Mathivanan V 
    Abstract: Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) raises number of the challenges with regard to scalability and energy efficacy. Implemented of Huffman approaches One of the key variable length in the wireless sensor network is prolonging network lifetimes. To improve the lifetime of the sensor, static and movable mobile sinks are deployed. Movable sinks are used to receive sensed data from the sensor where it is located. Assigning prime number as the sensor node identity can be easily guessed by the intruder. Reusing the same identity in the cluster leads to compromising of nodes. The energy is retained when computation is reduced in cluster head thereby increases the life time of the particular cluster. Variable length gives variable length identity and avoids reusing of same identity hence it avoid network attacks such as random number length of nodes are not possible (No sensors are allowed inside the network without the knowledge of Cluster head).Increasing transmission range future will consume more battery power.
    Keywords: Component; Formatting; Style; Styling; Insert.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJNVO.2019.10017789
  • Reduction of Overhead in Routing Protocols for MANET Using Fuzzy Set Based Decision Making   Order a copy of this article
    by Preetha K G, A. Unnikrishnan 
    Abstract: It is well known that dynamic topology, mobility of nodes, infrastructure less property and absence of central coordinator, make the behaviour of Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) uncertain. Routing is the major step in the operation of MANET and the establishment of route from source to destination thus becomes crucial. Routing decision is distributed among the nodes in the network and the reliable and effective routing predominantly depends on proper establishment of route from source to destination. Route establishment depends largely on control packets and those packets induce more overhead in the network, which in turn degrades the performance of the network. The present work proposes a novel method to reduce the control overhead by predicting the quality of the neighbouring nodes that sustain more, using a fuzzy set decision approach. The flooding of control packets is based on a fuzzy decision taken on success rate of each link in the previous trials and residual energy of the neighbouring nodes. Simulation study reveals that this approach significantly reduces the control overhead in the network and improves the overall performance.
    Keywords: MANET; Fuzzy Se; Knowledge Base; Decision making.

  • Performance measure of routing protocol with angular coordinates and distinctive transmissions in wireless networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Mani Vanitha, T.R. Ganesh Babu 
    Abstract: This work focuses on two geographical routing protocols for proficient forwarding with minimal overhead. The first protocol namely proficient geographical routing with angular coordinates (PGRA). The protocol PGRA attains efficiency in obtaining its geographical coordinates of destination without the aid of Global Positioning System (GPS). This is done by obtaining the angular coordinates. In addition, the protocol monitors the desired throughput with exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) method to determine whether to continue forwarding or interrupt current transmission. In the second work proficient geographical routing with angular and vector coordinates (PGRA-V) obtain the information of forwarding nodes by meticulously increasing the communication radius. The protocol limits the transmission at the advance node and refrains from flooding control packets. Performance comparison of both the proposed protocol has been done with similar geographic routing protocol with zone based structure Energy Efficient Geographic DSR over AODV (EEGDOA).
    Keywords: PGRA; PGRA-V; geographical unicasting; EWMA.

  • Scalability Assurance Process in Replication and Migration Using Cloud Simulator   Order a copy of this article
    by Deivendran P., Naganathan ER 
    Abstract: In service-oriented computing, service customers call up services deployed by service providers, and service providers are responsible to deal with the excellence of their services including scalability, accessibility and performance. In particularly, scalability is tough to get, mainly due to the unidentified nature of service customers and changeable volumes of service invocations. Services with underprivileged scalability would be defeated the consumer basis, resultant in small revenues. Predictable approach to scalability of network, database, and scattered computing are hardware-oriented solutions. In this paper, we present software-oriented approaches to guarantee elevated scalability of services in cloud computing. We first identify scalability in service-oriented computing, present suitable foundation of services scalability. Then, we present two efficient scalability assure scheme; service replication and migration. The future schemes are well-known from predictable scalability schemes in three ways; adapted for service-oriented computing, software solutions quite than hardware solutions, and being implementable with in progress SOA and languages. To give you an idea about the applicability of planned schemes, we demonstrate a result of implementing the scheme and experiments with them. Through means of the methods, services scalability can be to the highest degree improved enthusiastically by using software solutions. Growth of large network infrastructures have led to several systems that design large scale distributed systems supporting efficient, secure, and available services
    Keywords: Cloud computing; scalability; migration; service; networks; and distributed performance.

  • Efficient Network Coding Based Data Transfer Framework for Multihop Wireless Communication   Order a copy of this article
    by Nyan Lin, Yasuo TAN, Yuto LIM 
    Abstract: With the growing demands of wireless applications and mobile data connections, wireless communication is expected to provide the ever-increasing demand for higher data rate and efficient data communication. Energy is also one of the hot issues needed to be considered for future wireless networks. In this paper, an Efficient network coding based data transfer (E-neco) framework is developed to achieve more energy-saving and bandwidth-efficient data communication for data transmission, data collection and data sharing services. For these data transfer applications, we propose new network coding based transmission schemes and medium access control protocols. Topology and network coding techniques are utilised in the framework. This is a conceptual framework developed for future generation wireless communication such as multihop communication, massive machine communication, device-to-device communication and new techniques can be added to support future demanding services. Simulation results reveal an improvement in terms of throughput, latency, fairness, energy consumption and network lifetime.
    Keywords: Multihop wireless communication; Network coding; Medium access control protocol; Data transfer framework; Energy efficient protocols; Wireless network topology; Future wireless networks.

    by Chandra Sekar P., Mangalam H. 
    Abstract: In this paper, Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) is used to refer a wireless network wherein there is no definite architecture and required configuration is done by itself. Multiple protocols are suggested to reducing the overall transmission power in MANET routing. Several multicasting routing protocols are available and two of them are Power aware Dual Tree based Multicast Routing Protocol (PDTMRP) and Load balancing and Power aware Multicast Routing in MANET (LPMR). Here, a Power Aware Mechanism for Energy efficient Routing (PAMER) for MANET is designed to improve route stability as well as to obtain load balance data transmission by taking into account the Energy Reduction Rate (ERR) as well as Residual Energy (RE). A suitable Band Width (BW) assessment is integrated to respond to network traffic as well as explore a QoS aware strategy into route discovery for appropriate traffic Management. Thus, the improved system can monitor overhead, lessen the number of route reconstruction as well as improve the life span of network.
    Keywords: Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET); Traffic Management; QoS Aware Strategy; Residual Energy.

    by Perumal Sivanesan 
    Abstract: In MANET data replication play major role for energy conservation. Redundant data transmission makes network traffic heavier and causes unnecessary energy utilization. This paper addresses the problems due to the network traffic and unnecessary energy utilization. It proposes the Relay node Based Routing protocol (RBP) to minimize the data replication and energy consumption. The relay node is implemented to collect the data from neighbors based on the stochastic process. The data is predicted by time series forecast then an error value is found. The autocorrelation function is used to compare the current variable with the predefined one (calculated error bound). If the output error value greater than predefined error value then the received data is sent to the sink as it is; otherwise the received data is discarded and the index only transmitted to the sink.
    Keywords: Data replication;Energy consumption; Relay node selection.

    by Santhosh Kumar P. 
    Abstract: Provides pay service model as per user need and requirement. The cloud provides the collection of virtual machine which have both computational and storage facility. The important aspect of cloud computing is to present effective process to hyper distributed resources. Now days, Cloud system is developing and facing many challenges, two of them is scheduling process and other main challenge is a security issue. In existing approaches did not concentrate on both security and scheduling issues in the cloud computing. Scheduling refers to the scheduler adapts its scheduling strategy, according to the changing to a set of morals to control the order of work to be implemented by a computer system. In this research paper, we have implemented a scheduling algorithm of Collocate FCFS (First Come First Server) of Supremacy elements. Here, we improve the system efficiency by using FCFS in a parallel manner. Security and privacy protection is a complex matter in the development and adoption of cloud computing. To address this security issue, we have introduced a novel concept of Crisscross AES (Advance Encryption Standard). In existing method, they have implemented the security remedies using IAES (Improved Advance Encryption Standard), thus produce fewer security measures. But in this approach, Crisscross AES has implemented by increasing the security to the cloud through the grid manner. Aggregate of this proposed work is to enhance the system efficiency as well as the security by using the both Crisscross AES and Collocate FCFS of Supremacy elements.
    Keywords: Virtual machine; Collocate; Computational; Crisscross; Efficiency.

  • Estimation of Complexity by Using an Object Oriented Metrics Approach and Its Proposed Algorithm and Model   Order a copy of this article
    by Neelamadhab Padhy, Suresh Satapathy, Singh RP 
    Abstract: The high pace emergence of software applications and associated technologies have enabled us an efficient and luxurious. This research paper focus the procedure of investigating the different object oriented metrics by taking an example and finally evaluate complexities, statistical measurements. A proposed model, flowchart and algorithm is used for measuring the metrics in the software project. Comparison done between the programming languages like C++ and Python and conclude that Python is better than C++.
    Keywords: Object Oriented Metrics; CK Metrics Suite Object Oriented Programming Examples; Proposed Algorithm and Models.

  • A Novel Boot Strapping Algorithm for Text Extraction in a Self-Organizing Neural Network Model   Order a copy of this article
    by Xiaohong Li, Maolin Li 
    Abstract: With rapid growth in internet and its associated communication protocols, need for printed documents to be carried over from one place to another has been reduced to minimize the cost and time. Research contributions in the past have paved the way for implementation of smart and intelligent algorithms to further minimize manual intervention in processing of documents. One such area is the automation of text extraction from documents with increased accuracy and least number of false detections. A wide range of algorithms and methodologies have been reported in the past towards efficient extraction of text from documents which may be online or offline. This research paper proposes an efficient extraction algorithm of text from given set of documents which may or may not be graphic through utilization of a hybrid SOM ANN algorithm. The experimentation has been done over a wide variety of inputs and convergence of error in extraction is found to be minimum when compared to other conventional extractors.
    Keywords: Extraction algorithms; intelligent extractors; neural networks; SOM; bootstrapping.