International Journal of Low Radiation (5 papers in press)
Studies on cancer mortality and incidents due to the natural background radiation in Poland
by Monika Szołucha, Krzysztof Fornalski
Abstract: The paper presents ecological studies of the cancer mortality and incidents due to the natural background radiation for both women and men groups in all voivodeships in Poland in 2012. The potential correlation between local annual effective dose rates from natural sources and cancer mortality ratio (CMR), cancer incidents ratio (CIR) and relative risk (RR) are analysed. All results are generally inconsistent and show both increase and decrease of CMRs, CIRs and RRs. However, the presented contradiction in trends of mortalities and incidents is statistically non-significant. Additionally, the data were adjusted to six confounding factors: people aged 70 or older, number of regular daily smokers, etc. Based on these results, there is no regular trend observed for cancers related to natural background radiation in Poland, thus the popular linear no-threshold (LNT) hypothesis is not an accurate description of cancer risk prediction related to natural backround radiation.
Keywords: natural background radiation; cancer mortality; lung cancer; cancer mortality ratio; cancer incidents ratio; Poland; Bayesian.
Assessment of excess-lifetime cancer risk and radioactive heat production from waste dumpsites in three cities in southwestern Nigeria
by Ebenezer Faweya, Adesakin Elijah, Akande Taiwo, Olowomofe Olawale, Adewumi Taiwo, Agunbiade Gbenga
Abstract: Radiation exposures at various dumpsites around three cities located in southwestern Nigeria were assessed by gamma ray spectroscopy using a highly shielded Canberra NaI (Tl) detector. Soil samples were collected for analysis at the municipal waste dumpsites and locations that are free from dumpsites to serve as control. The average activity concentrations obtained for 40K were 535
Keywords: excess lifetime cancer risk; gamma radiation; radioactive hazard; radioactive heat production ; soils; waste dumpsites; Nigeria.
Determination of radioactive isotopes and some physiochemical parameters in five rivers in South Ondo State, Nigeria
by Thompson Ediagbonya, Olamide Gbolahan
Abstract: In this study, river samples from five different locations were analysed for the presence of radioactive isotopes, along with some physiochemical parameters. The mean values of the radioactive isotopes in all the locations are: in Igbokoda, K-40 (Bq/L), 7.37; U-238(Bq/L), 0.66; Th-232(Bq/L), 1.19, Ra-226(Bq/L), BDL; Igodan, K-40 (Bq/L), 3.50; U-238(Bq/L), 0.80; Th-232(Bq/L), BDL, Ra-226(Bq/L), BDL; Erinje, K-40 (Bq/L), 10.30; U-238(Bq/L), 0.0.30; Th-232(Bq/L), 1.27, Ra-226(Bq/L), 0.90; Irele, K-40 (Bq/L), 3.50; U-238(Bq/L), 0.14; Th-232(Bq/L), 0.77, Ra-226(Bq/L), BDL; Okitipupa, K-40(Bq/L), 9.63; U-238(Bq/L), 0.74; Th 232(Bq/L), 1.03, Ra-226(Bq/L), BDL. The mean conductivity, pH, TSD, and temperature of the various locations are: Igbokoda, 140
Keywords: radioactivity; nuclei; natural; half-life; hazard.
Partitioning and health risk dose assessment of Polonium-210 in selected brands of cigarettes and types of tobacco consumed in Jordan
by Mohammad Al-Hwaiti, Hanan Saleh, Ma’mon Makhaleh, Mufid Masadeh
Abstract: The carcinogenic effect of polonium (210Po) with respect to lung cancer is an important problem in many countries with very high cigarette consumption. The aim of this study was the determination 210Po in different parts of cigarettes consumed in Jordan, and the determination of 210Po in four most frequently smoked brands (mixed brand cigarettes, cigarette brand (Gold star), tobacco-wrapped paper (Hishi) and tobacco moassel) consumed in Jordan. The analyses were carried out on the unburned tobacco contained in cigarettes, on the ashes and butts of smoked cigarettes, and on the mainstream smoke. 210Po in tobacco displays concentrations ranging from 4 to 29 mBq g−1, depending on the cigarette brand. The 210Po activity remaining in the ash residue of a smoked cigarette varied from 1.2 to 4.5 mBq/cigarette, and the 210Po in the post-smoking filter varied from 0.6 to 1.2 mBq/cigarette. The maximum efficiency of cigarettes filters to reduce the smoke content of polonium is 5% of the 210Po contained in the branded cigarettes. The average percentages of 210Po content in mixed brand cigarettes, cigarette brand (Gold star), tobacco Hishi and tobacco moassel that were recovered by post-smoking filters, ash and smoke were 8.70%, 8.32%, 22.51% and 28.92%, respectively. Smokers who are smoking cigarettes (mixed and Gold star) and tobacco (Hishi and moassel) per day, are inhaling on average from 127 to 157 mBq/d and from 108 to 156 mBq/d, respectively, of 210Po and 210Pb each. The average committed effective doses (annual effective doses) were calculated on the basis of 210Po and 210Pb intake with the cigarette smoke and tobacco smoke. the average committed effective doses due to 210Po and 210Pb intake by smoking one pack of cigarettes per day, during one year were 317 (0.37 mSv) and 480 (0.48 mSv), 257 (0.26 mSv) and 389 (0.39 mSv), 315 (0.32 mSv) and 469 (0.47 mSv), and 220 (0.22 mSv) and 332 (0.33 mSv), respectively.
Keywords: polonium-210; cigarette smoking; tobacco smoking; dose assessment; distribution; Jordan.
Evaluation of basic radiographic services at government hospitals in Gaza Governorates, Palestine.
by Yasser Alajerami, Suleiman Maher, Abushab Khaled, Najim Ahmed
Abstract: The complex situation of the current health services exists to shift the system in significant ways to improve on this situation. The radiographic services need more efforts for building capacity. This study is conducted to evaluate radiographic services at government hospitals in Gaza Governorates. A triangulated study design was used for data collection. In the quantitative part, 170 radiological technologists completed questionnaires with 95.5% response rate. The researcher used arbitrated checklist to evaluate medical imaging facilities. The census study was conducted on all radiological technologists and medical imaging departments at the six main government hospitals in the Gaza Strip. In addition, three key informant interviews with radiological technologists manager were conducted. The researcher directly interviewed 170 participants. Findings revealed that there were shortages in the amount of radiographic equipment and the number of radiological technologists. Statistically significant relations were found between the number of exams and patient waiting times in conventional radiography (p=0.000). Generally, radiographic departments that followed the standard structure were 45%. Regarding fluoroscopic rooms, 79% followed the standard. The majority of existing darkrooms fulfilled the international standard. An improvement in human resources among medical imaging facilities was clearly observed after 1996. An shortage was observed in the number of radiographic machines and radiological technologists at all government hospitals. All departments revealed clear defects in structure, design and essential supplies. Critical readings were observed with respect to insufficient radiation protection tools and holding of thermoluminescence dosimeters.
Keywords: radiographer; Gaza; triangulated study; darkrooms.