Forthcoming articles


International Journal of Internet of Things and Cyber-Assurance


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International Journal of Internet of Things and Cyber-Assurance (11 papers in press)


Regular Issues


  • Workload Aware Incremental Repartitioning of NoSQL for OLTP applications   Order a copy of this article
    by Anagha Bhunje, Swati Ahirrao 
    Abstract: With the increasing popularity of internet, many applications are deployed on the web. The applications include, banking applications, gaming applications, e-commerce web applications. Different applications reply on OLTP (Online Transaction Processing) systems. OLTP systems need to be scalable and require fast response. Today modern web applications are generating huge amount of the data. One particular machine cannot handle such huge amount of the data. Relational databases are not able to handle such data.The E-Commerce applications are facing the challenge of improving the scalability of the system. Data partitioning technique is used to improve the scalability of the system. The data is distributed among the different machines. It results in expensive growth in the number of transactions. The work-load aware incremental repartitioning approach is used to balance the load among the partitions and to reduce the number of transactions that are distributed in nature. Hyper graph representation technique is used to represent the entire transactional workload in graph form. In this technique, frequently used items are collected together and group them by using Fuzzy C-means clustering algorithm. Tuple classification and migration algorithm is used for mapping clusters to partitions and after that tuples are migrated efficiently.
    Keywords: OLTP (Online Transaction Processing); Distributed transactions; NoSQL (Not Only Structured Query Language); Incremental repartitioning; Hyper graph; Scalability; Fuzzy C-Means clustering algorithm.rnrn.

  • Semantically enabling IoT trust to ensure and secure deployment of IoT entities   Order a copy of this article
    by Konstantinos Kotis, Iraklis Athanasakis, George A. Vouros 
    Abstract: Semantics for the IoT domain have been already introduced for the (semi-)automated deployment of heterogeneous entities. Depending on the level of interoperability and the ability of dynamic expansion of the IoT environment, an application may have to 'decide' (and then select) which devices in that environment are trustworthy for ensuring and securing effective deployment. In the open and distributed IoT, where a large number of heterogeneous entities will be registered, the need to ensure and secure their selection and deployment tasks is highly important. In this paper, an effective modelling approach towards supporting the selection and deployment of IoT entities is presented, based on the notion of trust semantics. Using fuzzy ontologies as an enabler of trust semantics in IoT, this work demonstrates that such semantics, when seamlessly integrated in IoT ontologies, serve as a secure selection key to an IoT application (or service) for selecting, among the available entities, the one(s) that the application should trust for its effective deployment in the specific environment/context.
    Keywords: IoT trust; semantic interoperability; trust semantics; fuzzy semantics; IoT entities deployment; trust ontology; fuzzy ontology; trust interoperability; IoT entities matchmaking; IoT entities selection.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJITCA.2018.10011243
  • Main factors and good practices for managing BYOD and IoT risks in a K-12 environment   Order a copy of this article
    by Oluwaseun Akeju, Sergey Butakov, Shaun Aghili 
    Abstract: The presented research looks into information security and privacy risk related to using mobile and embedded devices for learning in the K-12 environment. Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) program and Internet of Things (IoT) for learning are the two focus areas discussed in this paper. The NIST privacy risk management framework (NIST-8062) template was used to illustrate the privacy impact factors K-12 ecosystem participants should consider while developing BYOD/IoT programs. The key factors involved in the decisions include reputation costs, direct business costs and non-compliance costs. Key security issues and risks such as network access, server and end-user device malware, application risks, and privacy risks were identified. The analysis of the risks suggested to recommend some good practices derived from various documents suggested by ISACA, IIA, SANS, and NIST. The proposed good practices were subsequently incorporated into BYOD guide for the K-12 system in two Canadian provinces (Alberta and Manitoba) in an attempt to increase its effectiveness in terms of addressing relevant risks. Although the good practices compiled in this research are proposed to be incorporated into the Alberta and Manitoba's BYOD guide for K-12 schools, the same process is applicable to any similar K-12 environment.
    Keywords: bring your own device; BYOD; internet of things; IoT; information security; risk assessment; information privacy; K-12; good practices.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJITCA.2018.10011245
  • Internet of things: a survey of challenges and issues   Order a copy of this article
    by Qusay Idrees Sarhan 
    Abstract: Internet of things (IoT) is the promising and future internet. The IoT is a network of connected sensors, actuators, and everyday objects that are used in various domains, such as healthcare, airports, and military. As it connects everything around us to the internet, the IoT poses a number of severe challenges and issues as compared to the conventional internet. Currently, there are massive studies on the IoT, these studies mostly cover IoT vision, enabling technologies, applications, or services. So far, a limited number of surveys point out comprehensively the challenges and issues of the IoT which considered unique to this future internet and which must be faced and tackled by different research communities. In this paper, well-known IoT challenges and issues (e.g., reliable cooperation, standards, protocols, operational, data, and software) have been surveyed alongside many directions. Furthermore, the paper also raises awareness of work being achieved across a number of research communities to help whoever decided to approach this hot discipline in order to contribute to its development.
    Keywords: internet of things; IoT; wireless sensor; actuator networks; smart objects; smart environments; IoT applications; IoT services; research challenges; survey.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJITCA.2018.10011246
  • Towards trusted mobile payment services: a security analysis on Apple Pay   Order a copy of this article
    by Ashay S. Jawale, Joon S. Park 
    Abstract: Today, many stores and users adopt mobile payment services due to the various benefits that the technology can provide. Users can make transactions with their mobile devices such as smart phones instead of physically handing over cash or swiping credit cards. Stores can implement the payment service in a relatively simple and inexpensive way. For both users and stores, the technology increases speed of the check-out process thus reducing the waiting time. The time savings may give more profits to stores. Although the new mobile payment service can provide users and stores with various benefits, it also introduces new security concerns and vulnerabilities. In this paper, we analyse the security features in Apple Pay and discuss possible ways to make it more reliable. Furthermore, once we delve into security vulnerabilities in Apple Pay, we propose the possible solutions along with their implementation to overcome the security concerns in the service.
    Keywords: Apple Pay; mobile payment; secure transaction.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJITCA.2018.10011254
  • A study of security and privacy issues associated with the Amazon Echo   Order a copy of this article
    by Catherine Jackson, Angela Orebaugh 
    Abstract: More than 11 million US consumers have an Amazon Echo installed in their homes (Gonzales, 2017). While many consumers view the Amazon Echo as a useful helper in the home to provide information, play music, and order items online, consumers underestimate the device's security and privacy impacts. Additionally, law enforcement officials are beginning to see how consumer internet of things (IoT) devices can provide crucial evidence in cases. This paper presents security and privacy issues with the Amazon Echo and recent cases in which law enforcement officials have employed the Amazon Echo in an investigation. Due to the Amazon Echo's privacy issues and potential uses in court, this paper analyses the fourth amendment in regard to the Amazon Echo. This paper concludes with suggested recommendations that Amazon Echo owners should employ for greater security and privacy.
    Keywords: smart speaker; intelligent personal assistant; virtual assistant; Amazon Echo; Alexa; information security; privacy; law enforcement; internet of things; IoT.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJITCA.2018.10011257

Special Issue on: Machine Learning and the Internet of Things

  • Employing an Efficient Tamper Detection Mechanism for IoT-based Healthcare Systems   Order a copy of this article
    by Ahmed Elngar 
    Abstract: Security of large scale networks of Internet of Things (IoT) is the most significant challenge that needs a smarter security mechanism. Therefore, a tamper detection (TD) is an efficient security mechanism for IoT-based healthcare system, which used to deal with security violations. Since there are many security threats affect the originality of medical information. In this paper, a new tamper detection mechanism for IoT-based Healthcare Systems called (IOT-TD) model has been proposed. This paper effectively proposed (ANN-GA) tamper detection mechanism. Where, Genetic Algorithm(GA) is used to optimize weight and bias values of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), which lead to maximize the detection accuracy, minimize the timing detection speed and the efficiency energy saving of IoT-network modules. The experimental results showed that the tamper detection performance of (ANN-GA) is 98.51%. In addition, the proposed model showed that the (ANN-GA) enhances the timing detection to 0.03 sec which is important for real time (IOT-TD) model healthcare system and the efficiency energy saving transmission is 1980 times better than full transmission. Also, the proposed model relies on the certificate-based Datagram Transport Layer Security (DT LS) handshake protocol as it is the main security for (IoT - TD) model.
    Keywords: Internet of Things; Tamper Detection; Healthcare systems; Artificial Neural Network; Genetic Algorithm.

  • Dictionary based intra prediction framework for image compression via sparse representation   Order a copy of this article
    by Arabinda Sahoo, Pranati Das 
    Abstract: Nowadays, image compression is very important for efficient data storage and transmission. This paper presents a dictionary based intra prediction framework for image compression using sparse representation, with the construction of trained over-complete dictionaries. The intra-prediction residuals selected from different images and K-SVD algorithm are used to train over-complete dictionaries. The trained dictionaries are integrated into the intra-prediction framework for efficient image compression. In this proposed method, first intra-prediction is applied over an image and then prediction residuals of the image are encoded using sparse representation. Sparse approximation algorithm and trained dictionaries are employed for encoding of prediction residuals of the image. The coefficients obtained from sparse representation are used for encoding. For efficient sparse representation with fewer dictionary coefficients, an adaptive sparse image partitioning method is introduced. Simulation result demonstrates that the proposed image compression method yields improved encoding efficiency as compared to existing schemes.
    Keywords: Image compression; Intra prediction; Dictionary learning; Sparse representation; K-SVD.

  • Design and Study of Dual Band Slotted Patch Radiator Using Bio-Inspired Optimization Approach for Wireless Communication   Order a copy of this article
    by Swarnaprava Sahoo, Mihir Narayan Mohanty 
    Abstract: A new dual band slotted patch radiator is proposed for Wi- MAX and satellite applications purpose. The two wide appropriate rectangular slots in opposite faces of the non- radiating edge of the patch and an I- shaped slot in between the two wide slots are embedded in the radiating element for good impedance matching. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Firefly Algorithm (FA) are used for optimum dual band performance. The optimization achieves dual band at 3.5 GHz and 4.3 GHz respectively ranging from 3.4371 to 3.5780 GHz of bandwidth 140.9 MHz and from 4.2311 to 4.3622 GHz of bandwidth 132.1 MHz along with VSWR < 2. The proposed antenna is capable of covering Wi-MAX and C-band, S-band satellite applications. The optimized proposed radiator is demonstrated, fabricated and experimentally verified. The simulated and experimental results give good agreement. The maximum gain of 2.4 dBi has also been observed.
    Keywords: Dual band; particle swarm optimization; firefly algorithm optimization; slotted patch; Wi-MAX.

  • Use of Adaptive Algorithm for Impulsive Noise Cancellation   Order a copy of this article
    by Sarthak Panda, Mihir Narayan Mohanty 
    Abstract: Desire of clean signal at user end is a great demand. Adaptive algorithms are most suitable for such task. In this paper authors have taken an attempt for synthetic signal contaminated with impulsive noise. Further its application has been extended to noisy biomedical signal as ECG. It is very important to separate from the signal, as its occurrence is sudden and often similar to the signal. The popular adaptive algorithms have been used for cancellation of impulsive noise. Again most used Wilcoxon LMS is verified for impulsive noise case. Finally WLMS algorithm has been modified for the same purpose. The result found excellent in terms of less MSE, SNR improvement and faster convergence.
    Keywords: Impulsive noise; ECG; Adaptive Algorithm; LMS; NLMS; WLMS; MA-WLMS.

Special Issue on: HICSS-51 Extending the Cloud Frameworks and Architectures for Edge Computing and Fog Networks from a Cyber-Assurance Perspective

  • An Architecture for HESTIA: High-level and Extensible System for Training and Infrastructure risk Assessment   Order a copy of this article
    by Ananth A. Jillepalli, Daniel Conte De Leon, Yacine Chakhchoukh, Mohammad Ashrafuzzaman, Brian K. Johnson, Frederick T. Sheldon, Jim Alves-Foss, Predrag T. Tosic, Michael A. Haney 
    Abstract: Currently, cyber-attacks on {\textit{Cyber-Physical Control Systems}} (CPCS) are difficult to prevent given the characteristics and vulnerabilities of today's critical infrastructures. Effective vulnerability identification and risk assessment in CPCS can be challenging without a high-level and complete model of the system. Furthermore, knowing the system is not enough, knowledge of possible attacks and applicable defenses is also needed. Hence, what is necessary is a complete, rigorous, and consistent process that can subject a CPCS' model to possible attack or defense scenarios. In this article, we present the architecture of HESTIA: High-level and Extensible System for Training and Infrastructure risk Assessment. HESTIA is a modeling and risk assessment process and tool-set. HESTIA can assist in formulating the best infrastructure hardening strategy for a given CPCS. We also describe the non-trivial design and implementation hurdles involved in the development of HESTIA and strategies for addressing these hurdles. Once fully developed, HESTIA will be able to: 1) check an existing CPCS infrastructure's specification for completeness and consistency, 2) identify the types of attacks or defenses, from a pre-defined library, which can be applied on that CPCS infrastructure, and 3) enable the guided execution of attack-defense scenarios for training and infrastructure risk assessment. HESTIA's implementation leverages previous work on high granularity system specification and configuration.
    Keywords: Cyber Physical Control System Security; Specification-based Security; System Hardening; Security Policy Specification; Critical Infrastructure; Consistency; Applicability.