International Journal of Innovation and Sustainable Development (36 papers in press)
Technological Parks in the State of Paran
by Paulo Yamamoto, Aparecido Coutinho
Abstract: In the Brazilian case, innovation, entrepreneurship and technological development are relevant and should be balanced through social effort and mobilization. Governments, universities and businesses have made many efforts to encourage innovation in Brazil. The number of incubators and technology parks has experienced significant growth, more than doubling in the first decade of the millennium. The State of Paran
Keywords: technology parks; sustainability; innovation; development; Paraná State; Brazil.
Sustainable supply chains, corporate constitutionalisation and human rights: a multiple case study on the 10 biggest companies in Brazil
by João Amato-Neto, Lucas Fucci Amato
Abstract: This paper aims at discussing, in the light of a transdisciplinary bibliographic review and a multiple case study, the possibilities and practices related to corporate human rights obligations, in the systemic approach of sustainable supply chains and subcontracting networks. International and national legal obligations are focused, besides the institutional and procedural structures designed in self-regulation. As an illustration, guidelines and codes of the 10 biggest companies operating in Brazil are analyzed concerning the statement of values, duties of suppliers, duties concerning human rights, mechanisms, institutions and procedures of due diligence, accountability and enforcement. The conclusion points out that the mechanisms of corporate responsibility concerning human rights are, in general, poor in relation to the provisions of rights and also insufficient in the procedures and structures for implementing and monitoring the compliance through the entire supply chain.
Keywords: sustainable supply chains; human rights; corporate social responsibility.
Dynamics of Technological Change: Nuclear Energy and Electric Vehicles in France
by Abdelkrim Doufene, Afreen Siddiqi, Olivier De Weck
Abstract: Technological change is shaped by a confluence of processes that are governed by socio-political, economic, and regulatory factors within a region. In this paper, the authors present a theoretical framework to describe the dynamics of technology change. Based on a qualitative modeling approach, the authors employ concepts from literature on innovation, technology adoption, and technological change, and map reinforcing and retarding cycles of processes of innovation. The way these processes (or functions) are interconnected and combined hinders or enables the overall success of technology diffusion and shapes the long-term outcome for the new technology. The authors develop the framework with examples of energy systems in UK and UAE, and apply the model to examine two cases of nuclear power and electric vehicles in France. They highlight the role as well as limits of policy in initiating and sustaining reinforcing cycles for new technology diffusion and can provide a basis for forming expectations about emerging technologies.
Keywords: functions of innovation; technological change; energy-transportation nexus; nuclear energy; electric vehicles; sustainable development; lock-in; technology policy.
Faculty motivation as a key for integrating sustainable development in Higher Education curricula
by Taiga Brahm, Patrizia Kühner
Abstract: The systematic integration of sustainable development into Higher Education curricula remains a challenge for many universities. Among other barriers, faculty motivation to include sustainable development into their courses seems to be crucial. At the same time, empirical research regarding faculty motivation in the context of sustainable development is missing. Based on the motivational systems theory, this paper aims to provide a literature review on faculty motivation and to empirically investigate facultys motivation through opinions of 20 workshop participants and interviews with six faculty members. Results include facultys motivators as well as obstacles to integrate sustainable development into their curricula. The research contributes to the theory of integrating sustainable development into Higher Education. From a practical viewpoint, it also provides insights into possible support measures for faculty.
Keywords: sustainable development; faculty; motivation; faculty development; higher education; university.
Impact of Social Supply Chain Practices on Social Sustainability Performance in Manufacturing Firms
by Usama Awan
Abstract: The aim of the study is to focus on safety practices, environmental cooperation practices, and green manufacturing to identify a set of key practices that drive social sustainability performance in manufacturing firms. It also investigates the moderation role of internal environmental investment on the relationship between social supply chain management practices and social sustainability performance. Using a sample of 272 manufacturing firms, empirically test the proposed conceptual model. The results provided, support that the social sustainability performance at firm level is dependent on the broader practices of social supply chain, most importantly on safety practices and green manufacturing practices. The discoveries give important bits of knowledge to the specialists, academicians and arrangement creators; firm can utilize these practices to oversee and enhance the social manageability execution.
Keywords: sustainability practices; sustainable supply chain management; safety practices; sustainable manufacturing; social sustainability performance.
Innovations for sustainability: Challenges in utilizing sustainability-related knowledge
by Nina Tura, Ville Ojanen, Jyri Hanski
Abstract: The demands for more sustainable development are increasing, and solving complex sustainability challenges is acknowledged to require innovations that take environmental, social and economic perspectives into consideration. The development of innovations for sustainability requires the utilization of sustainability knowledge, i.e. creating market value by combining pieces of environmental, organizational and social information. In this study, we address the reasons why sustainability knowledge is not exploited more broadly and set focus on the challenges in the utilization of sustainability knowledge. The empirical data for the study was collected in an interdisciplinary expert workshop and by conducting semi-structural interviews in four Finnish companies. The study reveals challenges in the utilization of sustainability knowledge at all stages of knowledge management. We also analyze the potential of digitalization in enhancing innovations for sustainability and lowering the challenges in the utilization of sustainability knowledge.
Keywords: Innovation; sustainability; sustainable development; sustainability-oriented innovation; sustainability knowledge; knowledge utilization; knowledge process; knowledge management; managerial challenges; digitalization effects.
IT and Green Practices as enablers of Dynamic Capabilities and Patient Satisfaction in healthcare industry
by Samyadip Chakraborty, Rajesh Kalepu
Abstract: The word Green has become very pivotal in todays world where sustainable service delivery has become the most sought after objective. Application of green-practices (GP) and IT-enabled-practices (ITEP) has been becoming increasingly important for many industry sectors and healthcare sector happens to be under scanner as one of the most lucrative sectors to investigate such relationships. Various practitioner and contemporary academic literature suggest that indeed GP and ITEP application are the two major enablers of todays healthcare business towards boosting the overall service-oriented capabilities (the extended components of Dynamic Capabilities) of the patient care service providers which in turn is the key towards achieving better patient satisfaction and also boost hospitals performance. This study carries out an empirical investigation to understand the linkages of the aforesaid relationships using data from two sources. Sample data from hospital-side and patient-side have been collected. The study uses standard statistical techniques including CFA, and SEM to test the hypothesized path linkages.
Keywords: Green Practices; Healthcare; IT- enabled practices; Dynamic capabilities; Patient satisfaction; Service-oriented capabilities; Firm performance.
ECOSYSTEM SERVICES VALUATION BY PIONEERING COMPANIES
by PEDRO FIGARO GATTAS, JOSE GUILHERME FERRAZ D.E. CAMPOS, SIMONE BARAKAT, RENATO J. ORSATO
Abstract: This study aims to identify the reasons for companies to invest in ecosystem services valuation (ESV). ESV is a voluntary environmental initiative (VEI) that intends to strengthen ecosystem services management, assess ecological sustainability of human activities, and rate and dissociate environmental and economic conditions. We identified 70 companies of 17 sectors and 18 countries currently undertaking ESV work, and classified their work according to levels of development. Additionally, we conducted interviews to better understand the reasons for such proactive behavior. Among other findings, we discovered that pioneer companies tend to establish institutional partnerships to access to knowledge about ESV.
Keywords: ecosystem services management; ecosystem services valuation; voluntary environmental initiatives; environmental management tool.
Elaboration of a socio-environmental vulnerability map as a tool to evaluate the sustainability of small hydroelectric power stations in Brazil
by Roxane Mello, Silvio Simões
Abstract: It is understood that the generation of hydroelectric energy through small-scale power stations is sustainable. However, to check this sustainability it is necessary to measure the socio-environmental vulnerability in the undertaking area. The main objective of this article was to analyze the socio-environmental vulnerability area due the influence of a small hypothetical generating power station in the water. The study methodology used analysis based on the continuous classification and the paired comparison technique Analytical Hierarchy Process, to obtain the Socio-Environmental Vulnerability Index Map. It was concluded that there are strong coincidences between the susceptible spaces to the physical processes of the environmental vulnerability and the places that present the worst social indicators, which are mistreated by an anthropic factor, the land use. The results express the starting point for further analysis of the socio-environmental vulnerability influences in areas of small power generating stations.
Keywords: Small Hydroelectric Stations; Vulnerability; Sustainability.
A Comparison of Proactive and Reactive Environmental Strategies in Green Product Innovation
by Anthony Di Benedetto, Ebru Genc
Abstract: Companies are exposed to different pressures to respond to environmental sustainability issues. It is critical to understand how firms integrate environmental issues into their corporate agendas and how these integration strategies affect corporate performance. This paper investigates factors that motivate firms to adopt environmental marketing strategies and their relative impact on sustainable new product development performance. A conceptual framework is developed and tested that portrays the antecedents and consequences of environmental marketing strategy. The results show that developing environmental strategies that exceed regulations (proactive strategies) leads to better new product performance than those that only adhere to regulations (reactive strategies). We also find that commitment from top management becomes critical only for proactive strategies, not for reactive strategies. Finally, we show that environmental marketing strategies lead to new product advantage and, ultimately, improved sustainable new product performance.
Keywords: sustainability; innovation; proactive environmental strategy; reactive environmental strategy; new product development; sustainable new product development; environmental issues; new product performance.
Urban sustainability and Gross National Happiness: a review of community well-being domains and dimensions
by Haruna D. Musa, Mohd Rusli Yacob, Ahmad Makmom Abdullah, Mohd Yusoff Ishak
Abstract: The effort in measuring well-being and happiness by plethora of different indicators and frameworks are stepping up globally, despite critics for not being accepted as the national indicator to promote subjective well-being due to the methodological approach and choices of well-being dimensions employed. This variation among different groups in society having different perceptions on community well-being measurement have made the traditional measurement tool loses validity. This study, therefore, reviews current research on community well-being measurement to justify the inclusion of different sustainability metrics required to optimize community well-being outcomes for national happiness and urban sustainability. The review is primarily based on peer-reviewed journal papers, as well as books, and documents published by international organizations. Forty-four (44) scientific articles were identified, out of a total of 300 research studies drawn from the electronic data search from the world of science focusing on seven key dimensions: economic, social, environment, governance, politics, culture, and health aspects. The finding shows that social dimension remains the most studied on community well-being research, followed by economy, environment, health, and governance, and subsequently leaving the dimension of culture with the less attention. Also, the findings distinguished objective and subjective well-being indicator approach used in the studies context. However, the objective approach is most widely used across the dimensions in the studies while the subjective domain is less studied. This finding suggests that a multidisciplinary conceptual framework towards a holistic view is desirable to allow for a more theory-based tool to evaluate multidimensional issues of urban environment and community well-being at all levels.
Keywords: Community assessment; urban dimensions; Subjective Well-Being; sustainable development.
Cost Reduction and Productivity Improvement through HRIS
by Halima Begum, Faruk Bhuiyan, A. S. A. Ferdous Alam, Abd Hair Awang, Muhammad Mehedi Masud, Rulia Akhtar
Abstract: Employee productivity improvement and HR cost reduction are two useful options for a cost leader. This study aims to examine the association between human resource information systems (HRIS), employee productivity, and HR costs by focusing on the data of 40 Bangladeshi banks. The impact of one standard deviation variation of HRIS application on employee productivity and HR costs is then calculated using multiple regression analysis. The multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) is then tested to examine the variation of employee productivity and HR costs according to bank ownership patterns. Results indicate that the use of HRIS applications generated a higher efficiency in terms of employee productivity and the reduction of HR costs (where all things remain constant). It was also observed that employee productivity does not vary according to bank ownership patterns though state-owned banks and private-owned banks experience different HR costs.
Keywords: HRIS; HR costs; Employee productivity; Banking Industry; Bangladesh.
The Emergence and Devolution of Sustainable Organizations
by Lee Swanson, Vince Bruno-Bossio
Abstract: In this article we examine the pre- and post-sustainable positions from which sustainable organizations emerge and to which they devolve while addressing the factors that affect the patterns of emergence and devolution. Drawing from existing definitions of sustainable enterprises, we describe three categories of sustainable organizations and conceptualize how enterprises enter and leave these sustainable positions. This work builds upon existing concepts of sustainable enterprise that mainly take a prescriptive approach toward managing transitions toward varying concepts of organizational sustainability. Our work fills a research gap by examining what the conditions of pre- and post-sustainability can mean for enterprises.
Keywords: emergence; entrepreneurship; social enterprise; sustainability.
Corporate sustainability: A focus on entrepreneurship, collaboration and regulation in the South African healthcare industry
by Boris Urban
Abstract: The global business landscape is characterised by uncertainty that has compelled firms to look beyond traditional models of management, which are under scrutiny in terms of sustainability. Researchers have advocated entrepreneurship as a means for firms to transform themselves into flexible, more responsive units that provide enhanced services through ongoing innovation. The context and survey population for this study is the South African healthcare sector. Hypotheses are formulated to show how different variables operate through different pathways to increase overall sustainable corporate entrepreneurship activity. Instruments are first subject to validity and reliability testing, and hypotheses are tested statistically using correlational analysis, path analysis and multiple regression analysis. Results support a positive relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and sustainable corporate entrepreneurship in terms of increased internal corporate venturing, strategic entrepreneurship, and competitive capability. Moreover, the results indicate this relationship is influenced by alliances and moderated by strategic regulatory factors.
Keywords: Corporate sustainability; Corporate entrepreneurship; Entrepreneurial orientation; Regulations; Collaborations; Innovation; South Africa.
Agricultural sustainability under emerging climatic variability: The role of climate-smart agriculture and relevant policies in India
by Jeetendra Prakash Aryal, Tek B. Sapkota, Dil Bahadur Rahut, M.L. Jat
Abstract: Global demand for agricultural products continues to grow while production resources are diminishing. Increasing climatic variability poses further challenges. Therefore, ensuring agricultural sustainability necessitates a transformation of the production system to make it more productive, input efficient and to lower the environmental footprint. Such a transformation cannot happen without system-wide actions and considerable changes in national and local governance, policies, and institutions. On this pretext, we examined if existing climate-smart agriculture (CSA) can enhance adaptation to and mitigation of climate change and overall food security in India. Also, we proposed how to mainstream CSA into development planning through the concept of climate-smart villages (CSVs). We documented the evidence on the benefit of various CSAs in terms of production, climate change adaptation, and mitigation based on the on-farm action research in the CSVs of India. Our results show that CSA can substantially contribute towards climate change adaptation, mitigation, and food security. Mainstreaming CSA practices into development planning through CSVs would create mutual benefits by generating an evidence base on CSAs at the local level, thereby contributing to the design of local adaptation plans of action (LAPA) and further feed information into state and national action plans on climate change. Thus, strengthening collaboration between agricultural science and development policies helps achieve agricultural sustainability under emerging climatic variability.
Keywords: : Climate-smart agriculture; climate-smart village; climate change; local adaptation plans; India.
Environmental impact and sustainability assessment associated with solid waste management in Patras, Greece: A useful guide for medium-sized cities
by Dionisios Galanis, Foteini Konstandakopoulou
Abstract: Due to the lack of appropriate policies in the last decades, Greece has delayed to adopt integrated practices of solid waste management. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management has been recognized as one of the most urgent problems in Greece which was compelled by European Engagements to follow an efficient strategy. An integrated methodology for the MSW management of the Municipality of Patras, the third largest city in Greece, which involves the construction of a combustion unit, is developed and analyzed. This study is proposed as a useful guide for the waste management of the MSW in medium-sized cities which face similar waste management problems. In order to achieve a successful methodology, the individual stages of the proposed management plan, the energy recovery through the combustion, the average density, moisture, dry weight and elemental analysis of MSW are in-detail presented. Furthermore, the estimated investment and operating cost of the suggested scenario and the implementation of a pilot composting scheme are comprehensively presented in the prism of current trends and the provisions of EU norms. It is concluded that the combination and synergy of various management strategies is compulsory for sustainable development instead of a specific and exclusive application of a MSW management plan.
Keywords: Environmental impact assessment; sustainable development; waste management; energy recovery.
Evaluating ESG disclosures of Islamic Banks: Evidence from the Organization of Islamic Cooperation Members
by Amina Buallay
Abstract: This study considers the level of Environment Social and Governance (ESG) disclosures in the Islamic banks listed on the Organization of Islamic Cooperation Members stock Exchange and investigates the relationship between ESG disclosures and banks financial, operational and market performance. We examine 59 banks for 10 years (2007-2016), ends up with 561 observations. The independent and dependent variables of the study are Environment, Social and Governance disclosures and Return on Assets (ROA), Return on Equity (ROE) and Tobins Q (TQ) respectively. In addition, the study utilizes bank specific and macroeconomic control variables in order to help measuring the relationship between ESG disclosures and banks performance. The findings of descriptive analysis showed that ESG tends to be higher with banks that have high financial leverage ratio and more assets. Further, the corporate governance disclosure is better in banks located in high Gross Domestic Product (GDP) countries and high public governance countries. In contra, the social and environmental disclosure is better in banks located in low GDP countries and low governance countries. The causality result shows that TQ is greater because of ESG. Although the results of regression found significant positive impact of ESG on the performance, the relationship between these disclosures is vary if measured individually; the environmental disclosure found positively affect the ROA and TQ. Whereas, the corporate social responsibility disclosure is negatively affect the three models. Last but not the least, the corporate governance disclosure found negatively affects the financial and operational performance. However, positively affect the TQ.
Keywords: ESG disclosure; Islamic Banks; Performance; Organization of Islamic Cooperation Members; Sustainability report.
ACHIEVING SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS THROUGH PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP: CRITICAL REVIEW AND PROSPECTS
by Svetlana Maslova
Abstract: SDGs are essential within the paradigm of sustainable development. They not only reflect the ideology of economic, social and environmental priorities in a balanced manner, but also contain specific measures for achieving them. These measures are multiple and diverse. However, not all of them are truly understood so far. This is especially true for PPP, which is the innovative tool of an interaction between governments and business. With regard to research needs, there is clearly a lack of data and critical reviews of PPP as a means of achieving SDGs. The intention behind this study is to test the hypothesis that PPP can be considered as the key means of SDGs implementation. The study reveals that PPP has features that guarantee its real contribution to achieving SDGs. Meanwhile, PPP should not be regarded as the only way to achieve SDGs. The recommendations concerning national strategies and international cooperation to achieve SDGs through PPP are proposed.
Keywords: sustainable development goals; SDGs; innovation means of achieving; public private partnership; PPP; national policy; international cooperation; case-study.
Investigating business model innovation for sustainability: Cases from Thailand
by Janthorn Sinthupundaja, Youji Kohda, Navee Chiadamrong
Abstract: Business model innovation for sustainability is increasingly being recognised as a key to delivering and generating economic, social, and environmental sustainability through a firm's thinking and actions. As empirical exploration has largely focused on developed countries, there is a research gap in how this may provide sustainability within emerging market contexts. We aimed at investigating the key characteristics and mechanisms that were driving business model innovation for sustainability and how these elements contributed to sustainability in emerging markets. Our research was drawn from two case studies in Thailand where data were collected from diverse primary and secondary sources. The findings indicated that social value embeddedness that was in firms value propositions by co-producing it with economic value propositions, collaboration and involvement with non-profit organisations (NPOs) and/or local communities to create shared value, and financial self-sustainability, were important keys to business model innovation to attain sustainability.
Keywords: business model; innovation; business model innovation; sustainability; business model innovation for sustainability; value proposition; value creation; value capture; collaboration approach; case analysis; emerging markets; Thailand.
Applying ISO26000 and the Sufficiency Economy Philosophy to Measure the Sustainability of State Owned Enterprises in Thailand
by Nattawee Chaloemvivatkit, AIM-ORN JAIKENGKIT
Abstract: This study intends to construct a composite index for the government, in order to assess and improve Thai State Owned Enterprises (SOEs)s financial performance, operations, and ethical behaviors; according to the sustainability definition as put forward by Coblentz (2002). The construction of the index follows the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)s approach, and was compiled by surveying existing literature related to ISO 26000, the Sufficiency Economy Philosophy, and the Sustainable Balanced Scorecard. After in-depth and semi-structured interviews with the experts, the data from 55 SOEs during the period 2010 to 2017 were statistically tested. The resulting index was composed of 4 dimensions namely, leadership which focuses on ethics and balanced growth; sustainable strategic management; managing finances with balance and sufficiency; and good governance and the promotion of responsibility and sufficiency within SOEs. The assessment results from this index will benefit the government in terms of the determination of policy and lead to improvements to SOEs sustainability.
Keywords: State-owned Enterprise; Sustainable scorecard measurement; ISO 26000; Sufficiency Economy Philosophy.
Special Issue on: CR-SD Perspectives on the Interface Between Corporate Responsibility and Sustainable Development
Change is Possible: The Effects of a Corporate Social Responsibility Course on Business Student Attitudes
by Dustin Quirk
Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess if fourth year undergraduate business students attitudes towards business ethics and corporate social responsibility changed as a result of taking an elective management course on the topic. Findings suggested that a course on business ethics and corporate social responsibility had significant impact on improving a business students attitudes towards the long term benefits of sound business ethics and corporate social responsibility, the benefits of addressing stakeholders, the understanding of the social license to operate, and the use of social responsibility as a tool to address government regulations. The study also found that initial student attitudes (pre-course) were generally favourable towards business ethics and corporate social responsibility.
Keywords: Business student attitudes; business ethics; corporate social responsibility; stakeholders; social licence to operate.
Developing a framework for sustainable development in extractive industries: a Latin America perspective.
by Philip Walsh, Mauricio Ferro
Abstract: This paper serves to examine the roles and responsibilities of nation States in managing their extractive industries and maintaining the sustainable development of their natural resources. In Latin America there exist areas where the State is weak and communities must rely on extractive industry actors and non-State actors to replace the State in providing the necessary services to allow for the communities to remain sustainable; economically, socially and environmentally. In order to assist extractive sector firms in evaluating their roles under that circumstance we put forward a conceptual framework that provides the principal questions that need to be considered in order to establish the rules of engagement with stakeholders and provides key principles, goals, and standards that inform the actions to be taken to promote sustainable development.
Keywords: Extractive Sector; Latin America; Sustainable Development; Framework of Analysis; Stakeholder Engagement.
Water Quality Protection of the Canada-U.S. Great Lakes: Examining the Emerging State/Non-state Governance Approach
by Madeleine Martin, Kernaghan Webb
Abstract: This article explores the growing contribution of non-state actors (private sector and civil society) in the environmental regulatory governance of the North American Great Lakes and maps the various state and non-state rule-instruments, institutions, processes and actors (governance arrangements), focusing on arrangements in Ontario, Canada. The resultant combination of state and non-state regulatory arrangements in operation, sometimes functioning in a collaborative manner, sometimes in more of an adversarial way, aligns well with Webbs (2005) concept of sustainable governance. The issue of microbeads pollution in the Great Lakes is highlighted as an illustration of how state and non-state actors are variously responding to an environmental issue, and provides evidence of how the norm of water quality protection is increasingly addressed and embedded through both state and non-state mechanisms in the larger social environment.
Keywords: regulation; governance; Great Lakes; sustainable governance; corporate social responsibility; water quality control; sustainability; remediation.
Special Issue on: ICESW2017 Innovative Development Towards Sustainable Technologies
Experimental and Parametric Analysis of a Thermoelectric Refrigerator
by FRANCIS ONOROH, MERCY OGBONNAYA, OBIORA NNAEMEKA EZENWA, EMMANUEL OLUWAFEMI ODUBIYI
Abstract: The adverse effects of refrigerants used in vapour compression refrigeration systems (VCRS) on the environment has made it necessary for alternative ways of cooling for industries, offices and homes to be explored. Thermoelectric refrigeration systems can be used for cooling without the use of refrigerants. In this study, a cascade comprising of 8 thermoelectric modules were used to reduce the temperature of a fourteen litre refrigeration chamber from 28.7oC to 3℃ after 4 hours. Parametric analysis was carried out to evaluate the performance of the refrigerator. At a temperature gradient of 20oC the Coefficient of Performance (C.O.P) was 0.55, while at a temperature gradient of 60oC the C.O.P was 0.25 at 6A. At the designed condition, a C.O.P of 0.34 was obtained. The result of the simulation shows that optimum performance of a thermoelectric refrigerator would be obtained when the temperature gradient between the hot and cold sides of the thermoelectric module is kept to a minimum.
Keywords: coefficient of performance; thermoelectric; modules; temperature; refrigeration chamber.
Special Issue on: CR-SD Perspectives on the Interface Betw
An application of the foundational principles of the second pillar of the United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights to the Ranger mine, in the Northern Territory of Australia
by Jeremy Pearce
Abstract: This paper reviews the foundational principles of the second pillar (the corporate responsibility to respect) of the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights (UNGPs) and applies them to the Ranger mine in the Northern Territory of Australia. It is argued that whilst there is some progress being made and clear acknowledgement and recognition by Rio Tinto that supports the UNGPs, this acknowledgement is yet to translate into meaningful changes on the ground at the Ranger mine. As a result this raises two issues for the UNGPs. Firstly, the efficacy of the UNGPs, as a stand-alone instrument, to deliver increased rights protections for those that need them most. Secondly, commercial realities as opposed to a disregard for human rights, may in some cases explain why companies have not implemented the UNGPs.
Keywords: Human rights; United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights (UNGPs); Mirrar People; Rio Tinto; Responsible Governance.
Special Issue on: CR-SD Perspectives on the Interface Betw...
Obesity: Locating social responsibility in the context of evolving norms
by Louise Manning, Josie Kelly
Abstract: Most countries have experienced a significant increase in the incidence of obesity in their general population over the last twenty years. Indeed, the condition is now so common, commentators conclude that obesity has become normalized and no longer attracts social opprobrium. The prevalence of obesity and related morbidities when the condition is normalized places it beyond the scope of conventional government interventions. In this context, the UK government adopted a multisector approach in England by announcing in 2011 that its policy on obesity would be predicated on the importance of individuals responsibility for their condition, while also facilitating food and drink industry responsibilities to its customers. This paper considers the social trend towards the normalization of obesity as a lens to discuss governments role in supporting businesses to demonstrate and act upon their social responsibilities.
Keywords: Obesity; social norms; corporate norms; food policy; corporate responsibility.
Special Issue on: Technological Innovation for Sustainable Development
Towards sustainable rice processing: A case of Republic of Benin
by Afolabi Biaou Olaye, Paul Adedeji, Barnabe Zokpodo, Jean Moreira
Abstract: Rice, a staple food in the Sub-Saharan Africa is a recipient of the effect of population increase, with higher consumption than production. Being a common food in the Sub-Saharan Africa, the sustainability of its growth and processing contribute immensely to achieving food security in the region. This study addresses the problem by designing, fabricating and evaluating the performance of a locally-made threshing-cleaning machine for rice processing, tested on two common rice species in The Republic of Benin. The machine was tested for speed, fuel and water consumption, and production output at loaded and unloaded conditions. Average fuel and water consumption differs between the two rice species at maximum engine speed. The machine produces 1780.5kg and 1475kg of IR 841 and Orylux 6 rice per hour respectively. The machine has a high fuel and water economy and offers high prospect in achieving food security in the country.
Keywords: Food security; performance evaluation; Republic of Benin; rice; threshing-cleaning machine.
Energy Transition: the nexus between poverty and CO2 emissions in Brazil
by Marcio Giannini Pereira, Neilton Silva, Marcos Freitas
Abstract: The transition to modern sources of energy, especially electricity, contributes not only to alleviate energy poverty, but also to meet the basic needs of the rural population and reduce emissions. Given the complexity of energy choices, the dynamics of the rural population in Brazil is relevant for the evaluation of the effects of regular and safe access to electricity. Few authors have discussed the real (net) contributions of rural electrification on the transition to more modern energy sources and its impacts on CO2 emissions, considering its harmful health effects. As a result, this article aims to investigate the impact of regular and safe access to electricity on the rural population of Brazil, in a transition to more modern sources of energy, as well as to provide a CO2 emission assessment.
Keywords: Energy Transition; Energy Poverty; Rural Electrification; Climate Changes; Brazil;.
A DIALETIC ON INNOVATION AND SUSTAINABILITY
by Ricardo Ruiz Freire, Emmanuel Costa, Jose L. Alves, Cristovao De Souza Brito
Abstract: This article discusses concepts of social and technological innovation in order to analyse their relations and contradictions. After a long period in which innovation was related to social processes, it has been related to technological and economic development in the last century. Social innovation as a concept has acquired a restrictive meaning, being defined by many as actions to combat social exclusions and environmental degradation promoted by technological innovation. This study suggests a concept for innovation and its influence upon environmental sustainability through a bibliographical analysis that demonstrates how innovation processes are techno-socially related. It uses an analytic matrix that allows comparing these concepts to understand how socio-technical innovations promote environmental, social and economic sustainability. In the end, it recommends more studies to determine and measure the innovative sustainable practices of an organization in both the social and technological spheres.
Keywords: Innovation; Social Innovation; Technological innovation; Sustainability; Linear Innovation Model; 3D Printing; Innovation process; Innovation concept; Innovation and Sustainability; Dialetic on Innovation; Innovation for organisations.
Waste Water Treatment Plant Energy Conversion Technologies Comparison
by Luciano Oliveira, Andre Bufoni, Luiz Pedroso, Wagner Victer
Abstract: Since 2006, Rio de Janeiro State Water and Sewage Company choose the Alegria Treatment Plant, part of the city sewage system, to serve as a pilot plant for wastewater energy recovery technologies (energy park). This work aims to present the case of the Alegria Sewage Treatment Plant Therefore, this work presents the current design, development and operation data of conversion technologies like (1) anaerobic digestors, (2) esterification and (3) pyrolysis plants, its products quality as (a) biogas, (b) biodiesel, (c) bio-oil and (d) bio-coal, as well as the performance of the 75kWh electricity production system with (w) biogas and (x) dual fuel reciprocating engines and a (y) 10kW boiler with steam turbine for back up. For the first time in Brazil, the (z) CNG from a sewage plant was certified for vehicle use. The results indicate a great potential for additional income, landfilling costs, and GHG emissions reductions. Moreover, reduces fossil fuels importation and electrical system transmission losses. Production scale business plan is still in progress
Keywords: sewage; wastewater; AD; esterification; pyrolysis; biogas; biodiesel; bio-oil; dual fuel; sustainable energy.
Leveraging New Product Innovation through R&D Practices in Engineering Manufacturing Sector: A Study in Indian Context
by Sudeshna Roy, Pranab K. Dan, Nipu Modak
Abstract: This article presents a framework for scrutinizing the interrelationship and impact of constituents or factors of Research & Development (R&D) Practices on new product innovation (PI) success, besides identifying those. Such cited factors, deemed to be critical, are R&D investment, technology, learning, intellectual capital as well as the fuzzy front end (FFE) activities followed by improvisation for innovation. Product innovation has grown into a compelling strategy of manufacturing industries for confronting volatility and rapid changes of market due to globalization. The aforementioned practices lead to the technological developments of the firm resulting in PI success. An interrelationship framework considering factors of R&D practices and technological improvement is developed, in this work, using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) approach. This empirical study is based on the responses of 263 domain experts across Indian manufacturing industries. The magnitude of the interrelationship, investigated utilizing the above modeling, indicates that technology, learning and intellectual capital directly influence R&D effort, comprised of R&D infrastructure and investment, which in turn escalates PI. There are also two other constituents, namely FFE activities and improvisation for innovation, forming part of development process, promotes PI success as well.
Keywords: Product innovation (PI); research & development (R&D); technological developments; structural equation modelling (SEM).
Organizational Readiness Evaluation on Sustainable IT Management in the Brazilian Context
by Humberto Thiengo, Elaine Tavares, Gustavo Nobre
Abstract: The present research focused on evaluating the sustainable management of Information Technology (IT) resources in Brazilian organizations. First, we understood the theoretical context of sustainable IT and investigated the current research initiatives together with existing assessment models. A quantitative survey was conducted among 48 medium and large size Brazilian organizations based on the most appropriated model identified using the theoretical instrument based on the g-readiness model. The responses were then analyzed using the five-dimension sustainable IT readiness index with the use of confirmatory factorial analysis, structural equations (partial least squares), and bootstrapping techniques supported by SmartPLS software, among other methods. Data analysis showed a high potential for improvements in sustainable IT management by these organizations with little variation among sectors. Furthermore, the results are in line with those obtained in similar research in the international context, and they were also segmented by the economic activity sectors (primary, secondary, and tertiary).
Keywords: Green IT; Sustainable IT Readiness; Sustainable IT Management; G-readiness; PLS; HTMT.
NOOSPHERIC THINKING AND PROBLEMS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF TERRITORIES
by Sergey Turkov
Abstract: From the standpoint of the "geosystemic" approach, the theory of the "noosphere" by P.T. de Chardin, E. Le Roy, V.I. Vernadsky, "the general theory of systems" by L. Bertalanffy, the new theory of entropy by A.N. Panchenkov, cybernetics and game theory ("Game against Nature"), the paper considers the scientific problems of sustainable development of territories (the global, regional and local levels of government). The goal and the main practical direction of using the research results is the development of "man-machine" systems for planning (supporting) the adoption of optimal management decisions in the implementation of the "Concepts of Sustainable Development" (CSD in the UN abbreviation) as the official doctrine of the development of Russia (1996). Other scientific areas are the "geoecological" aspects of this concept, the problems of the systemic interpretation of modern "noospheric" thinking and ecological consciousness, theory of control of the "nature-society" class of systems.
The basis of the research methodology is: "transition" from the "mechanistic" ("object-oriented" approach) to the "noospheric" ("normative" approach) thinking and the modern paradigm for the development of fundamental science (late XX century; or the transition from the differentiation process of natural scientific knowledge about the world around us to its full integration); the need for simultaneous development of the "globalization" process of the Nature and Society world governance, and the preservation of the "individualization" of the world order. The object of the research is Active Complex Systems of the "nature-society" class. The subject of research is the concepts of "equilibrium" and "sustainable development". The methods of research include game-theoretic modeling, "Game against nature", coalition and cooperative games, etc. A new "geosystem" approach to the study of sustainable development problems is proposed, which includes the possibilities of both external ("technogenic") and internal (or "soft", i.e. supporting and restoring environmental balance) management. For this purpose, it is recommended to use the well-known principle of "heterorarchy" (Capra, F., 1991), as well as modern GIS, GRID, AI and "Blockchain" technologies for local, regional and global levels of environmental management. In modeling, this will ensure the implementation of complex ("nature-friendly") technologies for situational and strategic management for all levels of the planet organization.
Keywords: noosphere; thinking; ecology; consciousness; game theory.
A framework proposal for sustainability management in wine industry
by Shana Flores, Rosa Medeiros
Abstract: The framework proposed intends to support the internalization of sustainability principles in the wine industry, enhancing sustainability management. The framework was built from two exploratory studies in Brazilian wine regions and preliminary studies which involved technical visits in three countries (France, Italy and Spain) and frameworks observations in another five countries (South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, USA and Chile). The framework is structured on a matrix basis, with an axis corresponding to dimensions (environment, economic, social, political-institutional and territorial) and other to guidelines (management, articulation and cooperation, innovation and learning, sustainability), articulated by eighteen topics that represent areas to act to promote the sustainability. Each topic was unfolded in indicators. Additionally, ten synthesis indicators specify initiatives or programs that can be implemented to impact positively on several indicators. The framework can be applied in several scales, in the winery or the territory.
Keywords: Sustainability; wine industry; assessment; cross-disciplinary perspective; qualitative study; environmental management; management processes; performance; sustainability metrics; sustainable viticulture.
Consolidation of the wind energy sector in the brazilian electricity matrix: opportunities, advantages and challenges
by Alexandre Ottoni Teatini Salles, Luan Tolentino Dos Santos, ADRIANA FIOROTTI CAMPOS
Abstract: The objective of this study is to highlight the role of wind energy in the diversification of the brazilian electricity matrix, which, despite being predominantly renewable, requires changes to avoid energy supply crises. The predominance of hydroelectricity in the electricity matrix (64% in 2015) requires favourable weather conditions for plant operation, which may compromise the security of the generation and supply of energy from this source. Moreover, the growing demand during the last two decades and environmentalisms appeal has increased the need to invest in other energy sources. In view of the above, based on a bibliographical and documentary analysis, this article analyses the wind power source as a potential alternative for electricity generation in Brazil. The main opportunities, advantages and challenges for the consolidation of the wind energy market in Brazil were identified, as well as the contribution of this market to the socioeconomic development of some regions. It was concluded that the consolidation of this sector demands i) policies to encourage, develop and modernize the transmission infrastructure; ii) promotion of investments in research, technology and training of skilled labour; iii) an increase in the supply of credit for long-term financing, and iv) the definition of a stable and transparent policy capable of transmitting security to the market and attracting new investors.
Keywords: Wind energy. Brazilian economy. Socioeconomic development.
The Impact of Dimensions of Sustainable Development on the Acceptance of Organizational Innovations (Case Study: Iran Electronics Industries)
by Mahnaz Rabiei, Shahram Asadi
Abstract: With consideration of economic complexities in the long run, companies of any size and scale of operation should transform constraints into opportunities and embed sustainable development and the creation of positive social and environmental impacts in the context of their business activities using innovative solutions. In order to achieve these goals, innovation is needed to improve all three dimensions of the economy, the environment and the society. Innovation is a major driver for sustainable development, which will increase industries productivity, while reducing the use of their resources and their environmental impacts. Hence, this study examines the impact of sustainability on service innovation, technological innovation and business innovation. In this research, the statistical population is the managers and staff of the Iranian Electronic Industries Company (IEI). The sample size is calculated using Cochran's formula, turning out to be 350 people selected through simple random sampling method. The collected data are also used to test the research hypotheses using structural equation modeling technique. The results of the hypotheses testing show that each of the economic, social and environmental dimensions of sustainable development has a positive and significant effect on the acceptance of technological, service, and business model innovations. It is also shown that the dimensions of sustainable development are among the drivers of acceptance of organizational innovations. Finally, the executive and practical recommendations are presented to IEI based on the research results.
Keywords: Sustainable Development; Technological Innovation; Service Innovation; Business Model Innovation; IEI.