International Journal of Innovation and Sustainable Development (34 papers in press)
by Silke Niehoff, Grischa Beier
Abstract: Trends are predicting a further industrial revolution based on digitalisation. Industry has always had an influence on sustainable development and it therefore seems essential to better understand and monitor the transformations in industry from a sustainability science perspective. This short study intends to provide a starting point for research focussed specifically on the environmental dimension of the triple bottom line. Based on a survey conducted among 100 participants from companies and research institutions and complemented by two semi-structured interviews, this study provides a first set of ideas and insights. Our results suggest that digitalisation has the potential to positively affect the environmental dimension of a sustainable development. However, the overall sustainability of digitalised industry has to receive more attention from researchers as well as from companies, in order to better understand and quantify this potential, and avoid a mere problem shifting as well as rebound effects.
Keywords: Sustainable development; digitalisation; resource efficiency; renewable energies; environmental management.
Sustainability of Environmentally Sound Technologies using Interpretive Structural Modeling
by Abhishek Behl, Abhinav Pal
Abstract: The rapidly growing Indian economy has transformed into a sustainable arena where every player needs to contribute to maintain the equilibrium. Sustainable practices by organizations have contributed towards development. There is a limited contribution from individuals towards the same. This study aims at exploring the key barriers which lead to a limited contribution from individuals residing in rural areas. The limited study in the area of Environmentally Sound Technology(EST) in rural India makes it important as the results could be generalized for a larger community. The barriers found out are diverse ranging from awareness of EST to humanitarian supply chain. The study uses Interpretive Structural Modeling technique to understand the barriers from the individuals perspective. The study projects to build a conceptual framework with linkages between the barriers. The linkages helped in understanding the flow of association between the barriers which would help in dealing with them in a structured approach. The results signify that awareness and perception of individuals towards these technologies are the prime reasons of discontinuity in contributing towards a sustainable supply chain. It was also found out that tradeoff between conventional technologies and EST was not balanced. Public private partnership in launching these technologies in rural areas is a missing link found out from the research. The results give a fairly clear picture in understanding the barriers and their hierarchy. Therefore, the results will interest both private and public sector in enhancing the diffusion of these green technologies in rural areas. The results give clear directions to each of the stakeholders to understand their role wherever required in bridging the missing links in the sustainable supply chain. The study is related to Indian context which restricts generalizing them for every country. A similar study can be performed for other countrys perspective as well.
Keywords: Sustainability; Environment Sound Technology; Interpretive Structural Modeling; Rural; India
Technological strategies and sustainable management for small businesses in the Brazilian innovation context
by Mariza Almeida, Branca Terra
Abstract: Company innovation strategy and sustainable development are two related conceptual areas in the study of innovation management. The aim in this paper is to study the technological strategies and sustainable management of innovative small businesses, in the biotechnology, oil, pharmaceutical and shipbuilding sectors, within the Brazilian innovation context, in order to identify companies characteristics, technological strategies used, the innovation policy instruments utilized, the partnerships developed, the sustainability management priority and the main protagonists. The results show that the innovation context can influence the development of enterprises, through a variety of factors, such as the institutional environment, the characteristics of the economic sector, sustainability management and established networks that affect the decision making and growth of these companies.
Keywords: Technology strategy; sustainable strategy; sustainability; small business; start-up; spin-off; small business strategy; company innovation strategy; innovation strategy; small business innovation strategy; innovation management; technology management; sustainable management; Brazil.
INSTITUTIONAL ANALYSIS OF THE CONCEPTION OF AN AMAZON STATE EXTRACTIVE RESERVES
by Neima Quele Almeida Da Silva, Carlos André Da Silva Müller, Osmar Siena
Abstract: Extractive Reserves (ERs) were regulated by the National System of Conservation Units (SNUC) seeking to enforce a biodiversity conservation policy. As the result of a gradual process, it consists of sustainable guidelines that are developed together with the local reality, allowing the survival of traditional populations with a self-sustaining economic activity. However, this institutionalized concept, as a social construction based on claims of extractive, seems to differ from the many social actors in the fields of ERs. So we intended answer why these social actors that should act in a isomorphic way, produce such diverse results? Thus, this study was based on documents analyses, analyses of expert
Keywords: Exploitation. Extractive Reserves. Sustainable Development. Institutionalism.
Adoption of Innovation in Agriculture: A Critical Review of Economic and Psychological Models
by Joao Augusto Rossi Borges, Alfons G.J.M. Oude Lansink, Grigorios Emvalomatis
Abstract: Two main models have been used to analyze farmers decisions to adopt an innovation; the first is based on the concept of utility maximization (UM) and the second is based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB). This study uses a vote-count method to identify the effect of different variables on farmers adoption decisions in 36 studies using either UM or the TPB. Results from the UM studies show that the explanatory variables mostly have an insignificant effect on the adoption decision. When the effects are significant, the sign of the effect is inconsistent across studies. Results from the TPB studies show that correlations between the psychological constructs used in this type of model are significant in most cases. However, most variables are only used in one or two studies and it is therefore not possible to detect a clear pattern across studies that used the TPB model.
Keywords: Adoption; Farmer; Innovation; Utility; Theory of reasoned action; Theory of planned behavior.
The Global Water Security: an approach for multilevel governance on hydric resources
by Kleverton Carvalho
Abstract: Water has been ranked first among the top five global risks in terms of social impact. Yet the vision of water as a sustainability variable has lost strength to the detriment of the security concept. This paper proposes an approach of global water governance based on water security (WS) to respond to the increasing water shortage on the planet. The method involved the usage of qualitative procedures, the analysis of regulatory documents related to international water management, and the interviews of five experts within the management and regulation sectors. The process was useful in determining five main scopes and to articulate the framework to promote WS: first - risk as water management paradigms; second - review of the international regulatory framework and creation of a United Nation specialized agency for WS; third - transversal link for WS between different actors; fourth - applying WS mechanisms in river basins; fifth - adoption of new analytical methods.
Keywords: Global risk; water security; governance; international regulatory; actors; methods; mechanisms.
Technological Parks in the State of Paran
by Paulo Yamamoto, Aparecido Coutinho
Abstract: In the Brazilian case, innovation, entrepreneurship and technological development are relevant and should be balanced through social effort and mobilization. Governments, universities and businesses have made many efforts to encourage innovation in Brazil. The number of incubators and technology parks has experienced significant growth, more than doubling in the first decade of the millennium. The State of Paran
Keywords: technology parks; sustainability; innovation; development; Paraná State; Brazil.
Responsible innovation in practice with system dynamics modelling: The case of energy technology adoption
by Andri D. Setiawan, Aziiz Sutrisno, Rajbeer Singh
Abstract: Despite the potential advantages, technology adoption often brings unexpected outcomes and even leads to failures on multiple fronts. The accountability of outcomes and failure of technology is missed out from technology development and adoption process. This issue has increasingly gained attention of researchers and practitioners. Responsible innovation (RI) has emerged as a concept that aims to address such issues through deploying the five dimensions (anticipation, reflexivity, deliberation, responsiveness, participation) in different stages of innovation process. However, the five dimensions lack of well identified and developed methodology. Therefore, the system dynamics (SD) modelling is explored as a method for extending the effectiveness of RI approach in practice. SD models on energy technology adoption dynamics developed here, enable the demonstration of its applicability in anticipation and reflexivity. The paper concludes that the use of SD modelling seems useful for improving the capacity of reflexive and anticipatory dimensions of RI approach in practice.
Keywords: responsible innovation; system dynamics modelling; energy technology adoption; sustainability; Indonesia.
A sustainable redistribution model based on economic-environmental equilibrium: a global business perspective
by Ravikumar Gajbiye
Abstract: Economic development is an inevitable fact of human life. This paper presents an analytical view of global economic development from three key perspectives: Growth, Sustainability, and Equilibrium. Natural resources being the building blocks of economic activity must be allotted significant importance in determining the wealth potential of a nation. Inadequacy of current measures of economic growth, and deviation from the real purpose of economic activity, necessitates evolving a novel economic indicator for quantifying real growth. This paper presents various views on social and environmental impact assessment of economic growth. The research is formulated within the 6E framework of Sustainability, wherein the main group elements are: Economic and Environmental. The proposed model is developed within the PESTEL framework in a global context. Finally, In order to propagate the ideology of sustainable and equitable growth, a Wealth Redistribution Model based on economic-environmental equilibrium is proposed.
Keywords: economic growth; sustainability; wealth distribution; equitable growth; economic-environmental equilibrium; UGDP; Universal Gross Domestic Product; GNRP; Gross Natural Resource Product; WDM; Wealth Redistribution Model.
Comparison of Conventional and Fair Trade Systems on Dimensions of Sustainability A Study of Basmati Rice Procurement in India
by Rajni Kant Sharma, Naseem Abidi, Kaleem Mohammad Khan
Abstract: Conventional Procurement at farm level, as starting point of the supply chain and a crucial link to farmer livelihoods and impact on sustainability, remains specifically ineffective in India. Initiatives like Fair Trade, in domain of alternative trade mechanisms, have made inroads in global agricultural trade bridging the ethical consumers of the west to marginalized farmers in developing countries like India. This research paper explores indicators on all the dimensions of sustainability through literature as well as through exploratory factor analysis on primary data collected from Indian farmers who follow either conventional system or Fair Trade system to dispose their produce (Basmati Rice). The study also compares these systems on all indicators and dimensions of sustainability. It also explores the strength, weaknesses, suggestions to improve and reasons for formers to remain in the system. Findings suggest that Fair Trade system is better on almost all dimensions of sustainability than conventional system.
Keywords: Sustainability; Conventional and Fair Trade Systems; Procurement; Alternative Trade.
Sustainable supply chains, corporate constitutionalisation and human rights: a multiple case study on the 10 biggest companies in Brazil
by João Amato-Neto, Lucas Fucci Amato
Abstract: This paper aims at discussing, in the light of a transdisciplinary bibliographic review and a multiple case study, the possibilities and practices related to corporate human rights obligations, in the systemic approach of sustainable supply chains and subcontracting networks. International and national legal obligations are focused, besides the institutional and procedural structures designed in self-regulation. As an illustration, guidelines and codes of the 10 biggest companies operating in Brazil are analyzed concerning the statement of values, duties of suppliers, duties concerning human rights, mechanisms, institutions and procedures of due diligence, accountability and enforcement. The conclusion points out that the mechanisms of corporate responsibility concerning human rights are, in general, poor in relation to the provisions of rights and also insufficient in the procedures and structures for implementing and monitoring the compliance through the entire supply chain.
Keywords: sustainable supply chains; human rights; corporate social responsibility.
Dynamics of Technological Change: Nuclear Energy and Electric Vehicles in France
by Abdelkrim Doufene, Afreen Siddiqi, Olivier De Weck
Abstract: Technological change is shaped by a confluence of processes that are governed by socio-political, economic, and regulatory factors within a region. In this paper, the authors present a theoretical framework to describe the dynamics of technology change. Based on a qualitative modeling approach, the authors employ concepts from literature on innovation, technology adoption, and technological change, and map reinforcing and retarding cycles of processes of innovation. The way these processes (or functions) are interconnected and combined hinders or enables the overall success of technology diffusion and shapes the long-term outcome for the new technology. The authors develop the framework with examples of energy systems in UK and UAE, and apply the model to examine two cases of nuclear power and electric vehicles in France. They highlight the role as well as limits of policy in initiating and sustaining reinforcing cycles for new technology diffusion and can provide a basis for forming expectations about emerging technologies.
Keywords: functions of innovation; technological change; energy-transportation nexus; nuclear energy; electric vehicles; sustainable development; lock-in; technology policy.
Faculty motivation as a key for integrating sustainable development in Higher Education curricula
by Taiga Brahm, Patrizia Kühner
Abstract: The systematic integration of sustainable development into Higher Education curricula remains a challenge for many universities. Among other barriers, faculty motivation to include sustainable development into their courses seems to be crucial. At the same time, empirical research regarding faculty motivation in the context of sustainable development is missing. Based on the motivational systems theory, this paper aims to provide a literature review on faculty motivation and to empirically investigate facultys motivation through opinions of 20 workshop participants and interviews with six faculty members. Results include facultys motivators as well as obstacles to integrate sustainable development into their curricula. The research contributes to the theory of integrating sustainable development into Higher Education. From a practical viewpoint, it also provides insights into possible support measures for faculty.
Keywords: sustainable development; faculty; motivation; faculty development; higher education; university.
Fostering Innovation Performance from a Sustainable Development Perspective: Towards a Research Agenda
by Gopi Krishna, Tippawan Lorsuwannarat
Abstract: The benefits of a sustainability-driven innovation and their impacts on performance under the three dimensions of economic, social and environmental performance have often not been adequately captured. This paper acknowledges the gap and presents a conceptual framework that helps identify the determinants towards fostering innovation performance and explains the relationship with sustainability practices through the pursuit of the exploitation of existing competencies and exploration of new opportunities from a sustainable development perspective. This is assessed based on their eventual impact on innovation performance with the theoretical underpinnings of the dynamic capabilities theory. The impacts of this approach could be beneficial for both the private and the public sector, towards taking a holistic view for realizing the goals of sustainable development. The research findings identified the significance of market orientation, which has a direct impact on innovation performance. Organizations internal trust was found to have a strategic and significant relationship with the successful uptake of sustainability practices. Stakeholder sustainability orientation interestingly does also impact the sustainability practices of exploitation and exploration which in turn did impact innovation performance suggesting their importance in the pursuit of innovation. This, in turn calls for a renewed focus on sustainability practices and a conducive organizational internal trust environment to take forward the sustainability agenda which significantly impacts the triple bottom line.
The research contributes to the field of sustainable innovation and provides a roadmap for organizations to bridge the sustainability gap. It further contributes to the literature by theoretically providing a holistic framework that examines the relationships of stakeholder sustainability orientation, market orientation, exploration and exploitation regarding innovation performance and its eventual impact on sustainable development. The research helps to confirm that the pursuit of a sustainability agenda is indeed worthwhile for organizations.
Keywords: Exploration; Exploitation; Sustainable innovation; Sustainability Practices; Innovation performance; Sustainable development; sustainability gap.
Impact of Social Supply Chain Practices on Social Sustainability Performance in Manufacturing Firms
by Usama Awan
Abstract: The aim of the study is to focus on safety practices, environmental cooperation practices, and green manufacturing to identify a set of key practices that drive social sustainability performance in manufacturing firms. It also investigates the moderation role of internal environmental investment on the relationship between social supply chain management practices and social sustainability performance. Using a sample of 272 manufacturing firms, empirically test the proposed conceptual model. The results provided, support that the social sustainability performance at firm level is dependent on the broader practices of social supply chain, most importantly on safety practices and green manufacturing practices. The discoveries give important bits of knowledge to the specialists, academicians and arrangement creators; firm can utilize these practices to oversee and enhance the social manageability execution.
Keywords: sustainability practices; sustainable supply chain management; safety practices; sustainable manufacturing; social sustainability performance.
Manual punch planters design and development for smallholder farmers
by Leandro M. Gonzaga, Ricardo C. De Resende
Abstract: This paper presents the concept and design of a punch planter for smallholder farmers. The design and development of the planter was conducted using the Design Methodology Approach in four phases: Informational, Conceptual, Preliminary and Detailed. Participatory inputs from a group of smallholder woman farmers from Lesotho were also considered. Smallholder farmers are responsible for almost 70% of food produced worldwide, but seedling technologies specifically designed for this public are rare. The majority of punch planters available are either too big or expensive, or adaptations from disc planters are needed, and requiring animal or tractor to pull it. Punch planters reduces the power demand in planting, being very suitable for conservationist practices. A prototype was manufactured with a novel seed metering unit able to individualize seeds and to work with seeds of different types and sizes. Field tests have been conducted, but more tests are needed to make it available for the market.
Keywords: punch planter; smallholder farmers; direct drilling; Conservationist Agriculture; mechanical design; seedling technology; no-till.
Innovations for sustainability: Challenges in utilizing sustainability-related knowledge
by Nina Tura, Ville Ojanen, Jyri Hanski
Abstract: The demands for more sustainable development are increasing, and solving complex sustainability challenges is acknowledged to require innovations that take environmental, social and economic perspectives into consideration. The development of innovations for sustainability requires the utilization of sustainability knowledge, i.e. creating market value by combining pieces of environmental, organizational and social information. In this study, we address the reasons why sustainability knowledge is not exploited more broadly and set focus on the challenges in the utilization of sustainability knowledge. The empirical data for the study was collected in an interdisciplinary expert workshop and by conducting semi-structural interviews in four Finnish companies. The study reveals challenges in the utilization of sustainability knowledge at all stages of knowledge management. We also analyze the potential of digitalization in enhancing innovations for sustainability and lowering the challenges in the utilization of sustainability knowledge.
Keywords: Innovation; sustainability; sustainable development; sustainability-oriented innovation; sustainability knowledge; knowledge utilization; knowledge process; knowledge management; managerial challenges; digitalization effects.
IT and Green Practices as enablers of Dynamic Capabilities and Patient Satisfaction in healthcare industry
by Samyadip Chakraborty, Rajesh Kalepu
Abstract: The word Green has become very pivotal in todays world where sustainable service delivery has become the most sought after objective. Application of green-practices (GP) and IT-enabled-practices (ITEP) has been becoming increasingly important for many industry sectors and healthcare sector happens to be under scanner as one of the most lucrative sectors to investigate such relationships. Various practitioner and contemporary academic literature suggest that indeed GP and ITEP application are the two major enablers of todays healthcare business towards boosting the overall service-oriented capabilities (the extended components of Dynamic Capabilities) of the patient care service providers which in turn is the key towards achieving better patient satisfaction and also boost hospitals performance. This study carries out an empirical investigation to understand the linkages of the aforesaid relationships using data from two sources. Sample data from hospital-side and patient-side have been collected. The study uses standard statistical techniques including CFA, and SEM to test the hypothesized path linkages.
Keywords: Green Practices; Healthcare; IT- enabled practices; Dynamic capabilities; Patient satisfaction; Service-oriented capabilities; Firm performance.
Sustainability innovation by integrating employees: The potential of sustainable embedded lead users
by Marc Schmidt-Keilich, Ulf Schrader
Abstract: Recent studies in innovation management have explored the phenomenon of embedded lead users: company employees who exhibit lead user characteristics with regard to a product marketed by their employer (Schweisfurth and Herstatt, 2014). Because they are doubly embedded, i.e. in both producer and user domain, these employees possess specific resources and capabilities which may be beneficial to corporate innovation. While the concept of embedded lead users has been analysed in sports, leisure and healthcare industries, this paper suggests that the phenomenon may also be highly relevant in the context of sustainability innovations. By bringing together existing conceptualizations of a sustainable lead user outside of corporate boundaries and the embedded lead user approach, the concept of sustainable embedded lead users is presented. We show why sustainable embedded lead users are suited to support corporate sustainability innovations and discuss opportunities and limitations of this approach for (sustainable) innovation and human resource management.
Keywords: Embedded lead user; sustainability innovation; user innovation; employee participation; open innovation; sustainable development.
ECOSYSTEM SERVICES VALUATION BY PIONEERING COMPANIES
by PEDRO FIGARO GATTAS, JOSE GUILHERME FERRAZ D.E. CAMPOS, SIMONE BARAKAT, RENATO J. ORSATO
Abstract: This study aims to identify the reasons for companies to invest in ecosystem services valuation (ESV). ESV is a voluntary environmental initiative (VEI) that intends to strengthen ecosystem services management, assess ecological sustainability of human activities, and rate and dissociate environmental and economic conditions. We identified 70 companies of 17 sectors and 18 countries currently undertaking ESV work, and classified their work according to levels of development. Additionally, we conducted interviews to better understand the reasons for such proactive behavior. Among other findings, we discovered that pioneer companies tend to establish institutional partnerships to access to knowledge about ESV.
Keywords: ecosystem services management; ecosystem services valuation; voluntary environmental initiatives; environmental management tool.
Elaboration of a socio-environmental vulnerability map as a tool to evaluate the sustainability of small hydroelectric power stations in Brazil
by Roxane Mello, Silvio Simões
Abstract: It is understood that the generation of hydroelectric energy through small-scale power stations is sustainable. However, to check this sustainability it is necessary to measure the socio-environmental vulnerability in the undertaking area. The main objective of this article was to analyze the socio-environmental vulnerability area due the influence of a small hypothetical generating power station in the water. The study methodology used analysis based on the continuous classification and the paired comparison technique Analytical Hierarchy Process, to obtain the Socio-Environmental Vulnerability Index Map. It was concluded that there are strong coincidences between the susceptible spaces to the physical processes of the environmental vulnerability and the places that present the worst social indicators, which are mistreated by an anthropic factor, the land use. The results express the starting point for further analysis of the socio-environmental vulnerability influences in areas of small power generating stations.
Keywords: Small Hydroelectric Stations; Vulnerability; Sustainability.
A Comparison of Proactive and Reactive Environmental Strategies in Green Product Innovation
by Anthony Di Benedetto, Ebru Genc
Abstract: Companies are exposed to different pressures to respond to environmental sustainability issues. It is critical to understand how firms integrate environmental issues into their corporate agendas and how these integration strategies affect corporate performance. This paper investigates factors that motivate firms to adopt environmental marketing strategies and their relative impact on sustainable new product development performance. A conceptual framework is developed and tested that portrays the antecedents and consequences of environmental marketing strategy. The results show that developing environmental strategies that exceed regulations (proactive strategies) leads to better new product performance than those that only adhere to regulations (reactive strategies). We also find that commitment from top management becomes critical only for proactive strategies, not for reactive strategies. Finally, we show that environmental marketing strategies lead to new product advantage and, ultimately, improved sustainable new product performance.
Keywords: sustainability; innovation; proactive environmental strategy; reactive environmental strategy; new product development; sustainable new product development; environmental issues; new product performance.
Urban sustainability and Gross National Happiness: a review of community well-being domains and dimensions
by Haruna D. Musa, Mohd Rusli Yacob, Ahmad Makmom Abdullah, Mohd Yusoff Ishak
Abstract: The effort in measuring well-being and happiness by plethora of different indicators and frameworks are stepping up globally, despite critics for not being accepted as the national indicator to promote subjective well-being due to the methodological approach and choices of well-being dimensions employed. This variation among different groups in society having different perceptions on community well-being measurement have made the traditional measurement tool loses validity. This study, therefore, reviews current research on community well-being measurement to justify the inclusion of different sustainability metrics required to optimize community well-being outcomes for national happiness and urban sustainability. The review is primarily based on peer-reviewed journal papers, as well as books, and documents published by international organizations. Forty-four (44) scientific articles were identified, out of a total of 300 research studies drawn from the electronic data search from the world of science focusing on seven key dimensions: economic, social, environment, governance, politics, culture, and health aspects. The finding shows that social dimension remains the most studied on community well-being research, followed by economy, environment, health, and governance, and subsequently leaving the dimension of culture with the less attention. Also, the findings distinguished objective and subjective well-being indicator approach used in the studies context. However, the objective approach is most widely used across the dimensions in the studies while the subjective domain is less studied. This finding suggests that a multidisciplinary conceptual framework towards a holistic view is desirable to allow for a more theory-based tool to evaluate multidimensional issues of urban environment and community well-being at all levels.
Keywords: Community assessment; urban dimensions; Subjective Well-Being; sustainable development.
Cost Reduction and Productivity Improvement through HRIS
by Halima Begum, Faruk Bhuiyan, A. S. A. Ferdous Alam, Abd Hair Awang, Muhammad Mehedi Masud, Rulia Akhtar
Abstract: Employee productivity improvement and HR cost reduction are two useful options for a cost leader. This study aims to examine the association between human resource information systems (HRIS), employee productivity, and HR costs by focusing on the data of 40 Bangladeshi banks. The impact of one standard deviation variation of HRIS application on employee productivity and HR costs is then calculated using multiple regression analysis. The multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) is then tested to examine the variation of employee productivity and HR costs according to bank ownership patterns. Results indicate that the use of HRIS applications generated a higher efficiency in terms of employee productivity and the reduction of HR costs (where all things remain constant). It was also observed that employee productivity does not vary according to bank ownership patterns though state-owned banks and private-owned banks experience different HR costs.
Keywords: HRIS; HR costs; Employee productivity; Banking Industry; Bangladesh.
Special Issue on: CR-SD Perspectives on the Interface Between Corporate Responsibility and Sustainable Development
Change is Possible: The Effects of a Corporate Social Responsibility Course on Business Student Attitudes
by Dustin Quirk
Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess if fourth year undergraduate business students attitudes towards business ethics and corporate social responsibility changed as a result of taking an elective management course on the topic. Findings suggested that a course on business ethics and corporate social responsibility had significant impact on improving a business students attitudes towards the long term benefits of sound business ethics and corporate social responsibility, the benefits of addressing stakeholders, the understanding of the social license to operate, and the use of social responsibility as a tool to address government regulations. The study also found that initial student attitudes (pre-course) were generally favourable towards business ethics and corporate social responsibility.
Keywords: Business student attitudes; business ethics; corporate social responsibility; stakeholders; social licence to operate.
Developing a framework for sustainable development in extractive industries: a Latin America perspective.
by Philip Walsh, Mauricio Ferro
Abstract: This paper serves to examine the roles and responsibilities of nation States in managing their extractive industries and maintaining the sustainable development of their natural resources. In Latin America there exist areas where the State is weak and communities must rely on extractive industry actors and non-State actors to replace the State in providing the necessary services to allow for the communities to remain sustainable; economically, socially and environmentally. In order to assist extractive sector firms in evaluating their roles under that circumstance we put forward a conceptual framework that provides the principal questions that need to be considered in order to establish the rules of engagement with stakeholders and provides key principles, goals, and standards that inform the actions to be taken to promote sustainable development.
Keywords: Extractive Sector; Latin America; Sustainable Development; Framework of Analysis; Stakeholder Engagement.
Special Issue on: ICESW2017 Innovative Development Towards Sustainable Technologies
Experimental and Parametric Analysis of a Thermoelectric Refrigerator
by FRANCIS ONOROH, MERCY OGBONNAYA, OBIORA NNAEMEKA EZENWA, EMMANUEL OLUWAFEMI ODUBIYI
Abstract: The adverse effects of refrigerants used in vapour compression refrigeration systems (VCRS) on the environment has made it necessary for alternative ways of cooling for industries, offices and homes to be explored. Thermoelectric refrigeration systems can be used for cooling without the use of refrigerants. In this study, a cascade comprising of 8 thermoelectric modules were used to reduce the temperature of a fourteen litre refrigeration chamber from 28.7oC to 3℃ after 4 hours. Parametric analysis was carried out to evaluate the performance of the refrigerator. At a temperature gradient of 20oC the Coefficient of Performance (C.O.P) was 0.55, while at a temperature gradient of 60oC the C.O.P was 0.25 at 6A. At the designed condition, a C.O.P of 0.34 was obtained. The result of the simulation shows that optimum performance of a thermoelectric refrigerator would be obtained when the temperature gradient between the hot and cold sides of the thermoelectric module is kept to a minimum.
Keywords: coefficient of performance; thermoelectric; modules; temperature; refrigeration chamber.
Special Issue on: Advances in Green Economy and Sustainability
Decoupling of Economic Activity from Transport-Related Energy Consumption An Analysis for European Union Member Countries
by Vassilios Profillidis, George Botzoris, Athanasios Galanis
Abstract: In the present paper, the evolution across different time periods of coupling and decoupling relationship between transport-related energy consumption and GDP for the EU-28 member countries is analyzed. Focusing on the period before and after the economic crisis of the year 2008, it is remarkable a differentiation of the relation between economic growth and transport-related energy consumption, as after the economic crisis the vast majority of countries have passed the threshold of coupling and are subjected to a form of decoupling. This new reality creates a significant opportunity for transport activities and for travel habits to enter into a continuous process of rationalization and reduction of both energy consumption and other transport-related harmful effects to the environment. It is a political and institutional challenge to maintain the observed decoupling, by strengthening and encouraging the green mobility, the environmentally friendly and efficient mobility, which is one of the greatest tasks of the future.
Keywords: coupling; decoupling; economic activity; transportation; energy consumption; European Union.
Greening the Workplace: Conceptualising Workplaces as Settings for Enabling Sustainable Consumption
by Elisabeth Süßbauer, Martina Schäfer
Abstract: This conceptual paper contributes to management studies on workplace-related pro-environmental behaviour (PEB) by combining approaches from social practices theory (SPT), the settings-based approach to health promotion as well as the literature on organisational learning. From these perspectives, sustainable consumption at the workplace is seen as being embedded in daily routines which are rarely reflected upon and cannot easily be changed. We argue that companies instead of focussing on individual attitudes and knowledge of employees should enable them to experiment with sustainable consumption practices, provide supportive organisational and material structures, and integrate their experiences and needs in a continuous process of co-designing such an enabling setting. We present an analytical framework that can be used to identify weaknesses of existing entrepreneurial strategies to promote PEB among employees and to conceptualise comprehensive strategies for greening the workplace.
Keywords: pro-environmental behaviour; workplace setting; sustainable consumption; practice theory; employee participation.
How green is manufacturing? Status and prospects of national green industrialization. The case of Morocco
by Jaime Moll De Alba, Valentin Todorov
Abstract: This article reviews the concept of green industry. Our study introduces an innovative methodology to analyse green industrial development at country level by constructing an original database and looking both at green industrial production and employment data derived from UNIDOs industrial statistics database (INDSTAT). We use our methodological approach to review the status and analyse the prospects of green industrialization in a selected set of countries. We conclude that countries have not seized yet the opportunities offered by green industry. We undertake a closer analysis of the green performance of Morocco, a country that has failed in the past to boost industrial development despite having put in place an ambitious green industrial policy. Our analysis suggests that green industrialization offers an untapped potential that developing countries might use in the future as an alternative path to operate their structural transformation within the framework of the existing international industrial development setting.
Keywords: green industry; green manufacturing sector; industrial production; industrial employment; industrialization; Morocco.
The Impact of Energy Security Risks on Energy Consumption
by Clarence Tolliver, Moinul Islam, Kong Joo Shin, Shunsuke Managi
Abstract: This study assesses the impact of energy security risks on energy consumption by analyzing a panel of data from 64 countries from 1980 to 2014. We find that rising energy security risk increases oil, natural gas, nuclear power, and wind power consumption and decreases hydroelectric power consumption. We also find that countries with greater energy security risks have increased the relative share of wind energy in their total energy consumption. These results suggest that energy security risk leads to a diversified energy consumption through the adoption of renewable energy technologies. Furthermore, the gross domestic product and population growth also result in overall increases in the energy consumption levels. This result is consistent with the results found in the existing literature. However, when we analyze the consumption of specific energy sources, solar and wind power consumption levels are shown to decrease in response to population growth.
Keywords: energy security; energy security risk; energy consumption; renewable energy resources.
Optimal Sensing Duration for Interweave Cognitive Radios based on Energy Efficiency
by Yamuna Moorthy, Sakuntala Pillai
Abstract: Cognitive Radios (CR) have emerged as a promising physical layer candidate for 5G and future wireless systems. CR networks use the licensed spectrum when it is not being used by the licensed users. In this paper, we investigate an energy efficiency optimization problem in interweave or spectrum sensing cognitive systems. The aim is to maximize the energy efficiency by jointly selecting the sensing duration and detection threshold. The joint optimization problem is a non- convex problem. Therefore, we formulate two sub-problems which are independent and by alternately iterating between the two problems, we can arrive at the optimal value. Simulation results show that the proposed formulation of the optimization problem and its solution shows energy efficiency gains compared to the existing algorithms. Also, the computational complexity is considerably reduced compared to the optimal method.
Keywords: Cognitive Radio; Energy Efficiency; Convex Optimisation; Sensing Duration; Detection Threshold.
Pollution Haven Hypothesis and Indias Intra-industry Trade: An Analysis
by Paramita Sengupta, Kakali Mukhopadhyay
Abstract: A policy of trade liberalization is often suggested as a means of stimulating economic growth in developing countries. On the other hand, it is argued that liberalization leads to the expansion of pollution-intensive production which causes harm to the environment. In the post-1991 period, with the adoption of trade liberalization measures Indias merchandised trade has expanded considerably. One of the important factors of such commendable growth is the significant expansion in Indias Intra-industry Trade (IIT). Given this circumstance it is an important task to find out whether such rapid growth in IIT has any detrimental effect on environment. With this purpose, the current paper measures the shares of pollution content of Indias inter-industry trade and IIT, and its impact on the environment by using Input-Output framework for the period 2001-02 to 2011-12. The study considers two important trade partners- the USA and the EU (27). Applying the Grubel-Lloyd index the paper estimates the shares of IIT including Vertical and Horizontal in Indias total trade with the USA and the EU (27). It observes that the levels of IIT between India and its trade partners have expanded to some extent, where the shares of the Vertical IIT are dominant over those of the Horizontal IIT. While examining the pollution intensity involved in such growing IIT, the study finds that Indias export in IIT with the USA and the EU (27) are highly pollution intensive. The results of Pollution terms of trade provide stronger evidence on the pollution haven effect.
Keywords: Intra-industry trade; Vertical IIT; Horizontal IIT; Input-Output technique; Pollution haven hypothesis.
Special Issue on: CR-SD Perspectives on the Interface Betw...
Obesity: Locating social responsibility in the context of evolving norms
by Louise Manning, Josie Kelly
Abstract: Most countries have experienced a significant increase in the incidence of obesity in their general population over the last twenty years. Indeed, the condition is now so common, commentators conclude that obesity has become normalized and no longer attracts social opprobrium. The prevalence of obesity and related morbidities when the condition is normalized places it beyond the scope of conventional government interventions. In this context, the UK government adopted a multisector approach in England by announcing in 2011 that its policy on obesity would be predicated on the importance of individuals responsibility for their condition, while also facilitating food and drink industry responsibilities to its customers. This paper considers the social trend towards the normalization of obesity as a lens to discuss governments role in supporting businesses to demonstrate and act upon their social responsibilities.
Keywords: Obesity; social norms; corporate norms; food policy; corporate responsibility.