International Journal of Green Economics (9 papers in press)
Relationship between CO2 emissions and GDP functional form and Decoupling
by Vanesa DElia, Mariana Conte Grand
Abstract: The aim of this article is to study the relationship between Emissions-GDP functional form and decoupling behavior in developed and developing countries. With data for the period 1960-2012 for 27 European countries and 18 CELAC nations, this research employs a Box-Cox specification to capture the CO2 emissions-GDP connection, considering, at the same time, the time-series properties of both variables for each individual country. We find that the Box-Cox functional form describes better the relationship between income and pollution per country than alternative shapes. And, that the presence of that shape in EU and in CELAC is similar. But, both groups of nations have different decoupling behavior. Many European countries have increased economic activity while decreasing emissions (absolute decoupling), but that behavior is not observed among CELAC nations. This mismatch between functional form and decoupling is explained by the fact that, except when delinking between CO2 and GDP is strong, the type of decoupling depends not only on the slope of the relationship between emissions and GDP, but also on the level of both environmental and economic indicators.
Keywords: decoupling indicators; non-linear regression; Box-Cox transformation; CELAC; EU.
Examination of Oil Import-Exchange Nexus for India after Currency Crisis
by Avik Sinha
Abstract: Purpose: This study looks into the nexus between crude oil import and dollar-rupee exchange rates for India, considering monthly data from April, 1992 to March, 2014. Through this study, we intend to assess the economic and ecological sustainability of India, from the perspective of crude oil import behavior and balance of payment condition.
Methodology: Multivariate generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (MGARCH) models have been applied for looking into the effect of oil import behavior on the exchange rate.
Findings: The study discloses that the rise in the oil import leads to depreciation of dollar-rupee exchange rate. It also tells that the impacts of positive and negative shocks on exchange rate volatility have asymmetric consequences, and oil import fluctuations have undeviating effect on exchange rate volatility.
Practical/Policy Implications: Import substitution for crude oil should be implemented in India in a phased manner. Providing renewable energy sources to the households at a subsidized rate, and recovering the price differential from the industrial sector in the form of economic rent on crude oil can be a solution to this situation. Implementation of this phased substitution policy will be not only be sustainable, but will also comply with the inclusive growth paradigm of India.
Keywords: exchange rate; oil import; MGARCH; India.
GEOINFORMATION MODELLING OF FOREST SHELTERBELTS EFFECT ON PECUNIARY VALUATION OF ADJACENT FARMLANDS
by Ivan Openko, Shevchenko Oleksandr, Oleksii Zhuk, Ruslan Tykhenko, Yevheniia Kryvoviaz
Abstract: The article highlights the research results of ecological and economic role of lands under forest shelterbelts within agricultural landscapes. The achieved results have enabled to state that such plantations are the major focus towards agriculture enhancement. It has been ascertained the effective melioration impact of forest shelterbelts on the adjacent areas within different climatic regions and that the field-protective forestation has a common positive trend. On the other hand, some differences in observation results of forest shelterbelts research can take place due to unequal geographical and climatic conditions.
Keywords: geoinformation modelling; forest shelterbelts; agro forest melioration effect; pecuniary valuation; arable land; geospatial approach.
CLIMATE CHANGE AND SHORTRUN DISCOUNT RATES
by Sunderasan Srinivasan
Abstract: Climate-conscious action initiated at the present has the potential to impact welfare consequences into the distant future. Market discount / interest rates help determine time-preference patterns for individuals; yet, such rates do not help compare the dis/utility derived by different contemporaneous individuals, or of economic agents living generations apart. Researchers and activists have advocated low to zero discounting of future environmental benefits from present-day investments. Contrary to most implicit assumptions, and despite projected technological advances and higher money incomes, once depleted, natural capital is not substitutable. Subsidising relatively sustainable production often generates perverse incentives and sets arbitrage opportunities up. This paper argues that unsustainable production should be discounted at higher rates to internalize the externality, to eliminate the present-bias, and to achieve the desired indifference between short-run and medium-term returns. The model parameter verdurous 'beta'; so developed is applied to demonstrate the incentive structures that might promote the switch to 100% organic coffee production in Rwanda.
Keywords: Discount rates; sustainable production; present bias; climate-conscious investment; time-rate-of-preference; certainty equivalent;.
Green values and buying behavior of consumers in Saudi Arabia: An empirical study
by Anis Ur Rehman
Abstract: Green marketing is the marketing of those products that are presumed to be environmentally safe. With the threat of global warming, it is very important that green marketing becomes the norm rather than an exception. The present study looks into the awareness level of green marketing in the Hail region of Saudi Arabia. The objective of this research is to study the green values and buying behavior of consumers in Saudi Arabia. Both secondary and primary data have been collected and analyzed in order to investigate the research objectives. Exploratory research design and a quantitative research approach have been undertaken in this research study. This study will provide a valuable insight to both practitioners and theoreticians who want to understand environmentally conscious individuals. It will also help in developing a marketing strategy that persuades consumers to seek the value of collective gain over self-interest.
Keywords: Green marketing; environmental marketing; green values; ecological marketing; green companies; environmental concern; environment friendly; green practices; green consumerism.
Green supply chain key practices - Literature
by Noble Kennedy E, Goutam Kumar Kundu
Abstract: The global focus on green awareness and government involvement in supporting the green business, direct firms undergo green adoption. Green adoptions are let through by green practices in green supply chain management. The purpose of this article is to review the standard key practices of green supply chain management that help a firm to undergo transformation and work on green strategies. The method of structuring the literature review was carried out by collecting the existing literature from the peer-reviewed journals and categorizing them under each green practice related study. The practices are defined, and their significance towards performance is gathered from the different scenario for the support of this article; which helps to find the gap for future research. This article would help the researchers and volunteering practitioners, who are concentrating on the green business in recent years, to add value to the strategy of their green business.
Keywords: Green supply chain; Practices of green supply chain; Sustainable supply chain; Supply chain practices.
The relationship between income, energy consumption, population and deforestation for environmental quality in Nigeria
by Ibrahim Kabiru Maji, A.S. Abdul-Rahim, Adamu Buba Ndawayo, Christopher Amechi Ofozor, Hamisu Alhaji Basiru, Salem Mohammed Bin Mubarak
Abstract: This research paper evaluates the effect of income, energy consumption, and population on deforestation for environmental degradation in Nigeria. To achieve this objective, a cointegration analysis was used to verify the long-run relationship among the variables, with a dataset spanning from 1981-2011. The estimates of income provide evidence of a negative and important relationship with deforestation in both long and short-run periods. This suggests that higher income can reduce deforestation and improve environmental quality. Furthermore, the coefficient of the population consistently provides evidence of a positive and important relationship with deforestation in the long and short-run periods. Therefore, the population has been identified as the major cause of deforestation and environmental degradation in the model. Conversely, the estimates of energy consumption in both periods did not provide any evidence of a statistical relationship with deforestation. Therefore, policies of enhancing growth and curtailing deforestation were suggested.
Keywords: Deforestation; income; energy use; population and environmental degradation.
Green Marketing in India: A Study of Consumer Behavior in Punjab
by Mohd FARHAN
Abstract: Consumers awareness and concern about the environment related issues are increasing at global level. A continuous degradation of the environment has led the consumers to incline towards green products in order to preserve the earth. This attitude of consumers compelled many organizations to produce environmental friendly products. Green marketing is an opportunity for many organizations to accomplish their long term goals. This research gives a deep insight for producers of the green products and suggests organizing and promoting campaigns for green products. Aim of this paper is to find out level of awareness about green products in India and compare the attitude of its users and non users. The data has been collected from 390 respondents in four cities of Punjab , i.e. Ludhiana, Amritsar, Jalandhar and Patiala. The sample cities were selected on the basis of the fact that green products are expensive. Hence cities with a higher per capita income were selected. Results of this study show that Health is the most important factor behind the use of green FMCG product. Environment consciousness is second willingness for sustainable development is third important factor and promotional activities performed by the company is the fourth important factor that encourage users to purchase green FMCG products.
Keywords: Green products; FMCG; attitude; behavior; factors; Discriminant analysis,environment.
Do socio-psychological factors influence households willingness-to-pay for improved solid waste management services? Evidence from Ghana.
by Hamdiyah Alhassan, Felix Asante, Martin Oteng-Ababio, Simon Bawakyillenuo
Abstract: Generally, studies on households willingness-to-pay for improved solid waste management services by economists have concentrated on external variables which include education, income, among others, such that the effect of socio-psychological factors like attitude, social norms and perceived behavioural control are weakly understood. This study examined the effect of both external and socio-psychological factors on households willingness-to-pay for improved solid waste management services in Accra and Tamale metropolises in Ghana. The estimation results from the tobit regression model indicated that sex of head of household, educational attainment of head of household, total household income, occupation type of head of household, level of satisfaction with solid waste collection services, attitude, subjective norm and location of household significantly influenced households willingness-to-pay for improved solid waste management services in the entire study area. Acknowledging the fact that willingness-to-pay is dependent on different factors, the study cautions against adopting one-size fit all policies.
Keywords: solid waste management; willingness-to-pay; tobit regression; contingent valuation method; Ghana.