International Journal of Electronic Security and Digital Forensics (18 papers in press)
- A security enhanced user authentication scheme for multi-server environment without using smart cards
by Pengshuai Qiao
Abstract: With the popularity of Internet and wireless networks, more and more network architectures are used in multi-server environment, in which users remotely access servers through open networks. For the reliability of accessing these remote services, user must pass a verification procedure to obtain the authorization for legal resource acquisition and data exchange. In 2008, Lee et al. proposed an authentication scheme for multi-server architecture. Recently, Yeh et al. demonstrated that Lee et al.s scheme is insecure against server spoofing attack, user impersonation attack and undetectable online password guessing attacks. Yeh et al. also proposed an improved authentication scheme and claimed their scheme could withstand various attacks. Unfortunately, we find that Yeh et al.s scheme is still vulnerable to offline password guessing attack and stolen-verifier attack. Furthermore, a security enhanced authentication scheme is developed to eliminate the identified weaknesses.
Keywords: Authentication, Communication, Key agreement, Multi-server, Security
- Hybrid Secure GSM Architecture using DNA Computing based Hyperelliptic Curve Cryptography
by Vijayakumar Perumal
Abstract: Wireless Mobile Communication has become more familiar and popular among other communication system for transmitting data to enable the user to communicate with other third parties at any place at any time. Due to third party interception, transmission of data, connection establishment, connection release, billing processes are in insecure environments. So many researchers had put their effort to develop an innovative authentication scheme for GSM network. The existing authentication scheme provides security with high communication and computational overhead using a symmetric key cryptography. The proposed scheme mainly focuses on providing security to Global System for Mobile communication system using Hyperelliptic Curve Cryptography and DNA computing technique for Mutual Authentication, Secret key generation and, data encryption and decryption algorithm. Finally a security analysis shows that authentication algorithm is more secure and efficient.
Keywords: Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid, Hyperelliptic Curve Cryptography, Global System for Mobile communication, Mutual Authentication, Secret key generation, Encryption and Decryption, Communication and Computational Complexity
- Real-time digital forensic triaging for cloud data analysis using MapReduce on Hadoop framework
by Digambar Povar, Saibharath , G. Geethakumari
Abstract: Cloud computing is a relatively new model in the computing world after several computing paradigms like personal, ubiquitous, grid, mobile, and utility computing. Cloud computing is synonymous with virtualization which is about creating virtual versions of the hardware platform, the Operating System or the storage devices. Virtualization is omnipresent in the cloud environment that poses challenges to implementation of security as well as cybercrime investigation. Techniques used in traditional digital forensics may not be appropriate for timely analysis of large capacity virtual machine hard disk file or virtual storage of a cloud user. Hence, there is a need for reducing analysis time for cloud crime cases like child pornography, murder, hacking, death threats, missing persons, drugs activity, financial frauds etc. In this paper we designed and developed a new Real-time digital forensic analysis process that will minimize the overall processing time of evidence using parallel programming model (MapReduce) on a distributed computing platform Hadoop. The approach we designed would answer the queries of Investigator in real time by searching user specified patterns in given evidence by distributing parts of evidence to clusters of commodity machines with local store and processing them in parallel. This approach can also be used for indexing search patterns (for example - headers and footers of files) to carve files from evidence data.
Keywords: Cloud computing; virtual machine; cybercrime; digital evidence; digital forensics; cloud crime; cloud forensics; digital forensic triage
- Assessment of uniformity of byte distribution in a file based on the wavelet transform as an approach to search encrypted data
by Vesta Matveeva
Abstract: This article is focused on the search of the encrypted data in the file system, which is an important step in digital forensics. Encryption is widely used today, among others by malefactors to conceal data, suggesting that encrypted information can be hidden in the file system. There are means of detection of encrypted files, but they have significant limitations and may not be used for the free space of the file system. Statistical tests can also be used for this purpose but they are resource and time consuming. Therefore, the article proposes a new approach to searching for encrypted data, based on the assessment of uniformity of data, with the ability to localize the heterogeneity, which reduces type I error to zero. This approach has its drawbacks, in the form of type II errors; however it can be improved by manipulating parameters that are used for assessment of uniformity.
Keywords: digital forensics; conceal data; random data; statistical tests; encrypted data; density of distribution; uniform sequence; assessment of uniformity; localization of heterogeneity; wavelet transform; chi-squared test.
- A post-quantum communication secure identity-based proxy-signcryption scheme
by Xiaojun Zhang, Chunxiang Xu, Chunhua Jin, Junwei Wen
Abstract: Proxy-signcryption is a variation of an ordinary signcryption scheme and has been used in many applications where the delegation of rights is quite common. In a proxy-signcryption scheme, an original signcrypter needs to delegate his signcryption capability to a proxy signcrypter to signcrypt messages on behalf of the original signcrypter. By combining the functionalities of proxy signature with identity-based signcryption, in this paper, we propose a novel identity-based proxy-signcryption (IBPSC) scheme from lattice assumptions in the random oracle model. Meanwhile, the security requirements of our IBPSC scheme have been analyzed, and our scheme can even resist quantum computer attacks. Compared with existing IBPSC schemes, our scheme is more secure and more efficient. To the best of our knowledge, there is still no relevant IBPSC scheme based on lattice, which is an interesting stepping stone in the post-quantum cryptographic communication.
Keywords: Proxy-signcryption, Identity-based Signcryption, In the Random Oracle Model, Post-quantum Cryptographic Communication
- Related-Key Cryptanalysis on 7-round AES-128/192
by Jie Cui, Hong Zhong, Jiankai Wang, Runhua Shi
Abstract: AES is the most widely used block cipher today, and its security is one of the most important issues in cryptanalysis. In this paper the authors present two attacks on 7-round AES-128/192 to improve the known cryptanalysis by changing the order of round transformations, using the alternative representation of the round keys, exploiting the relationship of keys, designing the key difference pattern properly. We reduce complexity to 2160 and 2104 respectively using the improved attack methods. Our attacks are faster than the best previous attacks.
Keywords: AES; Rijnael; Square attack; Related-key cryptanalysis
- An Efficient Certificateless Deniable Authentication Protocol Without Pairings
by Chunhua Jin, Chunxiang Xu, Xiaojun Zhang, Fagen Li
Abstract: A deniable authentication protocol enables an intended receiver to
identify the source of a given message, but the receiver cannot prove the source of
a given message to any third party. It is very useful in some particular applications
such as electronic voting, online negotiation and online shopping. However, many
related protocols are lack of formal security proof which is very important for
cryptographic protocol design. In this paper, we present a certificateless deniable
authentication protocol. Our protocol is based on certificateless cryptography,
which can solve the public key certificate management problem of public key
infrastructure(PKI)-based cryptography and the key escrow problem of identity-
based cryptography. Our protocol does not need the pairing operation which is the
most time-consuming. In addition, Our protocol can admit formal security proof in
the random oracle model and resist key compromise impersonation (KCI) attack.
Compared with the existing deniable authentication protocols, our protocol can
be well applied in electronic voting system.
Keywords: Deniable authentication; Certificateless cryptography; Without pairings; Random oracle model
- Efficient Performance Analysis of Data Hiding Technique for Enhancement of Information Security, Robustness and Perceptibility
by Sunil Moon
Abstract: The main goal of steganography is to hide the secret information into any digital file. For any type of steganography there is always a tradeoff between information hiding capacity and security. In this paper we have proposed a new video steganography technique using forensic detection to the improve information security and hiding capacity. For hiding secret data into the selected frames of video and audio, we have used general modified EMD algorithm for image steganography and speared spectrum algorithm for audio steganography and it is found to be excellent in term of hiding capacity and security. Further at receiver end we have retrieved a secret data from the video and analyze the key security parameters like peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR), bit error rate(BER), mean square error(MSE), histogram, embedding rate(ER), embedding capacity(EC), correlation( C ), different types of attacks and correlation to improve the hiding capacity and data security. Our new approach efficiently hides large data and produces more security. We have tested our results through a number of simulations on gray as well as color images and found the proposed algorithm to be better than any other existing technique. For gray images of 512*512 (k=1,n=4) ER=1.5bpp, EC=5471290bits, MSE=0.000032, BER=0.000001, Correlation(C)=1, PSNR=71.65dB, for color image of 512*512 (k=1,n=4)ER=3.25bpp, EC=5604720bits, MSE=0.000032, BER=0.000001, Correlation(C)=1, PSNR=56.34 dB and for audio MSE=0.0000152, BER=0.000012, PSNR=57.95dB,Correlation(C) =1 which are found to be better than any other existing methods.
Keywords: Data hiding; Attacks; Correlation(C); Video Steganography; Information security,
- Enhanced authentication protocol for session initiation protocol using smart card
by Wenxia Zhu, Jianhua Chen, Debiao He
Abstract: Providing a security and efficiently key agreement for session initiation protocol (SIP) is so important to protect communication sessions on the internet. An authentication should be finished before a user utilizes the SIP service provided by a server. However, there are some security problems with SIP authentication. Recently, H.Tu et al. improved Zhang et al.s authenticated key agreement protocol. They also claimed that their protocol could be resistant to kinds of attacks. In our paper, we show that their protocol is susceptible to the server spoofing attack, privileged insider attack. We also proposed an enhanced protocol which can be more secure and flexible here
Keywords: Session initiation protocol; Elliptic curve; Key agreement; Security, Mutual authentication.
- Robust Watermarking Using Four Bit Per Pixel (FBPP) Technique
by Indradip Banerjee, Pabak Indu, Anupam Pratap Singh, Souvik Bhattacharyya, Gautam Sanyal
Abstract: In recent years, Internet has become an explosive growth multimedia applications as well as eye catching and cost-effective medium. It is also used for sharing of information electronically than the classical medium. The rapid advancement of the technology, the internet become easier and faster as well as accurate information shares by sender and receiver. As the information allotment globally it may be accessible to the Internet users, it is accountable to many threats like illegal copying, distribution, tampering, authentication etc. Steganography, Cryptography, Watermarking are the different techniques to secure the electronic information. This paper represents a novel robust and transparent scheme of watermarking technique that exploits the human visual system (HVS). An algorithm proposed here which is based on mapping of Four Bit Per Pixel (FBPP) technique and a suitable pixel selection method.
Keywords: Watermarking, Information Hiding, FBPP-Four Bit Per Pixel ,Authentication, MSE, PSNR, Correlation, SSIM, RMSE
- A Robust Image Encryption Technique using Dual Chaotic Map
by Prabir Kr Naskar, Atal Chaudhuri
Abstract: This paper presents a secure image encryption technique based on logistic chaotic map. Basically two chaotic maps are used in this scheme, one chaotic map is used to cipher secret bytes and another chaotic map is used to shuffle the ciphered bytes. A set of three keys (K0, K1, K2) are used for encryption and decryption phase, where K0 and K1 are two IEEE double precision floating point numbers used as the initial values of two chaotic functions and K2 is a two bytes random number, which is used to interchange the two chaotic values at every K2th iteration. This scheme is highly sensitive to the secret key and the size remains unchanged after encryption. The paper also presents security analysis like key space analysis, statistical analysis, and differential attack analysis to prove the strength of the algorithm against crypto analysis.
Keywords: Symmetric encryption, logistic chaotic map, total shuffling, key sensitivity analysis, statistical analysis.
Special Issue on: "Issues and Development of Network Security Algorithms,"
- Effective Semi-Supervised Approach Towards Intrusion Detection System Using Machine Learning Techniques
by Sharmila Wagh, Satish Kolhe
Abstract: Network security plays very important role in today's web enabled world. In 21st century, network traffic has increased because of enormous growth in online users and their online communication. Number of security attacks are increased with increase in internet users. The frequency and severity of such attacks have shown great impact on network performance. Many classical machine learning algorithms have been proposed to solve the problem of intrusion detection with varying levels of success. Nowadays
availability of labeled data is a big issue. It is not only time consuming, but also expensive. Semi-supervised learning methods can make use of unlabeled examples in addition to the labeled ones. The developing field of semi-supervised learning, offers a promising direction for supplementary research. In this paper, we introduce a new semi-supervised mechanism for intrusion detection, which
efficiently reduces false alarms, still maintaining a high detection rate.In our proposed semi-supervised learning approach, only small quantity of labeled data and large amount of un labeled data have been used.This will improve overall network security by reducing security administrator's efforts and making the alert mechanism more practical.
Keywords: Intrusion Detection System; Semi-supervised Learning; Machine learning;
Special Issue on: "Issues and Development of Network Security Algorithms"
- A Localized Clustering Scheme to Detect Attacks in Wireless Sensor Network
by P. P. Joby, P Sengottuvelan
Abstract: Wireless Sensor networks (WSN) is an embryonic communication technique in the universe to be engaged for precarious circumstances resembling battle arenas and viable applications such as construction, transportation surveillance, territory monitoring, clever homes etc. Currently wireless sensor network facing a foremost problem is result from security issues. There are many security methodologies were available for wireless sensor network. Generally classified as two levels; one is low level, further categorized into privacy, key establishment, trusted network, secrecy, authentication, secure routing and etc. Another one is High level, further categorized into secure group management, Intrusion detection, data integrity and etc. This research Focusing on the network availability, prior revisions offered to protect the network beside denial of service attacks with the use of traffic monitoring proxies on some nodes. But if the governor nodes are miserable, then its vulnerable to network. To overcome this, the research put front a mechanism called election method to elect the control nodes in a clusters. To simulate this methodology, Packet tracer tool is used.
Keywords: Wireless Sensor Network, Election Method, Security Methodologies, Control proxies.
- Adaptation Of Frames For GOP Using NSEW Affine Translation For Effective Privacy Protection Mechanism
by D. Raveena Judie Dolly, Josemin Bala, J.Dinesh Peter
Abstract: The Group of Pictures (GOP) plays a very vital role in the privacy protection mechanism when data hiding is preferred through video transmission. GOP varies for every conventional video compression standards. The frame identification plays a key role in framing GOP. If frames are chosen adaptively using a matching criteria instead of precoded GOP the further processing for video compression could be effectively done. The quality of the reconstructed video after compression can be improved subjectively if GOP is selected properly and thus the embedded data can be retrieved without degradation. It is observed that B-frames in a GOP takes more computation time since it depends on the previous and next frame to be processed. So, NSEW affine translation technique is proposed to convert B-frames to either P-frames or I-frames depending on the matching criteria between frames. The result shows that the performance objective evaluation coincides with the subjective evaluation.
Keywords: B-Frame; Frame identification; Group of Pictures; I-Frame; P-Frame; Video Compression; Data hiding
- Preserving the Confidentiality of Digital Images Using a Chaotic Encryption Scheme
by Alireza Jolfaei, Ahmadreza Matinfar, Abdolrasoul Mirghadri
Abstract: Confidentiality of digital images is an important requirement for many multimedia applications and services. To maintain confidentiality, encryption of digital images is essential. Digital images are usually very large and encrypting such bulky data induces many performance overheads, which can be too expensive for real-time applications in resource constrained environments. In this paper, we propose a chaotic image encryption scheme which satisfies the need for both lightweightedness and security. To justify the security and efficiency, the new cipher was evaluated using a series of statistical tests. These tests included visual testing and histogram analysis, randomness analysis, correlation analysis, entropy analysis and image encryption quality analysis. Based on all analyses and experimental results, it is concluded that the proposed scheme is effective, efficient and trustworthy to be adopted for image encryption.
Keywords: Chaos; efficiency; initialization process; image encryption; security; stream cipher
- Recognition of Elephants in Infrared Images Using Clustering based Image Segmentation
by Siva Mangai
Abstract: Object recognition is a challenging task in image processing and computer vision. This paper proposes a clustering based image segmentation approach for elephant recognition. Appreciable recognition rate was achieved by k-means clustering technique followed by feature extraction and K nearest neighbour (K-NN) classifier. The k-means clustering algorithm employs the concept of fitness and belongingness to provide a more adaptive and better clustering process as compared to several conventional algorithms. Elephant shape features are extracted for the recognition. Recognition rate for each class is calculated for performance evaluation. Recognition rate for different K values in K-NN classifier is calculated to find a proper K value for the proposed design.
Keywords: elephant; clustering; k-means; recognition; feature extraction; KNN classifier
- NETWORK LAYER INTRUSION DETECTION IN MOBILE ADHOC NETWORK USING ON-DEMAND ATTACK DETECTION (ODAD) PROTOCOL
by Durai Pandian, C Palanisamy
Abstract: In mobile adhoc network, all the nodes will act as client/server and it has the capability to forward the packets. Security is major concern in wireless network due to decentralized topology. Intruders may attack the transmission path between source and destination. Existing technique used Adhoc On Demand Vector (AODV) routing protocol to detect the attackers by on demand basis. But it is not sufficient to detect all the denial of service attack. So proposed the new protocol as On Demand Attack Detection (ODAD) protocol is designed to detect various attacks in a different ways. It contains three modes to detect the various attacks. They are i. FDN (Finding Drop Node), ii. ACK (Acknowledgment) and iii. SNC (Self Node Correction). These modes are used to detect the attackers inside the mobile adhoc network and then inform about the intruders to remaining node in the network. Experimental results analyze the performance of throughput, packet delivery rate, drop rate and delay. This technique decrease the delay and drop rate, and increase the delivery rate and throughput compared with the existing technique.
Keywords: AODV, Throughput, Drop rate, Acknowledgement and Denial of service attack.
- A Passive Technique for Image Forgery Detection using Contrast Context Histogram Features
by Vaishnavi D., Subashini T.S.
Abstract: The multimedia data such as digital images are essential to expose the evidence. There are numerous, image editing software through which the original images can be intentionally manipulated or forged for mishandling purposes. It is very difficult to discover the forgery by visually analyzing it. Specifically, the copy move forgery is extremely challenging to expose the forged region. In this paper, Contrast Context Histogram (CCH) features are used to effectively detect the copy move forgery and K-means clustering algorithm to segregate the key points of copy move forged regions. The disparity map is created using Sum of Absolute Difference to localize these regions. The comparative study was carried out and the performances reveal that the proposed system is better than the existing methods.
Keywords: Passive forensics, Copy Move forgery detection, Contrast Context Histogram features, Disparity Map, RANSAC