International Journal of Electronic Security and Digital Forensics (7 papers in press)
- Efficient Performance Analysis of Data Hiding Technique for Enhancement of Information Security, Robustness and Perceptibility
by Sunil Moon
Abstract: The main goal of steganography is to hide the secret information into any digital file. For any type of steganography there is always a tradeoff between information hiding capacity and security. In this paper we have proposed a new video steganography technique using forensic detection to the improve information security and hiding capacity. For hiding secret data into the selected frames of video and audio, we have used general modified EMD algorithm for image steganography and speared spectrum algorithm for audio steganography and it is found to be excellent in term of hiding capacity and security. Further at receiver end we have retrieved a secret data from the video and analyze the key security parameters like peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR), bit error rate(BER), mean square error(MSE), histogram, embedding rate(ER), embedding capacity(EC), correlation( C ), different types of attacks and correlation to improve the hiding capacity and data security. Our new approach efficiently hides large data and produces more security. We have tested our results through a number of simulations on gray as well as color images and found the proposed algorithm to be better than any other existing technique. For gray images of 512*512 (k=1,n=4) ER=1.5bpp, EC=5471290bits, MSE=0.000032, BER=0.000001, Correlation(C)=1, PSNR=71.65dB, for color image of 512*512 (k=1,n=4)ER=3.25bpp, EC=5604720bits, MSE=0.000032, BER=0.000001, Correlation(C)=1, PSNR=56.34 dB and for audio MSE=0.0000152, BER=0.000012, PSNR=57.95dB,Correlation(C) =1 which are found to be better than any other existing methods.
Keywords: Data hiding; Attacks; Correlation(C); Video Steganography; Information security,
- Enhanced authentication protocol for session initiation protocol using smart card
by Wenxia Zhu, Jianhua Chen, Debiao He
Abstract: Providing a security and efficiently key agreement for session initiation protocol (SIP) is so important to protect communication sessions on the internet. An authentication should be finished before a user utilizes the SIP service provided by a server. However, there are some security problems with SIP authentication. Recently, H.Tu et al. improved Zhang et al.s authenticated key agreement protocol. They also claimed that their protocol could be resistant to kinds of attacks. In our paper, we show that their protocol is susceptible to the server spoofing attack, privileged insider attack. We also proposed an enhanced protocol which can be more secure and flexible here
Keywords: Session initiation protocol; Elliptic curve; Key agreement; Security, Mutual authentication.
- Robust Watermarking Using Four Bit Per Pixel (FBPP) Technique
by Indradip Banerjee, Pabak Indu, Anupam Pratap Singh, Souvik Bhattacharyya, Gautam Sanyal
Abstract: In recent years, Internet has become an explosive growth multimedia applications as well as eye catching and cost-effective medium. It is also used for sharing of information electronically than the classical medium. The rapid advancement of the technology, the internet become easier and faster as well as accurate information shares by sender and receiver. As the information allotment globally it may be accessible to the Internet users, it is accountable to many threats like illegal copying, distribution, tampering, authentication etc. Steganography, Cryptography, Watermarking are the different techniques to secure the electronic information. This paper represents a novel robust and transparent scheme of watermarking technique that exploits the human visual system (HVS). An algorithm proposed here which is based on mapping of Four Bit Per Pixel (FBPP) technique and a suitable pixel selection method.
Keywords: Watermarking, Information Hiding, FBPP-Four Bit Per Pixel ,Authentication, MSE, PSNR, Correlation, SSIM, RMSE
- A Robust Image Encryption Technique using Dual Chaotic Map
by Prabir Kr Naskar, Atal Chaudhuri
Abstract: This paper presents a secure image encryption technique based on logistic chaotic map. Basically two chaotic maps are used in this scheme, one chaotic map is used to cipher secret bytes and another chaotic map is used to shuffle the ciphered bytes. A set of three keys (K0, K1, K2) are used for encryption and decryption phase, where K0 and K1 are two IEEE double precision floating point numbers used as the initial values of two chaotic functions and K2 is a two bytes random number, which is used to interchange the two chaotic values at every K2th iteration. This scheme is highly sensitive to the secret key and the size remains unchanged after encryption. The paper also presents security analysis like key space analysis, statistical analysis, and differential attack analysis to prove the strength of the algorithm against crypto analysis.
Keywords: Symmetric encryption, logistic chaotic map, total shuffling, key sensitivity analysis, statistical analysis.
- First Responders Actions to Cope With Volatile Digital Evidence
by Allan Watt, Jill Slay
Abstract: Everyday Law Enforcement officers from various Agencies all over the world are executing search warrants and in many cases, now encounter digital devices that form part of the evidence. Many agencies are now training first responders to handle upper level searches for relevance, prior to seizure. However the problem now exists, that an upper level search may not locate evidence in a cloud, a container or even a virtual machine. More so much of this evidence is essentially volatile in that once the device is turned off, connectivity with the cloud will be lost, encrypted containers will close, Virtual Machines will cease to operate and drive encryption will be invoked. The once accessible data may now become beyond reach of digital forensic staff, when the credentials to access the data are unknown or not available. The concept until now has been do not touch the evidence, however in light of new technologies that concept is going out the door and live interaction with a device may have to occur, so to be able to obtain live data at a scene, before it is lost. This paper has focused on scene actions that need to be considered when staff, specifically first responders are confronted with a device, that could contain evidence that could be lost if the device is shut down. This research also provided a framework to aid investigators to locate potentially hidden evidence, more so for less qualified digital forensic examiners.
Keywords: computer forensics; digital forensics; anti-forensics; forensic analysis; investigative framework; file concealment; first responder; live forensic analysis; crime scene; search warrant
- Enhancing Malware Detection: Clients Deserve More Protection
by Mohammed I. Al-Saleh, Bilal Shebaro
Abstract: Sophisticated malware is designed to spread over the network and infect as many connected client machines as possible before being detected. Network security engineers have always been challenged to detect and track down such malware before infecting new client machines. Consequently, they proposed several techniques that are deployed at different network boundaries, such as network-based Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) and Proxy-based solutions. However, recent malware has been successfully able to bypass security protocols and anti-malware shields deployed at the network level, leaving the client machines at high risk of infection. The client antivirus (AV) software is considered the last line of defense against attacks that bypass network-based protection systems. Had the AV also been bypassed, the client would have been infected and compromised. In this paper, we propose an improvement to the client-based AV software to complement the network-based anti-malware software. We propose an AV add-on feature that enhances the capability of existing AV software to scan network data. We show that our solution is capable of detecting malware spread over the network upon arrival to the client machine and before it starts to behave maliciously. In addition, our solution shows that it has no significant overhead on the system under normal network traffic.
Keywords: Antivirus; Scanner; Malware Detection
- An Efficient Resource-fair Commit-Prove-Fair-Open Protocol
by Ou Ruan, Jing Zhou, Mingwu Zhang
Abstract: With the development of modern Internet and mobile networks, there is an increasing need for privacy-preserving cooperative computation and cloud computing. Secure multi-party computation (SMPC) gives a general solution to these applications and has become a hot topic. The commit-prove-fair-open protocol is a multi-party fair exchange protocol against the malicious adversary, and it provides an important tool of SMPC and makes it possible to achieve the fairness of SMPC with corrupted majority according to the standard real/ideal world simulation paradigm. In this paper, we introduce two lemmas about the simplified Ca-menisch-Shoup commitment and the time-lines, and then based on these tools we propose a very efficient resource-fair commit-prove-fair-open protocol. Compared with the other commit-prove-fair-open protocols, our new protocol enjoys two important advantages: (1) the communications cost and computations price are less than 20% of others; (2) allows commitment to value 0, which is not implemented in the other constructions.
Keywords: commit-prove-fair-open; resource fairness; secure multi-party computation; fair exchange; time-lines