International Journal of Electronic Security and Digital Forensics (19 papers in press)
Efficient Multi-receiver Identity-based Signcryption from Lattice Assumption
by Xiaojun Zhang, Chunxiang Xu
Abstract: Signcryption is a public-key cryptographic primitive which combines the functions of public-key encryption and digital signature into a single logical step at low computational and communication costs. While multi-receiver signcryption is suited for a situation where a sender wants to send a signcrypted message to multiple receivers in a confidential and authenticated way. Due to this attractive property, recently, multi-receiver signcryption plays an important role in some practical applications such as virtual conference as well as authenticated mail transferring. In this paper, we present an efficient multi-receiver identity-based signcryption (MIBSC) scheme from lattice assumption which is believed to resist quantum computer attacks. The proposed scheme is provably secure in the random oracle model, which has the indistinguishability against chosen ciphertext attacks under the hardness of learning with errors (LWE), and existentially unforgeability against chosen message attacks under the small integer solution assumption (SIS). Moreover, we also compare our MIBSC scheme with existing schemes from performance efficiency and security, the result shows that our proposed scheme is more efficient and more secure. In particular, our scheme can be properly applied in the post-quantum communication environments.
Keywords: multi-receiver signcryption; lattice assumption; post-quantum cryptography; learning with errors (LWE); small integer solution assumption (SIS).
A Novel Chaotic Hash based Attribute-Based Encryption and Decryption on Cloud Computing
by Lakshmi Naga Divya Tamma, Shaik Shakeel Ahamad
Abstract: Cloud computing has evolved as widely accepted and used paradigm for service providers as well as customers on internet. Customers provide their sensitive information on cloud, thus it has become an important concern of the cloud service providers. As users share their sensitive information on cloud, it has become the major concern of the cloud service providers to make their environment more secure and trustworthy. For adding extended security, the sensitive data are needed to be encrypted prior to its upload on cloud. Numbers of cryptographic algorithms are proposed by various researchers for this purpose. The main objective of Attribute-Based Encryption(ABE) model is to achieve security and access control. Here users attributes used as the main factor in both secret key as well as in cipher text. If the attributes of secret key and cipher text are same as a threshold d, decryption is possible. ABE is also collision resistant. The main problem of these models is users public keys are needed for the process of encryption by data owner. This drawback forbids the implementation of this model in real environment due to involvement of monotonic attributes. To resolve the issue of this conventional attribute-based model, a novel modified and extended Hash based ABE model was implemented on the cloud storage data. Experimental results proved that the proposed model has high computational accuracy compared to traditional ABE models in terms of time and data size are concerned.
Keywords: ABE; Cloud security; Hash Algorithm,CPABE,KPABE.
Effective Methods to Detect Metamorphic Malware: A Systematic Review
by Mustafa Irshad, Haider Al-Khateeb, Ali Mansour
Abstract: The succeeding code for metamorphic Malware is routinely rewritten to remain stealthy and undetected within infected environments. This characteristic is maintained by means of encryption and decryption methods, obfuscation through garbage code insertion, code transformation and registry modification which makes detection very challenging. The main objective of this study is to contribute an evidence-based narrative demonstrating the effectiveness of recent proposals. Sixteen primary studies were included in this analysis based on a pre-defined protocol. The majority of the reviewed detection methods used Opcode, Control Flow Graph (CFG) and API Call Graph. Key challenges facing the detection of metamorphic malware include code obfuscation, lack of dynamic capabilities to analyse code and application difficulty. Methods were further analysed on the basis of their approach, limitation, empirical evidence and key parameters such as dataset, Detection Rate (DR) and False Positive Rate (FPR).
Keywords: Metaphoric malware; Malware Detection; Review; Opcode; Control Flow Graph; API Call Graph.
A novel smooth texture based visual cryptography approach for secure communication
by Ram Barik, Sitanshu Sahu, Suvamoy Changder
Abstract: This paper proposes a novel encoding technique to encrypt information as visual object embedded in an image. The textures of the objects are made up of lines to form a geometrical shape. The images of the textures are combined to produce an overt cipher host image which appears as a grid structured image. The cipher host image holds the covert informations which are embedded inside those sub-image or grids as an object in a chaotic pattern. The textures of objects for encoding the information is generated then reshuffled and arranged to barred it from eavesdropping. For decryption visual character recognition is being applied using artificial neural network. The reliability of the proposed approach has been illustrated with some empirical examples. The overall cryptography process in a digital image makes it a simple and effective methodology for the secure communication.
Keywords: Grid Structured; Cryptography; Texture; Visual Cryptography; Multilayer Perceptron; Shuffling pattern; RSA; DES (Data encryption Standard); AES (Advanced Encryption Standard.
An information system risk assessment model: A case study in on-line banking system
by Sajjad Sokouhyar, Azadeh Karimisefat, Maryam Nezafatbakhsh
Abstract: Today, almost all bank affairs are automatic and all transactions, processing and money transfers are performed by applying information systems technologies. Moreover, to codify the strategies and making management decisions more effectively, banks, rely on electronic information systems. The remarkable point is the security and the security risk management of information systems which the traditional point of view would not overcome its future challenge. This paper, identified the relevant elements to the security risks of informational electronic banking systems based on previous research studies. The final weight of all elements was then determined by fuzzy analytic hierarchy process and Chung weighing method. After that, the final weights of all elements in three case studies from banking section have been calculated. Ultimately, elements securities of those banks were clarified by using Jaeger Fuzzy Classification. The results indicated that the vulnerability element has the most weight.
Keywords: Risk management; Information security; informative systems; Fuzzy logic.
Implementation of RFID Mutual Authentication Protocol
by Sivasankaran Kumaravel, Ashik JOJI
Abstract: RFID (Radio Frequency Identification): The most flexible auto identification technology has a dereliction in its security. Over the years researchers have worked on the security issue of the long established commonly used Passive UHF RFID tags and have come up with some authentication protocols scorning its hardware implementation. Here a lightweight mutual authentication protocol is implemented in ASIC based on the EPC Class 1 Generation 2 framework released by EPC global, which is the widely used industrial standard for passive UHF RFID communication. We have proposed to incorporate ROM to store message signal, which shows significant reduction in area and power as compared to existing digital baseband architecture.
Keywords: EPC; security; RFID; LFSR; lightweight; authentication; VLSI; pierndecoder; fm0 encoder.
Information Hiding: Arabic Text Steganography by Using Unicode Characters to Hide Secret Data
by Allah Ditta, Cai Yongquan
Abstract: In the recent years, information security has become a very important topic for researchers as well as military and government officials. For secure communication, it is necessary to develop novel ways to hide information. For this purpose, Steganography is commonly used to send secret information to its destination using different techniques. In this article, our main focus is on text-based Steganography. Hidden information in text files is difficult to discover as text data has low redundancy in comparison to other mediums of Steganography. Hence, we use Arabic text to hide secret information using a combination of Unicode characters Zero-Width-Character and Zero-Width-Joiner in our proposed algorithm. The experimental results show hidden data capacity per word is significantly increased in comparison to the recently proposed algorithms. The major advantage of our proposed algorithm over previous research is the high visual similarity in both cover and stego-text that can reduce the attention of intruders.
Keywords: Information Hiding; Text Steganography; Arabic Text; Secret Information; Zero-Width-Character (ZWC); Zero-Width-Joiner (ZWJ); Information Security.
Exploring robust and blind watermarking approach of color images in DWT-DCT-SVD domain for copyright protection
by Xiaobing Kang, Hongcai Xu, Yihan Wang, Yilan Wang
Abstract: This paper presented a new robust and invisible blind watermarking approach of color images using discrete cosine transform (DCT) and singular value decomposition (SVD) in discrete wavelet transform (DWT) domain for copyright protection. In this method, firstly each DCT coefficient block of the low-low(LL) sub-band from the luminance component (Y) of the original cover image processed by DWT and DCT in sequence is scanned in zigzag order. Then 16 low-middle frequency DCT coefficients are extracted to produce a feature matrix. Next SVD transform is utilized to decompose the feature matrix. And finally the watermark bit sequence are embedded by modifying the size distribution of the obtained singular values from SVD transform. The results of experiments illustrate that the proposed approach outperforms some existing popular watermarking methods in robustness to resist Gaussian noise, salt and pepper noise, median filter, cropping, and so on, especially in case of lossy JPEG compression in addition to good imperceptibility.
Keywords: robust and blind watermarking; discrete wavelet transform; singular value decomposition; discrete cosine transform; Arnold transform.
Novel image watermarking method based on FRWT and SVD
by Zhihai Zhuo
Abstract: The fractional wavelet transform (FRWT) is a generation of WT associated with the convolution theorem in fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) domain . The FRWT not only inherits the advantages of multi-resolution analysis of the wavelet transform (WT), but also has the capability of image representations in the FRFT domain. In view of the above characteristic, a novel digital image watermarking method based on FRWT and SVD is proposed in this paper. The experimental results show that this method is robust to geometric attacks and image processing attack.
Keywords: Digital image watermarking; Fractional wavelet transform; wavelet transform; Singular value decomposition.
Improvement of Signature Scheme Based on Factoring and Chaotic Maps
by Nedal Tahat, Eddie Esmail
Abstract: Chain and Kuo (2013) proposed an efficient signature scheme based on chaotic maps and factorization. Their scheme is secure but requires many keys for signing documents. In this article, we shall propose an improvement of Chain and Kuos signature scheme. The improved scheme will outperform their scheme in the number of keys.
Keywords: chaotic maps; digital signature; factorization; cryptography.
Certificateless Aggregate Deniable Authentication Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks
by Chunhua Jin
Abstract: Deniable authentication allows a receiver to identify the source of a given message, but cannot prove the source of a given message to any third party. It can be employed in electronic voting (e-voting) systems, electronic tendering (e-tendering) systems and secure networks negotiation. These applications can be well realized in ad hoc networks. Therefore, deniable authentication is an essential security requirement for ad hoc networks. Aggregate deniable authentication is a method for combining n authenticator of n distinct messages from n distinct users into one single authenticator. This feature is very attractive in bandwidth-limited ad hoc networks. In this paper, we present an efficient certificateless aggregate deniable authentication protocol. Our protocol is based on certificateless public key cryptography that has neither the public key certificates management problem in traditional public key infrastructure(PKI) cryptography nor the key escrow problem in identity-based cryptography. The security of our protocol can be proven in the random oracle model under the bilinear Diffie-Hellman(BDH) and computational Diffie-Hellman (CDH) problems. In addition, our protocol adopts aggregate verification that can speed up the verification of authenticators. Our protocol is very suitable for ad hoc networks.
Keywords: Ad hoc networks; Deniable authentication; Aggregate; Certificateless cryptography; Random oracle model.
An efficient certificateless aggregate signature without pairing
by Yunyun Qu
Abstract: Aggregate signature scheme enables an algorithm to combine n signatures of $n$ distinct messages from n users into a single short signature. The resulting aggregate signature can convince the verifier that the n users indeed sign the n messages. Since it greatly reduces the total signature length and verification cost, this primitive is useful especially in environments with low band width communication, low storage and low computability. The notion of certificateless public key cryptography which eliminate the use of certificates in certified public key cryptography and the key-escrow problem in identity-based
cryptography was introduced. In this paper, we present the first certificateless aggregate signature scheme which is immune against bilinear pairings and has the advantages of both aggregate signatures and certificateless cryptography. Without the heavy computation of bilinear pairings, our proposed scheme is efficient and practical in both communication and computation for many-to-one authentication. The scheme is also proven existentially unforgeable against adaptive chosen-message attacks under the hardness of breaking elliptic curve discrete logarithm problem.
Keywords: Certificateless public key cryptography; aggregate signature scheme;
discrete logarithm problem (DLP); Random oracle model.
Secure and Efficient Authentication Scheme for Access Control in Mobile Pay-TV Systems
by Hang Tu, Jingsong Cui
Abstract: The increasing ubiquity and use of mobile devices enable them to access television programs through Mobile Pay-TV (MPTV) systems. To achieve secure communication in MPTV systems, authentication schemes for access control in these systems are needed. Recently a One- To-Many Authentication (OTMA) scheme that guarantees secure communication in MPTV systems was proposed. However, it was found by other researchers that such a scheme could not resist the impersonation attack and could not provide mutual authentication. As a result, a new OTMA scheme was proposed and it was claimed that OTMA could solve the security weaknesses of the OTMA scheme. We demonstrate that the new OTMA scheme cannot resist the impersonation attack and and cannot provide mutual authentication. To mitigate these major security weaknesses, we propose a new OTMA scheme. A security analysis of our proposed OTMA scheme demonstrates that it can overcome the security weaknesses of the previously proposed OTMA scheme and improved its performance1.
Keywords: Authentication; anonymity; impersonation attack; mobile pay-TV; security.
Attribute-Based Encryption Supporting Data Filtration over Post-Quantum Assumptions
by Jiao Chunhong
Abstract: As the internet becomes prevalent, plenty of sensitive data is being transferred in open networks environment. It is worth concerning how to achieve efficient data transfer in a privacy-preserving manner. Although attribute-based encryption(ABE) can achieve fine-grained access control over encrypted data, it still could not work for restricting unauthorized user to access. In this paper, we introduce a new cryptographic primitive called attribute-based encryption supporting data filtration(ABE-SDF), and formalize the security mode by incorporating the advantages into previous ABE. Finally, we present an efficient construction of the scheme over post-quantum assumptions, our scheme is believed to be quantum-resistant owing to the special property of lattices. Based on the LWE assumption, we prove that the proposed scheme has the indistinguishability against selective chosen plaintext attacks and the authentication information security.
Keywords: ABE; Data Transfer; LWE; Post-Quantum.
Special Issue on: CCC 2016 Cybersecurity in the Connected World
Information Security Model Using Decision Tree for Jordanian Public Sector
by Omar Arabeyyat
Abstract: The rapid evolution of technology has created new services and introduced changes to the traditional style of delivery and dissemination. Organizations all over the world are trying to adapt e-services to reduce cost and enhance the quality of their e-services. To upgrade its services, the Jordanian government has introduced an e-government model, but a major obstacle has interrupted their introduction of the model. Specifically, the government had key issues with its information system security (ISS). While the development of the model happened in a rapid manner, the government's implementation and management of the laws and regulations did not happen in the same speed. The reason behind that is that as a third world country, Jordan does not have the budget to implement security culture and related management tools. Hence, this study investigates and builds a security model for an information security system for the Jordanian public sector. It also investigates the effect of the implementation of King Abdullah II model for excellence on Jordanian public sector. To build security culture and awareness, the study uses a decision tree (Iterative Dichotomiser 3) ID3 classifier, as a classifier. The study concludes that following best practice and security policy are the main factors that drive the performance of the security model for public sector organizations in Jordan.
Keywords: Artificial intelligence; decision tree ID3; information security; leadership; public sector; awareness and training; best practice; security policy.
Should We Be Afraid of Cyber-Terrorism?
by Julian Droogan, Lise Waldek
Abstract: This article explores the extent to which we should fear cyber-terrorism through providing a review of scholarship and debates over the nature of cyber-terrorism, in particular speculation about its future affordances. It questions whether terrorists have ever really been able to weaponize the Internet much beyond using it as an effective communication tool, thus greatly reducing the likelihood of direct Internet facilitated terrorism. First, the history of warnings regarding the imminent threat posed by the Internet of becoming weaponized is presented, even though these warnings have tended to fail to materialize into reality. It is argued that speculations by individuals within the academic and policy community have failed to be born out in practice largely because the Internet has instead been used less as a weapon by terrorists and more as a sophisticated communication tool. It continues by posing a series of questions regarding online audiences that are in need of future research if we are to better understand the role of the Internet in spreading and supporting violent extremist discourse and cultivating terrorism. The most important question involves a better understanding of the role of audiences as autonomous agents in navigating, reacting and responding to online violent extremist materials.
Keywords: Cyber-terrorism; Online radicalisation; audience reception theory.
Disclosure of Cyber Security Vulnerabilities: Time Series Modelling
by MingJian Tang, Mamoun Alazab, Yuxiu (Andrea) Luo, Matthew Donlon
Abstract: Cybercriminal use of the Internet continues to grow and poses a serious threat to individuals, businesses and governments. Software vulnerabilities represent a main cause of cybersecurity problems. Every day security engineers deal with a flow of cyber security incidents that are increasing. Effective management of software vulnerabilities is imperative for modern organisations regardless of their size. However, the vulnerability management processes tend to be more reactive in nature; relying on the publication of vulnerabilities, creation of signatures, and the scanning & detection process before control mitigations can be put into place. A forecasting model of the anticipated volume of future disclosures that leverages the rich historical vulnerability data will provide important insights help develop strategies for the proactive management of vulnerabilities. This study is the first to discover the existence of volatility clustering in the vulnerability disclosure trend. Through our novel framework for statistically analysing long-term vulnerability disclosures between January 1999 and January 2016, the result shows that our model can predict the likelihood that software contains yet- to-be-discovered vulnerabilities and be exposed to future threats such as zero-day attacks. Such knowledge could be potentially an important first step in crime detection and prevention and improve security practices.
Keywords: Cyber security; cybercrime; risk analysis; vulnerability disclosure; time series; volatility; Generalised Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity.
A Security Framework for Node-to-Node Communications based on the LISP Architecture
by Mohammad Muneer Kallash, Mahdi Aiash, Jonathan Loo, Aboubaker Lasebae
Abstract: The Locator/ID Separation Protocol (LISP) is arnrouting architecture that provides new semantics for IP addressingrnto support communications between peripheral networks ofrndifferent technologies. Securing the LISP architecture has beenrninvestigated in the literature, while securing communicationsrnin peripheral networks are left to individual technologies. Thernauthors advocate the need for a comprehensive solution for securerncommunication based on LISP. Therefore, the paper introducesrna new node-to-node authentication and key agreement protocol.rnThe protocol is formally verified using formal method basedrnon Casper/FDR. Furthermore, the paper demonstrates how tornintegrate the proposed protocol with existing LISPs securityrnmechanisms in a form of a security framework.
Keywords: Authentication and Key Agreement Protocols; Node-to-Node;
Formal Verification; Location/ID Split Protocol.
Special Issue on: CCC 2016 Cybersecurity in the Connected World
Black hole attack evaluation for AODV and AOMDV routing protocols
by Abdelwadood Mesleh
Abstract: A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a collection of independent mobile nodes (MNs), MANETs communicate with each other by establishing a multi-hop radio network, because of their popularity, security becomes a main challenge due to their characteristics. Protecting their network layer from malicious attacks is one of the main challenging security issues, many of those attacks are reported on Ad-hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV) and Ad hoc on-demand multipath distance vector routing (AOMDV) protocols. Black hole attack (BHA) is among the serious attacks, in which wireless packets are redirected to a specific fake MN, actually, the fake MN does not exist in MANETs and it is similar to the black hole (BH) in the universe in which things disappear. This fake MN attacks other MNs as it presents itself in such a way that has the shortest path. This paper aims at investigating the security of the network layer of MANETs, it addresses the security issues of AODV and AOMDV to provide secure communication between MNs in MANETs, studies the impact of BHA on the performance of AODV and MAODV in terms of throughput, end-to-end delay and packet delivery ratio using network simulator version 2 (NS-2), and, compares the resiliency of these routing protocols against BHAs. Simulation results revealed that AOMDV is more resilient against BHAs as it is able to easily find alternative routes to destination MNs.
Keywords: Black hole attack; AODV; MANETs; Intrusion detection; ad hoc network security;.