International Journal of Electronic Security and Digital Forensics (9 papers in press)
- A Fuzzy Logic Approach for Detecting Redirection Spam
by Kanchan Hans, Laxmi Ahuja, SK Muttoo
Abstract: Redirection spam is a relatively newer technique whereby spammers redirect the search user to an unwanted webpage or download malware on the victims machine without his consent. Spammers are making use of chained redirections to hide their nefarious activities. Detecting such malicious redirections is of prime importance for maintaining web security. In this paper we have identified the factors that assist in detecting redirection spam and propose a fuzzy logic based model for redirection spam detection. We validated our model against a set of URLs and were able to detect the spammed redirections with high accuracy.
- An Ad Hoc Detailed Review of Digital Forensic Investigation Process Models
by Reza Montasari
Abstract: For the past decade, digital forensics has been the subject of scientific study, and as a result it has become an established research and application field. One of the foundational methods in which the researchers in the field have attempted to comprehend the scientific basis of this discipline has been to develop models which reflect their observations. Various process models have been developed describing the steps and processes to follow during a digital forensic investigation. This paper provides a detailed review of eleven published papers representing digital forensic process models. The aim of this review is to gain a background knowledge of the existing research on the digital forensic investigation process models and the problems associated with those models.
Keywords: digital forensic; computer forensics; digital investigation; process models; models review
- A Comprehensive Digital Forensic Investigation Process Model
by Reza Montasari
Abstract: A formal process model is needed to enable digital forensic practitioners in following a uniform approach and to enable courts of law in determining the reliability of digital evidence presented to them. Such a model also needs to be generic in that it can be applicable in the different fields of digital forensics including law enforcement, corporates and incident response. There does not currently exist such a comprehensive process model that is both formal and generic. To address these shortcomings, this paper proposes a model that is formal in that it can enable the digital forensic practitioners in following a uniform approach when carrying out investigations, and that is generic in that it can be applied in the different environments of digital forensics.
Keywords: digital forensics; incident response; process model; corporate digital investigations;rndigital investigations; computer forensics
- Besieged Privacy in Social Networking Services
by Xingan Li, Shujun Dong
Abstract: Pervasive application of the social networking services (SNSs) has been transforming modern social lives, from which the traditional social activities have been extending their existing boundary into cyberspace. Billions of users of the SNSs grasp more and more fresh chances for communicating and co-operating, at the same time they are also confronted with new risks and dangers, possibly they could also be victimized with their life, health, freedom, and property. The aim of current paper is to investigate the risks of illegal use of personal information brought about by the SNSs. The principal theme considered in this paper is that, the SNSs, in front of both conventional and unconventional offenders, have induced worry about unlawful access to accounts, disclosure and infringement of privacy, as well as misuse and abuse of anonymity. Many vulnerable points of the SNSs in protecting privacy accumulate and structure a hazardous atmosphere where privacy is left defenceless. On the grounds that there are more sensitive information, such as demographic and identity information, financial and consumption information, and clues and traces to daily activities and movements, it is uncomplicated for possible malefactors to select possible victims of varieties of offences. The article concluded that social networking services facilitated both traditional and untraditional privacy-related crimes with both traditional and untraditional scheme, and reviewed alternative solutions to privacy protection and their concomitant dilemmas. An international initiative might be more realistic for coordinating national divergences.
Keywords: social networking services, offences against privacy, offences against property, anonymity, real-name system
- Web browser artefacts in private and portable modes: a forensic investigation
by Cassandra Flowers, Ali Mansour, Haider M. Al-Khateeb
Abstract: Web browsers are essential tools for accessing the internet. Extra complexities are added to forensic investigations when recovering browsing artefacts as portable and private browsing are now common and available in popular web browsers. Browsers claim that whilst operating in private mode, no data is stored on the system. This paper investigates whether the claims of web browsers discretion are true by analysing the remnants of browsing left by the latest versions of Internet Explorer, Chrome, Firefox, and Opera when used in a private browsing session, as a portable browser, and when the former is running in private mode. Some of our key findings show how forensic analysis of the file system recovers evidence from IE while running in private mode whereas other browsers seem to maintain better user privacy. We analyse volatile memory and demonstrate how physical memory by means of dump files, hibernate and page files are the key areas where evidence from all browsers will still be recoverable despite their mode or location they run from.
Keywords: web browser forensics; portable applications; private browsing; incognito mode; physical memory; Windows; Chrome; Firefox; Opera; OSForensics; Internet Exporer; web browsers; browser artefacts; portable browsers; user privacy; volatile memory; recoverable artefacts; record recovery; evidence recovery.
- Concatenated and interleaving codes for MC DS CDMA using Cadence virtuoso
by S. Saravanakumar, R. Deepa
Abstract: Multi carrier DS CDMA technique is the next generation mobile communication system for future advances. Error correcting codes and concatenated codes are used for correcting the errors in data transmission. In this paper, hybrid concatenated codes for MC DS CDMA structure has been proposed and parameters like usage time, power consumption and area are estimated. Further system performance can be attained by serially concatenating the proposed scheme with outer and inner codes. The interleavers are used for concatenated codes and it reduces the burst errors between outer and inner code of encoding and decoding operation in the MC DS CDMA model. In this paper, Verilog code is used for designing the entire structure of CDMA model. The simulation and estimated parameters is done by Cadence design environment.
Keywords: mobile communications; MC DS CDMA; multicarrier direct sequence CMDA; code division multiple access; power consumption; usage time; area; concatenated code; interleaving codes; Verilog code; Cadence; simulation; error correction.
- Audio data hiding technique using integer wavelet transform
by S. Hemalatha, U. Dinesh Acharya, A. Renuka
Abstract: Secret data when transmitted over the network must be protected from the illegal copy, modification or destruction by the malicious user. Audio steganography is a technique that provides a platform for secure transmission of secret data over the internet. In audio steganography, the secret data is transmitted with audio signal as the carrier. This paper proposes a high capacity and security audio steganography technique to hide secret audio signal. In this technique, in lieu to ensconcing the secret information as a whole in the cover object a key corresponding to the secret information is produced and hidden imperceptibly in the cover signal. The key is used to retrieve the secret information. To generate the key and to conceal it in the cover, integer wavelet transform (IWT) is used. The performance metrics obtained are well above the required level of HAS, indicating good security and robustness of the stego system.
Keywords: information security; audio steganography; integer wavelet transform; IWT; lifting scheme; signal to noise ratio; SNR; squared Pearson correlation coefficient; SPCC; audio data hiding; secure transmission.
- An efficient certificateless multi-proxy signature scheme without pairing
by Yunyun Qu, Lunzhi Deng, Xiaomin Bao, Huawei Huang
Abstract: In this paper, we propose the first certificateless multi-proxy signature scheme without pairing. We show our scheme is particularly suitable for practical applications with severely constrained resources due to significant reduction in costs of computation and storage and our scheme is secure against both of the Type I and the Type II adversaries.
Keywords: certificateless PKC; public key cryptography; CLPKC; multi-proxy signature scheme; discrete logarithm problem; DLP; random oracle model; pairing; resource constraints; security.
- A comparative study of steganography designs based on multiple FPGA platforms
by Bassam J. Mohd, Thaier Hayajneh, Zaid Abu Khalaf, Athanasios V. Vasilakos
Abstract: Steganography methods conceal covert messages inside communicated data. Field-programmable gate array (FPGA) hardware implementation provides speed, flexibility and configurability. It is extremely difficult to compare published results from different platforms and technologies. The goal of our research work is to mitigate the dependency by examining implementations from multiple FPGA platforms. The research studies the implementations of 12 spatial steganography methods using Altera and Xilinx FPGAs. The methods include mix-bit LSB, least significant bit (LSB), random LSB and texture-based algorithms. The objective of the research is to develop platform-independent resources, timing, power and energy models; to empower future steganography research. Further, the article evaluates steganography methods using typical performance metrics as well as a novel performance metric. The results suggest that the mix-bit methods exhibit good performance across most of the metrics. However, when image quality is a concern, the two-bit LSB is the front runner.
Keywords: information security; field-programmable gate arrays; steganography design; multiple FPGA; data hiding; spatial steganography; modelling; least significant bit; LSB; performance measures.