International Journal of Environment and Sustainable Development (22 papers in press)
An empirical assessment of the Environmental Kuznets Curve for CO2 emissions in Ghana
by Michael Minlah, Richard Ayisi
Abstract: Ghana has achieved significant economic growth over the period 1971 -2009. However, it is widely acknowledged that economic growth has its negative environmental consequences. In very recent years environmental policy has been more directed towards correcting environmental ills such as deforestation, desertification and pollution which result from human activities. Issues of global warming and climate change have taken central stage in environmental policies of Ghana. This study investigated the determinants of CO2 emissions in Ghana within the Environmental Kuznets Curve analysis for the period 1971 to 2009. The long run analysis between the regression variables was established using the ARDL approach to co-integration. The study reveals an inverted N shaped relationship between CO2 and economic growth in Ghana. While urbanization, energy consumption and deforestation proved to be statistically insignificant in promoting carbon dioxide emissions in Ghana, trade openness and financial development were observed to reduce carbon dioxide emissions.
Keywords: Environmental Kuznet Curve; Co2; Ghana.
LEED certification and market value of the firm
by Albena Ivanova, Marcel Minutolo
Abstract: This article extends signaling theory to research on voluntary green standards adoption and investigates the firms value in green buildings. The study analyzes the market valuation of investments in sustainable buildings, measuring the market reaction to three different types of Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design (LEED) announcements: (i) intent for application; (ii) achievement of certification; and, (iii) reinforcement of certification. The study hypothesizes the market will react differently to intent, achievement, and reinforcement signals. Empirical evidence shows a positive market reaction to LEED announcements in general, with positive but not statistically significant market reaction to the intent signals, and positive and statistically significant reaction to the achievement and reinforcement signals. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Keywords: LEED certification; separating equilibrium; signaling theory; standards; strategic management; event study; market value.
Climatic Changes and Vulnerability of Household Food Utilization in Malaysian East Coast Economic Region
by Md. Mahmudul Alam, Chamhuri Siwar, Basri Talib, Abu Wahid
Abstract: Sustainable food security at household level is one of the emerging issues for all nations. There are several factors such as social, economic, political, demographic, natural, and livelihood strategies that causes to the vulnerability of the status of household food security. Therefore examining the vulnerability of these factors is essential to identify the reason and recognize the most vulnerable communities. This study is an attempt to study on the vulnerability of the factors of household food utilization and its linkage with climatic changes in Malaysia. The study is based on primary data collected in the months of July October, 2012 through a questionnaire survey on 460 low income households from East Coast Economic Region (ECER) in Malaysia. The samples were selected from E-Kasih poor household database, based on cluster random sampling technique. The study found that the vulnerability of the factors of household food utilization has increased statistically significantly over the last five years period due to difference between rural and city food quality, occurrences of natural disasters, incidences of mosquitoes, insects, pest, etc., and diseases like dengue, malaria, heat stretch, cold, skin disease, etc. This study suggests that the food security programs need to be integrated with climatic change adaptation programs to ensure more effective and sustainable household food security in future, especially among the poor and low income group.
Keywords: Climatic Changes; Household Food Security; Food Utilization; Vulnerability; Poverty.
The influence of an Environmental Management System on the environmental worldviews of selected Namibian and South African in-service teachers
by Schalk Raath, Alex Tubawene Kanyimba, Luiza De Sousa, Barry Richter
Abstract: A recurring theme in contemporary environmental theory is the need for society to change to a New Ecological Paradigm. This paper reports on the influence of environmental management systems on the environmental worldviews of selected Namibian and South African teachers. A pre- and post-questionnaire survey using the New Environmental Paradigm scale was used to measure the underlying values of teachers to determine if the implementation of an environmental management system in the schools influenced their attitudes towards the environment. The findings revealed a positive inclination by the teachers to subscribe their personal and collective agency to pro-ecological tendencies. The MannWhitney test reveal a moderate size shift in worldview towards the pro-ecological and anti-anthropocentric tendencies of the New Ecological Paradigm showing that teachers still believe in the Dominant Social Paradigm. It is recommended that teachers and schools be encouraged to support the inclusion of an environmental management system to enhance sustainability practices.
Keywords: Sustainable development; New Environmental Paradigm; environmental management system; environmental worldview; in-service teachers; values; attitudes towards the environment; Namibia; South Africa; pro-ecological; anti-anthropocentric.
Sustainability and Determining the Optimal Population Based on Water Resources in Mashhad, Iran
by Mohammad Rahim Rahnama, Lia Shaddel
Abstract: This study first evaluates Mashhads water resource sustainability, employing sustainable urban development models proposed by Haughton. Second, it determines the optimal number of population in 2016, both with and without the Dousti and Ardak dams. Results show that the Mashhad plain possesses only 2% of the total province groundwater although 65.97% of the urban provincial population live there. Furthermore, 92.7% of surface water comes from the Dousti dam, which is located 220km from Mashhad, and only 30% of domestic sewage is recycled. Using Haughton's theory of urban metabolism, Mashhad is thus not a sustainable city, as, including the Dousti and Ardak as water sources (dependence out of hinterland), it has a surplus population of 550,459 and excluding them, a surplus of 1,192,660 people.
Keywords: Ardak dam; Dousti dam; Haughton’s theory; independent city model; Iran; Mashhad; optimal population; Re- designing cities model; sustainability; water resources.
Special Issue on: BEST2017 Sustainable Technologies in Environmental Science and Engineering
Numerical investigation of unsteady buoyancy driven indoor air flow characteristics under various range of internal heat generation
by Lenin V R, Sivalakshmi S
Abstract: Increase in global warming increases the cooling load to all kinds of building sector (residential and commercial). Buildings consume more energy for cooling or heating and it depends on the regional climatic conditions. In summer region, peoples are paying more interest in implementing cooling technique or equipment to achieve the comfort environment. Before analyzing the building nature implementation of any machinery leads further increase in energy demand also comfort environment may not be possible. In this work the maximum indoor air temperature of a closed room was investigated under transient condition with various range of internal heat flux. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool ANSYS-FLUENT was used to simulate the room model of 5m x 5m x 5m. The three dimensional isolated room with constant thermal boundary condition was modeled and the grid independence study executed to predict the precise results. The result shows that the flow pattern of the room with hot wall and without hot walls varies. Machinery or equipment selection for cooling of the building plays the important role in the view of efficient utilization.
Keywords: Transient condition; CFD; indoor air temperature; internal heat flux; indoor air flow profile; buoyancy effect.
BIODIESEL PRODUCTION AND CHARACTERIZATION FROM PUNNAI OIL USING EGG SHELL CATALYST: ENGINE PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION STUDIES
by KARAN SALUNKHE, MILIND PATIL, Murugavelh Somasundaram
Abstract: Internal Combustion (IC) engine vehicles greatly contributes in polluting the environment through emissions such as CO, CO2, NOx, SOx, unburned Hydrocarbons (HC) and particulate emissions. Fossil fuels are the major contributors to urban air pollution and greenhouse gases. Ever increasing demand for fossil fuels and its limited reserves, global warming problems, environmental pollution are the main triggering points that forcing us to find new alternatives energy sources. Biodiesel meets all these requirements. These are fuels that can be renewable and available in plenty along with a check on pollution and emissions. Biodiesel can be produced from various methods such as direct use and blending, micro-emulsification, pyrolysis and trans-esterification process. Among these trans-esterification process is widely used technique. Biodiesel production is carried out by this process using homogeneous or heterogeneous catalysts. Choice of catalyst is on their higher kinetic reaction rates. Heterogeneous calcined egg shell catalyst gives advantage of less energy consumption and less water production over the conventional enzymes and acid based catalyst. The most important factors affecting the yield of biodiesel are the molar ratio of alcohol to raw vegetable oil and the reaction temperature. Methanol is commonly used alcohol in this process. This paper presents the production of biodiesel from Calophyllum inophyllum oil (Punnai oil or Tamanu oil) by trans-esterification process using calcined egg shell as a catalyst, characterization of biodiesel and engine testing for the performance and exhaust emissions. The calcined egg shell catalyst was prepared and characterized. The various blends of biodiesel were prepared with diesel and optimal proportion of blend is decided for better engine performance and less exhaust emissions.
Keywords: Calophyllum Inophyllum; Transesterification; Biodiesel; Engine performance; Emissions.
BIODIESEL PRODUCTION AND CHARACTERIZATION FROM PUNGAMIA OIL USING LOW COST PISTHIA SHELL CATALYST: ENGINE PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION STUDIES
by PRIYANKA SHINDE, ANAND BRAMHEKAR, Murugavelh Somasundaram
Abstract: Production of fatty acid methyl esters from pongamia oil through trans-esterification was reported in this paper. The GCMS analysis of oil was studied and the major fatty acids content was found to be 12.25
% by weight. The molecular weight of the oil was 887.039 g/mol. A maximum yield of 85 % biodiesel was reported when the reaction temperature, time, methanol/oil ratio and catalyst loading rate were 60
Keywords: Pungamia Pinnata oil; Transesterification; Hetrogenuous catalyst; Biodiesel; Characterization; Engine Performance; Emission Studies.
Renovation of Horticultural waste into organic fertilizer by vermicomposting technology: Approach for Solid waste management
by SUBBU LAKSHMI, THIRU NEELAKANDAN
Abstract: Horticulture products which are produced in Cuddalore district of Tamilnadu have unique demand all over India. The production of horticultural products leads to enormous amount of horticultural wastes. These waste refers to tree trunks and branches, plant parts and trimmings generated during the maintenance and pruning of trees and plants. Wastes recycling can bring tremendous benefits to agriculture and land management in long run. On the other hand vermicompost and vermiwash can be used for all crops as bio-fertilizers. Vermicomposting can be used for solid waste management and the production of bio- fertilizers. The aim of this study is to utilize these waste for the production of vermicompost using Eisenia fetida and Eudrillus Eugenia after mixing with cow dung and soil. Vermicomposting is performed for the period of 85 days and physicochemical analysis showed decreased in TOC, TOM & C: N and increased in NPK Content. The results shows that vermicompost produced by E.fetida possesses higher nutrient contents than that of E.Eugenia and can be used for effective production of vermicompost using horticultural wastes.
Keywords: Horticulture waste; Earthworm; Vermicompost; Vermiwash; Plant growth;.
Effect of equivalence ratio on gasification of granular biomaterials in self circulating fluidized bed gasifier
by Ganesh R, Jaisankar S, Sheeba K.N
Abstract: Biomass can be converted to gaseous fuels through thermo chemical conversion process. In this study rice husk, coir pith and saw dust were selected and gasified in a self circulating fluidized bed Gasifier. Gas composition has been analyzed for equivalence ratios of 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 for 10 minute time interval and its effect on gas constituents has been studied. The gas yield has been found to be in the range of 1.5 - 2.4 Nm3/Kg, 1.6 - 2.9 Nm3/Kg and 2 - 3.2 Nm3/Kg for rice husk, coir pith and saw dust respectively. The study has been carried out in a pilot model Gasifier.
Keywords: Self circulating FBG; Equivalence ratio; gas yield; reactor temperature; gas composition; pilot model.
Detoxification of food-waste hydrolysate to enhance lipid production in M.pulcherrima An alternative feedstock for biodiesel
by Priyadharshni Vairava Sundaram, Jayanthi Singaram, Thirulogachandar Ashokan
Abstract: One of the alternative ways to produce biodiesel in a sustainable manner, without contending with food crops, is to use microbes. Microbial oil is a potential feedstock for the biodiesel industry. In this study, oleaginous yeast (Metschnikowia pulcherrima) was used to produce lipid from the carbon source obtained from food waste hydrolysate. Lime and activated charcoal were used to detoxify the hydrolysate and among these detoxifiers, activated charcoal increased the C/N ratio to 76. Fermentation was done in 5 L bioreactor and biomass yield of 12.8 g/L was derived after 96 hours of cultivation. The lipid content was 21.1% and lipid yield was 2.7 g/L with COD removal of 52%. The obtained lipid was analyzed using Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) and the result signifies that the lipid produced using the detoxified food waste hydrolysate could be used as an effective feedstock for biodiesel production. \
Keywords: Food waste hydrolysate; Metschnikowia pulcherrima; lipid; C/N ratio; detoxification; FTIR.
EFFECT OF ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONAL PARAMETERS ON DECOLORIZATION OF REACTIVE RED -195 USING BATCH PROCESS.
by Chandrasen Rajemahadik, Sunil Parith, Yogesh Chougulae, Nilesh Bate, Indrajit Deshmukh, A.D. Bhosale
Abstract: Reactive Red-195 synthetic solution of dye concentration 60 mg/L was studied over different operational parameter in simple electrochemical cell for decolourization. Effect of operational parameters such as variation in applied electrical potential, electrolyte concentration, dye concentration, inter electrode distance (S), cathode material, H2O2 dose and electrolysis time were analysis separately in batch process using iron electrodes. Initially potential difference of 20 volts was optimized considering colour removal efficiency and energy consumption. Effect of optimized potential of 20 volt was investigated for colour removal on above mentioned operational parameters. Effect of increase in NaCl concentration from 1 to 2.5 g/L, decrease in electrolysis time and energy consumption, achieving 100% removal efficiency. Decrease in inter-electrode distance from 4 to 1 cm, reduced electrolysis time from 16 to 10 minutes achieving 100% of removal efficiency, respectively. As concentration of dye decreased from 100 to 40 mg/l, removal efficiency is achieved in short electrolysis time from 16 to 8 minute, respectively. Colour removal efficiency of 91.06 to 96.24% was achieved in 2 minutes by adding H2O2 dose of 2 to 6 ml/L, respectively compared to 27.26% without H2O2. The cathode material aluminum offered 80.9% colour removal in 2 minute, compared to 27.26% using iron and 64.74 % with steel at cathode in pair with iron at anode. The results demonstrated direct effect of operational parameters on colour removal efficiency with connected monopolar Fe-Fe electrodes using EC batch process.
Keywords: Iron electrode; Dye removal; Electrocoagulation; operational parameters.
Synthesis of Biogenic Nano-scale Gold products by natural tribes and their inborn antimicrobial activity
by Anitha Jegadeeshwari Lakshmana Perumal Raj, Nagendra Gandhi N
Abstract: In this paper, we report the green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) using Wright tinctoria Seed extract. The biomolecules present in the seed extract is responsible for the formation of Au NPs and they found to play dual role of both reducing as well as capping agents. Appearance of violet color confirms the Au NPs formation. The surface nature of the synthesized nano particle is studied using SEM and TEM analysis. The high crystallinity of Au NPs is observed from the diffraction peaks in XRD profile. FTIR spectrum confirms the presence of different functional groups of biomolecules participated in encapsulating Au NPs. In this work, a possible mechanism of Au NPs formation was also proposed. The synthesized Biogenic Nano-scale gold particles by Natural Tribes is tested for its inborn antimicrobial activity. Antimicrobial activity of Au NPs showed better inhibitory activity towards certain pathogens in comparison to other test pathogens.
Keywords: Green route; Gold nanoparticles; Wrightia Tinctoria; Seed extract; Anti microbial activity.
A Study on Quality Characteristics of Packaged Drinking Water Sold in and around Kanchipuram District, Tamilnadu, India
by Subramanian Nithiyanantham, J. Sudarsan, R. Annadurai
Abstract: Water has always been an important and life- sustaining drink to all living beings. It is rather difficult to imagine wellbeing of life without access to safe drinking water. Water sources without pollution are becoming increasingly scarce today and the drinking water crisisis looming, especially in urban centers. Adequate supply of fresh and safe drinking water is a basic need for all human beings on the earth. Communities in urban areas suffer from acute drinking water shortage. To augment this situation many entrepreneurs took to packaged water business- production and vending and within the task of ensuring its quality arises. This lead to diseases and contamination of drinking water constitute a major burden on human health and the pathogens involved include a wide variety of virus, bacteria. Due to difference in size, structure, composition and excretion by humans and animals their incidence and behavior in water environmental so differs. The culture of consuming packaged drinking water was it is spreading rapidly. Water quality is assessed on the basis of calculated water quality indices.
Keywords: packaged drinking water; Kanchipuram district; health issues; contaminants; water quality.
PRODUCTION OF BIODIESEL FEEDSTOCK - MICROBIAL LIPID FROM SLAUGHTERHOUSE WASTEWATER
by THIRULOGACHANDAR ASOKAN, JAYANTHI SINGARAM, PRIYADHARSHNI VAIRAVASUNDARAM
Abstract: Biodiesel is an alternative diesel fuel, which can be synthesized from renewable biological sources. Lipid production using carbon source in wastewater is an emerging process as it purely depends on waste source. In the present study, the ability of Yarrowia lipolytica to accumulate lipids using slaughterhouse wastewater as substrate was investigated. Using raw wastewater as substrate, maximum lipid content (0.43 g/L) and biomass (1.2 g/g) were obtained. Various pretreatment methods like acid, alkaline, heat, activated carbon and sawdust treatment were performed and two-fold increase in C/N ratio was observed in combined pretreatment of sawdust with KOH. Using pretreated wastewater, lipid accumulation was enhanced to 32% with lipid content of 0.64 g/L. Results of this study conclude that the pre-treated slaughterhouse wastewater can be employed as a better feedstock for lipid production using Yarrowia lipolytica.
Keywords: Oleaginous microorganisms; Yarrowia lipolytica; slaughterhouse wastewater; C/N ratio; pretreatment.
Effects of Retting Pond Waste Water Pollution and Seasonal Variation
by Yasar Arafath K.A, Nilavunesan D, Sivanesan S, Thiruvengadaravi K.V, Baskaralingam P
Abstract: This study focuses on the seasonal variation of physico-chemical parametersrnof water samples collected from coconut husk retting site at KADAYANALLUR,rnTHIRUNELVELI (DIST), TAMILNADU, INDIA. The main objective of this study is tornassess the quality of waste water during a period of 12 months. The physicochemical parameters such as pH, COD (chemical oxygen demand), BOD (biological oxygen demand), phenol, TS (total solids), TSS (total suspended solids), TDS (total dissolved solids), colour and bio degradability of the water samples were analysed. The analysed parameters were found to be pH 6.6 - 7.6, COD 12800-16000 mg/L, BOD 7000 7500 mg/L, Phenol 370 420 mg/L, Total solids 28050 32900 mg/L, Total suspended solids 1200 - 1500 mg/L, Total dissolved solids 26850 - 31600 mg/L, colour 2.6 3.0 (400 nm), biodegradability ˃0.3. Most of the analysed properties were found to be higher value than the permissible limitations of WHO (World Health Organization) and BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) water quality guidelines
Keywords: Retting pond wastewater; Phenol; Chemical oxygen demand (COD); Biological oxygen demand (BOD); WHO (World Health Organization); BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards).
A Quick Prediction of Hardness from Water Quality Parameters by Artificial Neural Network
by Ritabrata Roy, Mrinmoy Majumder
Abstract: Hardness is an important Water Quality Parameter to determine the suitability of the water for use in different purposes. The hardness of water is conventionally determined by EDTA Titration method, which is fairly accurate but time-consuming. Sensor based analyzer for hardness, on the other hand, is quite expensive and not easily available. Thus, the conventional methods are inconvenient for the systems, where quick estimation of hardness is essential. This study proposes a model to predict the hardness of water from a few quickly measurable water quality parameters, having high correlations with hardness. The model, developed by Artificial Neural Network, was further validated by a different set of field data. Results indicate that the model is successful in predicting the hardness of water fairly accurately with a high correlation of 0.92, and low deviation (MAPE=13.60, RMSE=10.24) of the model predictions from the actual data.
Keywords: Artificial Neural Network; Hardness; Water Quality Parameter; Prediction of Hardness; Tripura; India.
Thermodynamic Aggregation Behaviour of P-Cymene in Hydrotropic Solution
by Arunodhaya N, Nagendra Gandhi N
Abstract: The paper deals with the thermodynamic properties and aggregation behaviour of p-cymene through hydrotropy. Different hydrotropes namely urea, resorcinol, sodium cumene sulfonate and pyrogallol has been used to study the solubility under a wide range of hydrotrope concentrations (0 to 3.00 mol.kg-1) and different system temperatures (303.15 to 333.15 K). The effectiveness of hydrotrope with respect to the system was measured by Setschenow constant KS and reported for all hydrotropes used in this study. The influence of different system temperatures on thermodynamic properties like standard Gibbs free energy change (ΔG
Keywords: hydrotropy; solubilization; association constant; standard Gibbs free energy change; standard enthalpy change; standard entropy change; FTIR.
Pressure drop characteristics & Efficiency enhancement by using TiO2-H2O nanofluid in a Sustainable Solar thermal energy Collector
by Sekhar Tvr
Abstract: Titania nanofluid is procured and 6 different volume fractions are prepared and homogenized.The nanofluid is subjected to experimental study in a built sustainable solar thermal energy collector model. Theoretical models for the calculation of pressure drop and thermal efficiency across the model are used. The results using experimental results are compared with the theoretical values and it is found that at a volume fraction of 3 % of the titania nanofluid,the collector exhibited collector efficiency of 56% with a pressure drop of 61 mm of water column. This is compared with values of water with 28% thermal efficiency at a pressure drop of 45 mm of water column. Finally a model is developed to predict the pressure drop and thermal efficiency by using TiO2-H2O nanofluid in a solar thermal energy collector.rnrn
Keywords: Efficiency;Nanofluid;Pressure drop;Solar thermal;Titania.
Special Issue on: Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems SDEWES
Energy Effective Routing Optimization using ACO-FDRPSO for Improving MANET Performance
by Rangaraj Jayavenkatesan, Anitha Mariappan
Abstract: Autonomous devices that are interconnected in an on demand fashion that communicate in wireless medium with the available energy constitute Mobile Adhoc Networks (MANET). Communication in these networks is restricted to lifetime of the nodes that inturn dependent upon the nodes battery power. Therefore optimization is necessary to prolong node lifetime and communication period. This work proposes a hybrid Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) combined with Fitness Distance Ratio Particle Swarm Optimization (FDR PSO) to optimize energy. ACO finds the energy efficient path in the network based on higher residual energy and FDR PSO minimizes energy consumption of the network, to enhance node lifetime which ensures energy efficient routing. Duty cycle algorithm collaborated with ACO swaps the nodes between active and sleep state depending upon their utilization. This prevents a node being active all time though it has no communication at that instant of time. The proposed hybrid technique (ACO-FDR PSO) is tested over a 100 node network scenario. The impact of varying number of nodes and their speed on the performance metrics such as throughput, packet delivery ratio, drop and residual energy have been analyzed using NS-2 simulator.
Keywords: ACO; Duty Cycle; FDR PSO; MANET; Residual Energy.
Special Issue on: IJESD Environment Protection for Sustainable Development
Surface modification of eco-friendly ligno-cellulosic fibre extracted from Lagenaria siceraria plant agro waste: A sustainable approach
by Saravanan N., Sampath PS, Sukantha TA
Abstract: Recent research ventures capitalize on the production of green polymers to address the spiraling environmental threats by sustainable methods. Countries across the globe face the threat of solid waste disposal as its major agenda in their environmental concerns. The present study was carried out to identify potential reinforcement of lingo- cellulosic fiber extracted from the solid agro waste pile of Lagenaria siceraria (LS) plant. The thermal stability and mechanical strength of raw Lagenaria siceraria fibers (LSFs) was modified by alkali treatment (2-15 %w/v of NaOH) at different temperature and time intervals. The present study ends with the finding that 4% alkali treatment at 45
Keywords: sustainable approach; surface modification; mechanical property; Thermal stability;Lagenaria siceraria fiber; solid waste.
Environment sustainable construction materials for garden-fresh and mechanical properties of high strength self-compacting concrete mixes with diverse mineral admixtures and water binder ratios
by Lavanya R, Murthi P, Karthikeyan V
Abstract: An experimental investigation was carried out to study the properties of self-compacting concrete (SCC) prepared with different mineral admixtures and waterbinder ratios. Fly ash, silica fume, and ground-granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS) were used with waterbinder ratios of 0.3, 0.35, and 0.4. The mixes were designed for M60 grade of concrete and prepared with three steps of addition (5, 10, and 15%) of GGBS and silica fume and were made with four steps of fly ash (5, 10, 15, and 20%) as partial replacement of fine aggregate. For determining the fresh properties, slump flow, V -funnel, L-box, and U-box tests were conducted. The mechanical properties of mixes such as compressive strength, split tensile strength, and flexural strength were determined through standard tests. Compressive strength was found at the age of 1 day, 3 days, 7 days, 14 days, 28 days and 90 days, and the split tensile and flexural tests were performed at the age of 28 days. The test results revealed that in the SCC mixes, the flowability increases with increase in fly ash content, and the compressive strength decreases with increase in waterbinder ratio. The SCC mixtures in which fly ash was used replacing fine aggregate showed an increase in strength with age. It is concluded that a combination of fly ash, silica fume, and GGBS in SCC can be used to make a sustainable, eco-friendly construction material for a better tomorrow.
Keywords: Self-compacting concrete; water–binder ratio; fly ash; GGBS; silica fume.