International Journal of Environment and Sustainable Development (13 papers in press)
An empirical assessment of the Environmental Kuznets Curve for CO2 emissions in Ghana
by Michael Minlah, Richard Ayisi
Abstract: Ghana has achieved significant economic growth over the period 1971 -2009. However, it is widely acknowledged that economic growth has its negative environmental consequences. In very recent years environmental policy has been more directed towards correcting environmental ills such as deforestation, desertification and pollution which result from human activities. Issues of global warming and climate change have taken central stage in environmental policies of Ghana. This study investigated the determinants of CO2 emissions in Ghana within the Environmental Kuznets Curve analysis for the period 1971 to 2009. The long run analysis between the regression variables was established using the ARDL approach to co-integration. The study reveals an inverted N shaped relationship between CO2 and economic growth in Ghana. While urbanization, energy consumption and deforestation proved to be statistically insignificant in promoting carbon dioxide emissions in Ghana, trade openness and financial development were observed to reduce carbon dioxide emissions.
Keywords: Environmental Kuznet Curve; Co2; Ghana.
Impact of urban green spaces attributes on visitors satisfaction in Putrajaya: Malaysia
by Abdulrahman Sa'adu Danjaji, Mariani Ariffin, Amir Hamzah Sharaai, Yazid Mohammad Yunus
Abstract: Systematic distribution of available urban green spaces and management strategy adopted in maintaining the aesthetic quality of public open spaces have significant contribution to overall satisfaction of visitors to urban green areas with unique contribution to the neighborhood satisfaction. This implies that, urban green spaces enhances the overall built environmental quality and hence promotes residents satisfaction of their neighborhood. Urban residents worldwide express a desire for contact with nature and with each other. A greener places offer opportunity to its residents for recreational activities, privacy and have unique contribution toward aesthetic quality of the built environment. However, rapid urbanization distanced urban communities from nature as a result of enormous conversion of greener areas with paved surfaces that increase urban temperature which are recognized as a source of dissatisfaction. Purposeful selection of green open space was made based on their individual quality, and services they provide for harmonious development of Putrajaya. Three hundred and eighty six (386) samples are used in this study using Krejcie & Morgan 1970 formula of sample size, with 371 valid questionnaires used for the entire analysis in the study. Pearson moment correlation analysis show strong positive relationship between urban green space attributes and satisfaction, while the regression analysis conducted indicated that all the predicting variable (quality, quantity, and accessibility) have significant unique contribution in determining visitors satisfaction to urban green spaces.
Keywords: Urban green space; quality; quantity; accessibility,visitors' satisfaction; and urban satisfaction.
Inclusive wealth accounting for South Asia: Measuring towards sustainability
by M. Balasubramanian
Abstract: Inclusive wealth is key measuring indicator of sustainable development. Long-term development is a process of accumulation and sound management of a portfolio of assets-manufactured capital, natural capital, human and social capital. Existing indicators for measuring economic progress have many limitations such as GDP and HDI and does not focusing on sustainability of the nation. Previous indicators are missing true values from the natural resource. The new indicators such as Green GDP, Index of Sustainable and Economic Welfare, Genuine Progress Indicators are concern about sustainability. The major objective of this paper is to estimate the inclusive wealth for South Asia the period of 1990-2010. This study has used wealth accounting methodology, and aggregates the value of produced capital, human capital, forest resources and exhaustible resources. Inclusive wealth is an important instrument for human well-being. The main implication of the paper is inclusive wealth make better decisions for achieving sustainable development for South Asia. Accounting for natural capital strength also is useful for educating decision makers and assessing the relative importance of non-market benefits relative to market benefits
Keywords: Sustainable Development; Sustainability; Wealth; Green GDP; South Asia.
Converging urban political ecology and environmental justice disciplines for more effective civil society actions against macro-economic risks in South Africa
by Llewellyn Leonard
Abstract: This paper seeks to explore the potential for converging the theory of (urban) political ecology with the environmental justice discipline so as to promote more effective civil society actions against macro-economic risks. Such a convergence could result in mutual benefit for both arenas already sharing a commitment towards justice. Whilst political ecology has focused on theoretical perspectives applied mostly in rural areas and examined justice in a larger macro-economic framework, environmental justice has been confined to an empirical focus at the local urban level unable to link local struggles to larger political economic frameworks. Additionally, both arenas generally view civil society as coherent entities acting against the state and industry. Both disciplines need to re-evaluate geographic scales and reconfigure romanticised understandings of civil society actions to attain justice. Through the empirical case of South Africa, this paper sheds light on the derelict aspect of civil society contestation against macro-economic risks.
Keywords: Political ecology; environmental justice; civil society; risks; South Africa.
A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF POLYETHYLENE PLASTIC WASTE ON SANDY SOILS
by Rupanjan Chakraborty, Rakesh Barman, Sarbajit Bhattacharyya, Kuntal Das
Abstract: Plastic pollution is one of the major global issues. Engineering measures are being undertaken to harness the non-bio degradability of plastic by converting it to a vital part of built environment. A comparative study is undertaken to evaluate the effects of the waste plastic (polyethylene) on the geotechnical properties of two locally available sands viz. Brahmaputra Sand and Kulsi Sand by conducting a series of direct shear tests on the two sand samples reinforced with polyethylene plastic strips. The effect of varying concentration of plastics (0.10%, 0.20%, 0.30%, 0.45%, 0.60%, 0.70% and 0.75% by weight of the sand) using different dimensions of the plastic strips is investigated. The polyethylene plastic strips length varied from 15 mm to 45 mm and width varied from 5 mm to 15 mm. The shear strength parameters which are obtained ultimately for the composite specimens on which analysis have been done, positively reflect soil improvement due to the inclusion of polyethylene plastic waste.
Keywords: Plastic pollution; polyethylene shopping bags; soil improvement; direct shear test; shear strength.
Unraveling coastal peoples adaptation to salinity: Evidence from Bangladesh
by Farhana Zaman, Khondoker Hossain
Abstract: Salinity as a slow onset climate change induced disaster is affecting coastal agriculture in multifarious ways. This study intends to explore various adaptation strategies that coastal people adopt to cope with the increasing saline water intrusion. To serve this purpose, the study conducted a survey with 318 landless people, 195 women and 123 men, selected purposively from two southwest coastal villages of Bangladesh. A five point ordinal level Likert scale has been used to analyse data where respondents were asked to rank each strategy on the basis of their priority of adoption. Change in land use pattern, use of modern technology in agriculture, diversification of crops and income sources, livestock raising, using savings during disaster period and harvesting rainwater were some of the adaptation strategies common in the study areas. The study found that womens ability to adapt is seriously compromised by the fact that they have limited access to every form of capital. So it is vital that the government take up specific programmes to enhance their adaptation capacity through education and skill development, create job and credit opportunities as well as build local funds for capacity-building, especially for women.
Keywords: Adaptation capacity; adaptation strategy; capital; coastal people; gender; salinity.
LEED certification and market value of the firm
by Albena Ivanova, Marcel Minutolo
Abstract: This article extends signaling theory to research on voluntary green standards adoption and investigates the firms value in green buildings. The study analyzes the market valuation of investments in sustainable buildings, measuring the market reaction to three different types of Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design (LEED) announcements: (i) intent for application; (ii) achievement of certification; and, (iii) reinforcement of certification. The study hypothesizes the market will react differently to intent, achievement, and reinforcement signals. Empirical evidence shows a positive market reaction to LEED announcements in general, with positive but not statistically significant market reaction to the intent signals, and positive and statistically significant reaction to the achievement and reinforcement signals. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Keywords: LEED certification; separating equilibrium; signaling theory; standards; strategic management; event study; market value.
Sustainable Wastewater Management for Underdeveloped Communities - A Hands-on Method for Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Greywater
by Md. Ashique Ahmed, Zimran Saiek, Omar Chowdhury, Marzia Tamanna, Sanjay Tewari
Abstract: The quantity of greywater produced in urban areas of Dhaka city in Bangladesh is around 96-112 liters per capita per day which is 60-70% of the average water supplied. This huge amount of greywater could be recycled via a separate distribution system to meet water demand for greywater toilet systems, gardening, and irrigation. The quality parameters of collected greywater samples ranged for pH between 6.67 to 7.92, conductivity between 548 to 999 microS-cm-1, turbidity between 54 to 435 NTU, color between 28 to 367 (Pt-Co Unit), BOD5 between 60 to 299 mg-L-1, and COD between 135 to 751 mg-L-1. It is estimated that an annual savings of 59 million Taka (about 728,300, USD based on $1 = 81Taka as of 4/13/2017) could be achieved in a chemical and purification process if greywater is recycled for this community. This practice of recycling greywater is a step toward sustainable wastewater management for underdeveloped communities struggling with capital and dwindling freshwater sources.
Keywords: Greywater; Reuse; Recycle; Underdeveloped Communities; Sustainable.
Climatic Changes and Vulnerability of Household Food Utilization in Malaysian East Coast Economic Region
by Md. Mahmudul Alam, Chamhuri Siwar, Basri Talib, Abu Wahid
Abstract: Sustainable food security at household level is one of the emerging issues for all nations. There are several factors such as social, economic, political, demographic, natural, and livelihood strategies that causes to the vulnerability of the status of household food security. Therefore examining the vulnerability of these factors is essential to identify the reason and recognize the most vulnerable communities. This study is an attempt to study on the vulnerability of the factors of household food utilization and its linkage with climatic changes in Malaysia. The study is based on primary data collected in the months of July October, 2012 through a questionnaire survey on 460 low income households from East Coast Economic Region (ECER) in Malaysia. The samples were selected from E-Kasih poor household database, based on cluster random sampling technique. The study found that the vulnerability of the factors of household food utilization has increased statistically significantly over the last five years period due to difference between rural and city food quality, occurrences of natural disasters, incidences of mosquitoes, insects, pest, etc., and diseases like dengue, malaria, heat stretch, cold, skin disease, etc. This study suggests that the food security programs need to be integrated with climatic change adaptation programs to ensure more effective and sustainable household food security in future, especially among the poor and low income group.
Keywords: Climatic Changes; Household Food Security; Food Utilization; Vulnerability; Poverty.
Special Issue on: BEST2017 Sustainable Technologies in Environmental Science and Engineering
Numerical investigation of unsteady buoyancy driven indoor air flow characteristics under various range of internal heat generation
by Lenin V R, Sivalakshmi S
Abstract: Increase in global warming increases the cooling load to all kinds of building sector (residential and commercial). Buildings consume more energy for cooling or heating and it depends on the regional climatic conditions. In summer region, peoples are paying more interest in implementing cooling technique or equipment to achieve the comfort environment. Before analyzing the building nature implementation of any machinery leads further increase in energy demand also comfort environment may not be possible. In this work the maximum indoor air temperature of a closed room was investigated under transient condition with various range of internal heat flux. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool ANSYS-FLUENT was used to simulate the room model of 5m x 5m x 5m. The three dimensional isolated room with constant thermal boundary condition was modeled and the grid independence study executed to predict the precise results. The result shows that the flow pattern of the room with hot wall and without hot walls varies. Machinery or equipment selection for cooling of the building plays the important role in the view of efficient utilization.
Keywords: Transient condition; CFD; indoor air temperature; internal heat flux; indoor air flow profile; buoyancy effect.
BIODIESEL PRODUCTION AND CHARACTERIZATION FROM PUNNAI OIL USING EGG SHELL CATALYST: ENGINE PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION STUDIES
by KARAN SALUNKHE, MILIND PATIL, Murugavelh Somasundaram
Abstract: Internal Combustion (IC) engine vehicles greatly contributes in polluting the environment through emissions such as CO, CO2, NOx, SOx, unburned Hydrocarbons (HC) and particulate emissions. Fossil fuels are the major contributors to urban air pollution and greenhouse gases. Ever increasing demand for fossil fuels and its limited reserves, global warming problems, environmental pollution are the main triggering points that forcing us to find new alternatives energy sources. Biodiesel meets all these requirements. These are fuels that can be renewable and available in plenty along with a check on pollution and emissions. Biodiesel can be produced from various methods such as direct use and blending, micro-emulsification, pyrolysis and trans-esterification process. Among these trans-esterification process is widely used technique. Biodiesel production is carried out by this process using homogeneous or heterogeneous catalysts. Choice of catalyst is on their higher kinetic reaction rates. Heterogeneous calcined egg shell catalyst gives advantage of less energy consumption and less water production over the conventional enzymes and acid based catalyst. The most important factors affecting the yield of biodiesel are the molar ratio of alcohol to raw vegetable oil and the reaction temperature. Methanol is commonly used alcohol in this process. This paper presents the production of biodiesel from Calophyllum inophyllum oil (Punnai oil or Tamanu oil) by trans-esterification process using calcined egg shell as a catalyst, characterization of biodiesel and engine testing for the performance and exhaust emissions. The calcined egg shell catalyst was prepared and characterized. The various blends of biodiesel were prepared with diesel and optimal proportion of blend is decided for better engine performance and less exhaust emissions.
Keywords: Calophyllum Inophyllum; Transesterification; Biodiesel; Engine performance; Emissions.
BIODIESEL PRODUCTION AND CHARACTERIZATION FROM PUNGAMIA OIL USING LOW COST PISTHIA SHELL CATALYST: ENGINE PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION STUDIES
by PRIYANKA SHINDE, ANAND BRAMHEKAR, Murugavelh Somasundaram
Abstract: Production of fatty acid methyl esters from pongamia oil through trans-esterification was reported in this paper. The GCMS analysis of oil was studied and the major fatty acids content was found to be 12.25
% by weight. The molecular weight of the oil was 887.039 g/mol. A maximum yield of 85 % biodiesel was reported when the reaction temperature, time, methanol/oil ratio and catalyst loading rate were 60
Keywords: Pungamia Pinnata oil; Transesterification; Hetrogenuous catalyst; Biodiesel; Characterization; Engine Performance; Emission Studies.
Renovation of Horticultural waste into organic fertilizer by vermicomposting technology: Approach for Solid waste management
by SUBBU LAKSHMI, THIRU NEELAKANDAN
Abstract: Horticulture products which are produced in Cuddalore district of Tamilnadu have unique demand all over India. The production of horticultural products leads to enormous amount of horticultural wastes. These waste refers to tree trunks and branches, plant parts and trimmings generated during the maintenance and pruning of trees and plants. Wastes recycling can bring tremendous benefits to agriculture and land management in long run. On the other hand vermicompost and vermiwash can be used for all crops as bio-fertilizers. Vermicomposting can be used for solid waste management and the production of bio- fertilizers. The aim of this study is to utilize these waste for the production of vermicompost using Eisenia fetida and Eudrillus Eugenia after mixing with cow dung and soil. Vermicomposting is performed for the period of 85 days and physicochemical analysis showed decreased in TOC, TOM & C: N and increased in NPK Content. The results shows that vermicompost produced by E.fetida possesses higher nutrient contents than that of E.Eugenia and can be used for effective production of vermicompost using horticultural wastes.
Keywords: Horticulture waste; Earthworm; Vermicompost; Vermiwash; Plant growth;.