International Journal of the Digital Human (9 papers in press)
Low cost 3D foot scan with Kinect
by Kaiwei Zhao, Ameersing Luximon, C.K. Chan
Abstract: Accurate 3D digital model of human foot is extremely useful in shoe or orthoticsdesign and other medical situations such as podiatric therapy.In view of the fact that most of the 3D data acquisition equipment on the market are either high cost though high accuracy (e.g. high-end laser scanner), or with poor maneuverability and efficiency (e.g. image-based stereography), or poor portability (e.g. largesize scanning machine or types requiring support frame), a newmethodfor human footscanningis proposed in this paper.Microsoft Kinect sensor was adopted as the key device in this approach and proved a smart and efficient scanner in 3D foot data acquisition according to a detailed comparison with other scanners in terms of scan time, cost, operability and portability. Accuracy check of the sphere and foot scanning resultsalso demonstrates decent precision of the proposed scanning system.
Keywords: Digital human model; foot scan; Kinect; low cost.
Three-dimensional (3D) shape analysis and anthropometry: A case study
by Peng Li
Abstract: This paper presents leg shape analysis from data collected in the 2012 US Army Anthropometry Survey (ANSUR II) as a case of digital body modeling. We applied principal component analysis (PCA) on 3D leg surfaces (3D PCA) and on relevant anthropometric measurements (1D PCA) of 3890 male subjects. We compared the first seven significant shape modes (accounting for 94% of shape variation) of the right leg with 1D PCA of six anthropometric measurements. The analysis shows that each set of PCA results has its own power to describe the shape variation. To explore the relations between anthropometric measurements and 3D shape variation, we also applied a multiple linear regression model (MLR) to 3D PCA scores against anthropometric measurements. The MLR results show a strong correlation between certain measurements and shape modes. Further numerical analysis also revealed a linear relation between the PC weights of length and circumference modes, and the volume and area of leg surfaces.
Keywords: ANSUR II; principal component analysis; multiple regression; leg shape variation.
Special Issue on: Emotion and Decision Making in a Connected Society
ESPY: Assistive Aid to Visually Impaired for Desktop Access
by Urmila Shrawankar
Abstract: In the revolutionary era of advanced technologies, computers have benefitted humankind in a favourable way by enabling automatic speech-conciliated communication. Even though various assistive tools are available, still visually impaired people are dependent for accessing computer using the traditional input devices, compared to sighted people. To transcend such limitations, the paper discusses an assistive desktop navigation system ESPY that provides the visually impaired individual with the ability to access desktop by mouse movements. By ESPY, user has plenary access of icons on their desktop. ESPY provides assistance to visually impaired people with a navigation proficiency, which allows them to use traditional input devices in a convenient way same as sighted users.
Keywords: Desktop Navigation; Speech Aid; Mouse Movements; Shortest Distance; Checkpoints; DPI-Aware System; Visually Impaired.
Support system to allow powered wheelchair users to comfortably climb steps in their chairs
by Kazunori Kaede, Ryohei Otsuka, Keiichi Watanuki, Keiichi Muramatsu
Abstract: It is difficult for electric wheelchair users who suffer from quadriplegia or have compromised motor skills to finely manipulate a joystick. In addition, they risk losing control of the wheelchair upon impacts with steps. In this paper, we describe a system we designed to assist users in finely controlling their speed, depending on the height of the step. The system incorporates a laser range finder to remotely detect the step. During testing, we evaluated the effects of exposing the user to whole-body vibrations in order to estimate the discomfort that arose from the step height and climbing speed. We also verified that this system reduced the impact caused by collisions with steps.
Keywords: Powered wheelchair; Human interface; Assistive technology.
Cyber-physical motion of digital human model for connected society
by Teruaki Ito, Tomio Watanabe
Abstract: The rapid movement of the world towards the connected society requires faster and adaptive decision making to comply with the frequent and unexpected changes in the society. Not only the theoretical thinking but also the emotional interaction is the key of this decision-making process. This paper proposes an idea of cyber-physical connection through the active motion of computer display, which could further strengthen the connection between people in terms of emotional aspect of communication. Using the expression of mid-air head motion as well as that of mid-air hand motion, implementation of the idea was presented in this paper as a cyber-physical motion for communication system applications, and its feasibility was shown from the experimental results.
Keywords: Cyber-physical motion; hand gesture model; head gesture model; entrainment; connected society.
Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Preference toward Multiple Colour Combinations
by Keiichi Muramatsu, Siyuan Fang, Kazunori Kaede, Eiichiro Tanaka, Keiichi Watanuki, Tatsunori Matsui
Abstract: Emotional responses to colour stimuli are referred to as colour emotions, and their psychological constructs relating to colour attributes have been discussed in past studies. However, colour preference, one type of colour emotions, has yet to be explained due to cultural and sex differences. In the current study, we investigated an implicit attitude towards multi-colour stimuli, which was regarded as a colour emotion judged by unconscious mental processes. To extract the implicit attitude and compare it with the explicit one, we conducted affect misattribution procedure, a method of measuring attitudes in social psychology. We obtained emotional responses different from ones measured using semantic differential method in a previous study. We analysed the characteristics of the multi-colour stimuli using scores in computed by the affect misattribution procedure. Results revealed that the explicit attitude towards multi-colour stimuli was affected by their chroma and hue values. The current study provided fundamental knowledge to clarify the psychological construct of colour preference.
Keywords: colour emotions; multiple colour combinations; affect misattribute procedure; implicit preference; explicit preference; emotional response; colour stimuli; sex differences; colour preference; multi-colour stimuli.
Influences of Visual Non-verbal Information on Feeling and Degree of Transmission in Presentations
by Kazuyuki Seki, Masashi Okubo
Abstract: It is well known that non-verbal information is important for smoothing communication. On the other hand, it is also suggested that limiting transmitted non-verbal information leads to accurate comprehension. In this research, in order to investigate the influence of visual non-verbal information in presentations on audiences comprehension, we prepared the four videos in which the presenter was represented differently: normal, shadow, stick figure, and voice-only. Experimental participants answered questionnaires and comprehension tests after watching each presentation video. Then we verified answers from two points of view: feeling of transmission and degree of transmission. The results showed that the normal video was more highly evaluated than the other three types of videos in terms of feeling of transmission. However, the shadow video resulted in a higher degree of transmission than the other three types of videos. Furthermore, we also performed post-experiment-questionnaires and tests one week later and verified the effects of visible non-verbal information on memorability and memory retention.
Keywords: non-verbal information; communication; presentation; shadow avatar; stick figure avatar; feeling of transmission; degree of transmission; memorability; memory of transmission; comprehension; embodied communication.
Remote Collaborative Learning Support System using Avatars with Facial Expressions
by Masashi Okubo, Shinya Komatsu
Abstract: Recently, various researches have been conducted about remote collaborative learning by using Internet. However, unlike face-to-face communication, remote communication is difficult to give nonverbal information such as facial expression and physical action such as nodding. Therefore, it may interfere with the transmission of intention and emotion. In this research, in order to support intention and emotion transmission in remote collaborative learning, we develop and assess a remote collaborative learning support system using avatar with facial expression on sharing note system. We create 13 types of avatar with facial expression including expressionless with reference to Russell's emotional circle model. As a result of comparative experiments with and without avatar with facial expression, the drawing time has increased and the test score is high when there are avatars with facial expression. And since weak positive correlation is observed between the drawing time and the test score, it is presumed that the avatar with facial expression promotes explanatory activities by drawing and enhances the learning efficiency. In addition, during ice break where facial expression change function is more frequently used than learning, the number of utterances of chat is decreasing, so it is inferred that facial expression change function is part of chat's remarks.
Keywords: remote collaborative learning; learning support system; avatar; facial expression; non-verbal information; embodied communication; remote communication; facial stamp;.
Special Issue on: 3D Measurement and Modelling Methods for Creating Anthropometric Digital Human Models
A landmark based 3D parametric foot model for footwear customization
by Yu Song, Jesse Hoeksema, Johan Molenbroek
Abstract: This paper presents a landmark based parametric 3D foot model which can be used as the basis for designing customized shoe lasts. 22 points on the surface of the foot are defined as anthropometric landmarks. 11 NURBS curves are then generated based on these 22 landmarks to construct the 3D parametric foot surface model using Rhinoceros
Keywords: landmarks; parametric model; foot; last; measure.