Forthcoming articles


International Journal of Communication Networks and Distributed Systems


These articles have been peer-reviewed and accepted for publication in IJCNDS, but are pending final changes, are not yet published and may not appear here in their final order of publication until they are assigned to issues. Therefore, the content conforms to our standards but the presentation (e.g. typesetting and proof-reading) is not necessarily up to the Inderscience standard. Additionally, titles, authors, abstracts and keywords may change before publication. Articles will not be published until the final proofs are validated by their authors.


Forthcoming articles must be purchased for the purposes of research, teaching and private study only. These articles can be cited using the expression "in press". For example: Smith, J. (in press). Article Title. Journal Title.


Articles marked with this shopping trolley icon are available for purchase - click on the icon to send an email request to purchase.


Articles marked with this Open Access icon are freely available and openly accessible to all without any restriction except the ones stated in their respective CC licenses.


Register for our alerting service, which notifies you by email when new issues of IJCNDS are published online.


We also offer RSS feeds which provide timely updates of tables of contents, newly published articles and calls for papers.


International Journal of Communication Networks and Distributed Systems (35 papers in press)


Regular Issues


  • A Secure and Decentralized SIP for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammed Hussain, Dhafer Ben Khedher 
    Abstract: Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are infrastructure-less and can be set up temporarily. They can host a wide range of conferencing applications, such as audio/video conferencing. Decentralized versions of Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) fit the lightweight and scalability requirements needed for MANETs. Security in decentralized SIP has not yet been addressed. This paper presents an authentication scheme for decentralized SIP. The scheme allows the members of a decentralized SIP-based conference to securely perform SIP operations. The scheme employs identity-based signatures cryptography. The practicality and effectiveness of the scheme is illustrated using a working prototype.
    Keywords: Distributed SIP; Secure SIP.

  • IntersectionCast: Approximation Algorithm for Multi-Directional Broadcast Storm in VANETs   Order a copy of this article
    by Debasis Das 
    Abstract: We formulate a Multi-directional Broadcast(MDB) storm problem arising in a dense Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs) when the multiple nodes (moving in multiple directions) forward broadcast packets meet at the road intersections, resulting in severe packet collisions inducing delays at medium access control. None of the reported broadcast storm suppression techniques has dealt with multi-directional broadcast storm problem in VANETs (characterized by highly dynamic nature of mobile nodes and road network topology with road intersection). In this work, we have proposed a mechanism for partitioning the graph of vehicles in an intersection into multiple bipartite directional sub-graphs, such that each sub-graph aggregates messages using short range communication and make one long range communication of aggregated message. This way, our approach not only suppresses broadcast storm at road intersections but also saves energy in sending a few aggregated long range communication. The k balanced graph partitioning problem contains partitions of size $leq'V'/k$ nodes. For a graph G=(V,E), a partitioning $P$, is $(k,1+epsilon)$ balanced if V is partitioned into k disjoint subsets each containing at most $(1+epsilon)n/k$ vertices. It has been proved that (k,1)-balanced partitioning is approximable within any finite constant unless P=NP. Our proposed approximation algorithm for intersection-cast problem uses a balanced partition with $Theta(log^2n)$ approximation for balance constant, $v>1$. We have given simulation results for the performance analysis of our intersection-cast protocol compared to the existing competitive schemes and found improvement in terms of broadcast success rate, reachability and message overhead in the networks.
    Keywords: Multi-directional Broadcast (MDB); Broadcast Storm; Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks(VANETs); Road Intersection; NP Completeness; Approximation Algorithm.

  • Multipath Routing Protocols for Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks: A Survey   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohamed LEHSAINI, Asma CHIKH 
    Abstract: Recent advances in sensor networks have led to a new category of networks called Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSNs). These networks can support a variety of multimedia applications that have more requirements than other kinds of applications in terms of latency, energy consumption and quality of service. However, routing protocols designed initially for sensor networks cannot fulfill these requirements specially those involving a single-path in the data delivery process. For this purpose, multipath routing protocols are considered as appropriated solutions to achieve these goals since they can efficiently reduce energy consumption, prolong network lifetime, reduce latency and enable load balancing. In this paper, we survey recent multipath routing protocols designed for WMSNs and present a taxonomy and general classification for the various approaches pursued. Moreover, we also compare them based on relevant metrics such as architecture, hole bypassing, path disjointness, load balancing, bandwidth aggregation, energy efficient, reducing delay and data reliability.
    Keywords: Energy-efficient; Load balancing; Multimedia applications; Multipath routing; QoS requirements; WSNs; WMSNs.

  • Multiple Order-Preserving Hash Functions for Load Balancing in P2P Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Maeva Antoine, Fabrice Huet 
    Abstract: Hash functions are at the heart of data insertion and retrieval in DHTbased overlays. However, a standard hash function destroys the natural ordering of data. To perform efficient range queries processing, in a minimum number of hops, more and more systems opt for an order-preserving hash function to place data. Unlike a standard hash function, this technique cannot evenly distribute data among peers. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to improve the data dissemination using several order-preserving hash functions. We describe a protocol that allows an overloaded peer to change its hash function at runtime. Then, we show that all peers should not necessarily use the same hash function in an overlay to insert or look for an item. Finally, we demonstrate through simulations that this strategy greatly improves the dissemination of data items. As this technique does not require any overall coordination, it is well suited to overloaded P2P systems facing unstable topologies. To our knowledge, this is the first load balancing solution using multiple order-preserving hash functions in structured overlays.
    Keywords: hash functions; load balancing; structured overlays; skewed data; lexicographic order.

  • Achieving a High Throughput and a Low Latency through a Modular Packet Scheduler   Order a copy of this article
    by Maurizio Casoni, Carlo Augusto Grazia, Paolo Valente 
    Abstract: Providing QoS guarantees in wireless environment is a challenging task because of the idiosyncrasies of the wireless media. State-of-the-art solutions for QoS provisioning over wireless links are based on cross-layering packet schedulers that deal both with the QoS guarantees and the wireless link issues. Unfortunately, such an approach is not flexible and requires technology-dependent solutions, with the definition of a different software version for each of the technologies deployed. To address these issues, we present a modular architecture which permits the use of existing high-performance packet schedulers for wired links over generic wireless technologies, as they are, and at the same time allows the flexibility to adapt to different channel conditions. We validate the effectiveness of our modular solution through a formal analysis. We also present High-throughput Twin Fair scheduler (HFS), a novel packet scheduler based on the modular architecture. HFS has the execution time and the energy consumption close to those of a Deficit Round Robin, an accurate fairness and a low latency; it also has the possibility (changing only one parameter) to set the desired trade- off between throughput-boosting level and granularity of service guarantees. In particular, we show that HFS outperforms one of the most accurate and efficient integrated schedulers available in the literature, confirming the effectiveness of the proposed modular architecture.
    Keywords: cross-layering; latency; QoS; scheduling; throughput.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2017.10004206
  • Hierarchical Routing Technique for Traffic Control in Future Internet Architecture   Order a copy of this article
    by Vinodha Krishnareddy, Selvarani Rangaswamy 
    Abstract: The conventional TCP-based communication techniques are no longer effective in controlling dynamic situation of traffic congestion especially for future internet architecture. We reviewed the existing techniques and found that the problem of traffic congestion pertaining to heterogeneous wireless network is still not resolved. The design principle adopted in our research discusses the network architecture that is suitable for node deployment, mobility, routing, and evaluation of QoS requirement for future internet. The significance of the outcomes is being measured through QoS parameters like data transmission, channel capacity and energy dissipation. The results show that proposed routing scheme offers an efficient control over congestion in future internet.
    Keywords: Congestion Control; Future Internet Architecture; Distributed Network; Routing.

  • Design and Analysis of a Stable AQM Controller for Network Congestion Control   Order a copy of this article
    by Sukant Kishoro Bisoy, Prasant Kumar Pattnaik, Bibudhendu Pati, Chhabi Rani Panigrahi 
    Abstract: In this work, a stable active queue management (AQM) controller named SAQM is proposed to control the congestion in the network and improve the stability of the queue length at Internet router. It is an integrated rate and queue based AQM technique which is stable and robust under dynamic environment where number of TCP connections, bottleneck bandwidth, round trip time (RTT), and target queue length keeps changing. The proposed AQM is implemented in NS2 network simulator. The control theory is used for stability analysis of TCP/SAQM system and finally validated through MATLAB Simulink model. The simulation results show that the SAQM outperforms other existing AQM controllers in terms of achieving queue stability, less oscillatory with faster response and at the same time it responds quickly to traffic change.
    Keywords: Congestion control; AQM; Control theory; Stability; Robust; Oscillation.

  • CETM: A Conflict-free Energy Efficient Transmission Policy in Mobile Cloud Computing   Order a copy of this article
    by Bibudhendu Pati, Chhabi Rani Panigrahi, Joy Lal Sarkar 
    Abstract: The rapid advancement of mobile devices creates huge interest to the users for performing various applications. For running those applications, sufficient energy is required which can fulfill the user requirements. To accommodate this challenge, in this work an energy optimal scheduling policy for Mobile Cloud Computing (MCC) named as CETM has been proposed. There are a number of work have been proposed in the literature which focus on energy efficiency of mobile devices but they do not support conflict-free scheduling. In CETM, the applications of mobile devices are split into a number of tasks and the inter release time of two consecutive tasks maintain atleast  steps. The CETM also supports offloading scheme to reduce the consumption of energy of mobile devices. The simulation results indicate that the proposed approach performs better as compared to the existing approaches such as eTime and ThinkAir.
    Keywords: Conflict-free execution; Mobile cloud computing; Scheduling policy.

  • A Task Allocation Model for Minimizing System Cost and Maximizing Reliability of Distributed Computing System   Order a copy of this article
    by NUTAN CHAUHAN, Harendra Kumar, Pradeep Yadav 
    Abstract: A distributing computing system (DCS) presents a platform consisting of multiple computing nodes connected in some fashion to which various task of a parallel application could be assigned. The cost and reliability are two important factors of performance measures of DCS. Effective task allocation is an essential phase to obtain the optimal cost and reliability of DCS. This paper addressed a new heuristic model of allocating the tasks onto multiple processors in order to achieve optimal cost and optimal reliability of the system. Execution cost on different processors and inter-task communication costs have been taken as fuzzy numbers, which are more realistic and general in nature. Fuzzy program is transformed into crisp one by using the method of defuzzification. A membership function is developed to transform the communication cost in unit interval [0, 1]. Clusters of tasks have been built on the basis of their membership values. To present the effect of proposed model, it has been implemented on various numerical examples and compared with other existing method related to this field.
    Keywords: Distributed computing system; Task allocation; Reliability; Failure rate; System cost.

  • Investigation a New Technique of Automatic Variable Key (AVK) Using Two Dimensional Matrix Approach to Achieve Perfect Security   Order a copy of this article
    by Moumita Das 
    Abstract: In all cryptosystem, the major challenge is to make the key unbreakable. Shannon proposed that, key would be impossible to break if the key is made time variant. The variable keys are highly enforced to provide the perfect security in Automatic Variable Key which is more novel approaches in Information Security field. The time variant key can be implemented by changing keys from session to session during data transfer for achieving perfect security. To attain this goal, key should be made variable by an agreement that creates new key for each session of data transfer at both sender and receiver sides. In this paper, we have proposed a new technique to generate time variant key by enhancing the randomness between two successive keys. The main purpose of this technique is to produce numerous keys in symmetric key cryptosystem with a behaviour which will be difficult to guess by the attacker.
    Keywords: Randomness; Computing & Shifting Automatic Variable Key (CSAVK); Key Variation with Random Number (KVRN).

  • Intelligent Clustering Protocol Design and Optimization in Wireless Sensor Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Melaku Mekonnen, Kuda Rao 
    Abstract: Due to the requirement of nodes to share their local parameters so as to accomplish network configurations in distributed clustering, huge number of control packets will be flooded in the network. Communication overhead is one of the big troubles in distributed clustering for which protocols that are able to guarantee limited flow of control packets shall be introduced to deal with such type of problem. Having considered that most of fuzzy based protocols available in literatures are vulnerable to overhead of control packets in cluster setup phase, new approach has been introduced in this paper to reduce communication overhead and consequently optimizing distributed cluster formation. Nodes are integrated with fuzzy based decision support system to determine the selection probability of being cluster head. The set of temporary cluster heads will compete for being nominated as final cluster head based on which the network configuration is carried out. Once the clusters are formed, optimal routes towards the base station are established based on Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithm. The optimization problem consists of finding routes towards the base station such that the tour length is minimized and the balance of energy consumption is maintained among routes in the path. The fuzzy logic and ACO toolboxes are developed in C++ and integrated with OMNeT++ simulation platform to implement the protocol. The experimental results prove that the proposed protocol extends the network lifetime compared to LEACH and CHEF protocols.
    Keywords: wireless sensor networks; intelligent clustering protocol; network lifetime; fuzzy logic; ant colony optimization.

  • A Swarm Intelligence Learning Model of Adaptive Incentive Protocols for P2P Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Zheng Wang 
    Abstract: Incentive protocols are critical for promoting contribution and cooperation among peers in P2P networks. The behavior of peers has a significant impact on the effects of incentive protocols. Inspired by the biological systems, a swarm intelligence learning model of adaptive incentive protocols is proposed for P2P networks. The learning model is designed by having peers as particles in the moving swarm. The learning and adaption of peers are guided by the current best strategy as well as the best strategy in history. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed learning model has a faster convergence rate towards at least the quasi-optimum than the two existing learning models.
    Keywords: P2P networks; incentive protocols; learning model; swarm intelligence.

  • A New Proposed Cloud Computing Based Architecture for Space Ground Data Systems   Order a copy of this article
    by Ali Kaddouri, Mustapha Guezouri, Nader Mbarek 
    Abstract: Cloud Computing gains more and more interest in different domains. Space domain community has decided to move on this new technological model to manage, monitor and explore huge space data in the space ground data systems. Moving to a Cloud based solution needs to adapt the classic architecture by taking into account the Cloud model. In this paper, we propose a framework that will permit to earth observation missions to handle and monitor space data throughout a Cloud Computing based architecture. The proposed solution shows benefits on access time, resource consumption and exploration as well as storage optimization compared to a classic architecture. Also, it permits to deploy an interoperability process between multiple space ground data systems to decrease mission design cost.
    Keywords: Cloud Computing; Space mission; Ground data system; Network architecture; QoS; Ground Data System.

  • Web user interface based on OGC standards for Sensor Cloud using Big Data   Order a copy of this article
    by Vijayasherly Velayutham, Srimathi Chandrasekaran, Subaji Mohan 
    Abstract: Sensor Cloud is the combination of wireless sensor networks and Cloud computing which perform real-time data acquisition and processing in a distributed environment. Sensor cloud infrastructure enables collection, processing, sharing, visualization, archival and searching of large amounts of sensor data. Sensor Cloud makes it possible for the sharing of computing resources and data, on an unprecedented scale, among an infinite number of geographically distributed groups. The paper provides an implementation of efficient web based technology for processing large and heterogeneous set of data based on Open Geospatial Consortium Standards. The web user interface proposed uses the sensor cloud middleware and wireless sensors for distributed applications that process large amounts of data. Sensor cloud middleware in the proposed work uses Open Stack, the open source cloud, and Hadoop framework along with utilities such as a modeling tool named Generic Modeling Environment for workflow modeling, HBase for big data management and Zabbix for monitoring. The user interface with features such as viewing sensor data, scheduling sensors for data collection and alerting users based on Open Geospatial Consortium standards have also been discussed.
    Keywords: Sensor Cloud; middleware; Open Stack; Hadoop; big data; sensor web; user interface.

  • Routing in Networks using Genetic Algorithm   Order a copy of this article
    by Meenakshi Moza, Suresh Kumar 
    Abstract: Performance and Reliability of the Internet, is vastly dependent on the underlying protocols. With the recent increase in the traffic, internet service providers are forced to seek solutions for better and improved services within the available resources. While the current traffic loads have to be taken into account for computation of paths in routing protocols, network applications require the shortest paths to be used for a speedy communication. The Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is the routing algorithm used to find the shortest path from source to destination, however, the overloading of the path or link congestion exposes the limitations of OSPF. This shortcoming can be overcome by optimization of the network through the application of Genetic Algorithm, as it provides a valuable alternative to the overloaded path between the source and the destination. This paper proposes a distinct method of calculating the shortest path in a network by extending OSPF Algorithm with Genetic Algorithm (OSGA) for achieving the desired improved performance.
    Keywords: Genetic Algorithm (GA) ; Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) ; Quality of service (QOS); Chromosome; Mutation; Routing.

  • A Robust Deterministic Approach to Node Localization using NLOS Signal   Order a copy of this article
    by Kaushik Mondal, Partha Sarathi Mandal, Bhabani P. Sinha 
    Abstract: Localization in an urban area is a challenging problem due to the blocking of Line-Of-Sight (LOS) signal by various obstacles and also the multipath effect arising out of reflection, scattering, diffraction, etc. of signals. Assuming that there are a few anchor nodes which know their positions accurately and which transmit ultrasonic or radio frequency signals, we propose here a technique to find the position of other sensor nodes based on receiving these signals reflected by some reflectors. Our proposed technique can calculate the position of a node correctly by receiving two reflected signals i.e., Non-Line-of-Sight (NLOS) signals from an anchor if there is no measurement error. But in presence of range measurement error, position of a node can be calculated approximately. We, however, assume that a signal is reflected at most once before reaching a node. In presence of error in range estimation, simulation results show better accuracy compared to existing works. While a network is growing, wrong position information may get assigned to some nodes by accident. According to our robust localization in NLOS, an anchor can detect inconsistency of the wrong position information with the help of three reply signals from a particular node via different paths.
    Keywords: Localization; NLOS Signal; AoA; ToA; Wireless Sensor Networks.

  • Routing Selection in Mobile Ad hoc Network Using Soft Computing Approaches   Order a copy of this article
    by Hany Ramadan, Ben Bella Tawfik, Alaa El Din Riad 
    Abstract: Routing in the Mobile AD-Hoc Network (MANET) is a challenging task and has received a great amount of attention from researchers. This paper introduces an exact reference routing model to find the shortest path (optimum route). This model is a conventional combinatorial that selects the shortest route from all possible routes. To demonstrate the use of this reference model for comparison a second model is selected which is a modified Ant Colony Optimization (ACO).The good selection of the heuristic parameters of the ACO model increases its matching degree with the reference one. Therefore a training pre-processing phase is added to select the best parameters for ACO model. The two models are compared using four different criteria. These criteria are the execution time, energy consumption, the total cost, and the network life time. A simulation experiment is performed and the results show that the modified Ant Colony algorithm is superior in execution time but consumed more energy than the reference combinatorial and its total cost is greater than or equal to the other one. The life time analysis shows that the reference model has better life time than the modified ACO model.
    Keywords: Routing; MANET; Ant colony; energy consumption; execution time; total cost; shortest path; optimum route; simulation.

  • Resource Prediction based Routing using Agents in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Shilpa Chaudhari, Rajashekhar Biradar 
    Abstract: QoS routing in multimedia applications over MANET is affected by limited resources, shared channel, unpredictable mobility, improper load balancing, and variation in signal strength. Existing works on MANET routing focuses on only one of the factor such as bandwidth, mobility or energy neglecting dependent behavior. QoS routing must consider efficient usage of resources with intelligent schemes such as software agents for identifying routes with sufficient resources in future. The proposed resource prediction based routing in this paper uses intelligent agents to route the packets on the path with adequate buffer-space, energy and bandwidth resources. It has four steps of execution: resource prediction, resource prediction factor computation, route establishment, and route maintenance. Resources are predicted to compute resource prediction factors for reliable route establishment. Route maintenance against link and node failure. Simulation results show an improvement in terms of packet delivery ratio, packet delivery latency, memory overhead and energy consumption.
    Keywords: Mobile Ad hoc Networks; Wavelet neural network; Resource prediction; Cognitive Agents; Routing.

  • Energy Conservation Routing Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks using Hybrid Optimization Approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Logambigai Rajasekaran, Kannan A 
    Abstract: In designing Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), the conversation of energy is an important issue to prolong the network lifetime. Most of the energy is wasted during transmission. To overcome this, an energy efficient routing protocol is proposed in this paper using a hybrid optimization technique. Moreover, a nature inspired hybrid optimization approach called Bacterial Swam Optimization (BSO) is used in this work for energy optimization in WSN. BSO is an amalgam of two optimization techniques namely Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Bacterial Foraging Optimization (BFO). BSO is used to identify the optimal next hop node for each gateway which in turn results in optimal route. The optimal relay nodes are selected based on lifetime of the gateways and distance in hops between gateways and base station. The results obtained from the simulation show that this proposed BSO based algorithm outperforms the other existing algorithm for routing.
    Keywords: Bacterial swarm optimization; Wireless sensor networks; Routing; Gateways; Clustering; Particle swarm optimization; Bacterial foraging optimization.

  • Energy Efficient QoS Routing for Mobile Ad-hoc Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Saravanan R 
    Abstract: Many researchers developed several routing techniques to reduce the power consumption of the nodes without decreasing capacity of the network, to increase life time of the network while preserving the connectivity of nodes. A routing protocol is presented in this paper that reduces overall energy consumption of nodes in the mobile ad-hoc networks. This routing protocol focuses on energy conservation and also it provides some of the necessary quality of services in routing such as throughput, packet delivery ratio and less error rate. This routing protocol utilizes the bandwidth of the network effectively and finds the minimum energy consuming path that has less error rate. Recharging capability of the nodes is taken into consideration while computing minimal energy consuming path from source to destination. The protocol is simulated for various network parameters using a network simulator. The performance of proposed protocol is evaluated by comparing the simulation results with the results of one of the popular routing protocols such as DSR.
    Keywords: Energy efficient routing; MANET; network life time; QoS routing.

  • Achieving efficiency in Autonomic Network Management of IP networks based on SDN management logic   Order a copy of this article
    by Madjed Bencheikh Lehocine, Mohamed Batouche 
    Abstract: The layer-three redundancy in large companies IP networks remains a major concern, aiming to increase, as much as possible, the availability ratio for the offered services to the customers. However, deploying the existing protocols requires in addition to providing backup links and physical equipment, the manual configuration which is time-consuming and error-prone. ARRC (Autonomic Router Redundancy Controller) was the first autonomic solution whose objective was to deploy redundancy on existing networks. Yet, this solution was unable to handle redundancy in all network scenarios. In this paper, we propose a new approach E-ARRC (Extended ARRC), inspired from Software Defined Networking (SDN) management logic to address ARRC shortcomings and limitations. SDN represents a new vision for the future networks, aiming to reduce complexity and to ensure an efficient control of the network behaviour. Based on a global view of the network, SDN achieves business needs via a high-level specification of rules which are applied accordingly on the SDN capable nodes. The results of our approach, which is based on shared-networks reachability, illustrate a more granular level of redundancy, with a reliable exploitation of all the available resources.
    Keywords: Autonomic Network Management; Self-Management; Autonomic Computing; MAPE Loop; Software Defined Networking; SNMP; FHRP; VRRP; ARRC; Policy Based Routing; SLA; Layer-Three Topology Discovery.

  • E-ABRM: Enhanced ABRM Routing Protocol for MSNs with Multiple Mobile Sinks   Order a copy of this article
    by Maged S. Soliman, Hossam FAHMY 
    Abstract: The recent technological advances in the field of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have expanded the range of WSN applications. In some of these applications, sensor nodes are mobile rather than static. Also, the recent advances in personal digital assistants (PDAs) allow the existence of multiple mobile sinks to collect the sensors data. These characteristics require the design of new routing protocols to meet the existence of mobile sensors and multiple mobile sinks while taking into consideration the limited resources for sensor nodes especially the energy. In-network aggregation is one of the important techniques used to save power consumption by aggregating the data on sensor nodes before transmitting towards the sinks and hence reduce the number of transmissions required. ABRM, as previously proposed, is an aggregation based routing protocol for mobile sensor networks (MSNs) with multiple mobile sinks. This paper proposes Enhanced ABRM (E-ABRM) to improve the aggregation results and reduce the routing overhead and power consumption. E-ABRM is compared to ABRM and CCBR through mathematical analysis and simulation results. The comparisons show that E-ABRM reduces aggregation error, routing overhead, and energy consumption.
    Keywords: E-ABRM; ABRM; In-Network Aggregation; Wireless Networks; Wireless Sensor Networks; Mobile Sensor Networks; Routing; WSN; MSN; Multiple Sinks; Mobile Sinks;.

  • Data Anonymization of Vertically Partitioned Data Using Map Reduce Techniques on Cloud   Order a copy of this article
    by Thangaramya Kalidoss, Ganapathy Sannasi, Sairamesh Lakshmanan, Kulothungan Kanagasabai, Kannan Arputharaj 
    Abstract: Security is an important challenge in cloud database. It can be provided using cryptographic techniques, access control and key management. However, encryption and compression are useful for secured storage. Hence, a new security mechanism is proposed in this paper to enhance the security of cloud databases. The major objective of this paper is to propose a new technique for data security in cloud databases. This techniques consists of two phases namely anonymization & encryption and is implemented using map reduce techniques. We use the Advanced Encryption Standard algorithm for effective encryption of data and also used the secured hash algorithm for security and compression of data which are used for read only applications. Experimental results of this work show that our approach provides higher security and effective storage over the existing approaches.rnrnrn
    Keywords: Data Anonymization; Top-Down Specialization; Map Reduce; Cloud; Privacy Preservation.

  • Simple Algorithms for Selecting an Energy-efficient Server in a Cluster of Servers   Order a copy of this article
    by Dilawaer Duolikun, Hiroki Kataoka, Tomoya Enokido, Makoto Takizawa 
    Abstract: Electric energy consumed by computers, especially servers in scalable clusters has to be reduced to realize eco society. In this paper, we first propose a power consumption model, MLPCM (multi-level power consumption) model which gives how much electric power a server consumes to perform application processes. We also propose a computation model, MLCM (multi-level computation) model which shows the expected execution time of an application process performed on a server. By using the MLPCM and MLCM models, we propose a pair of SLEA (simple locally energy-aware) and SGEA (simple globally energy-aware) algorithms to select a host server to perform an application process issued by a client. In the SLEA algorithm, a host server is selected, which is expected to consume the minimum electric energy to perform the process. In the SGEA algorithm, a host server is selected,where the total expected electric energy of not only the host server but also the other servers is minimum.rnIn the evaluation, we show the total electric energy consumption and active time of the servers and the average execution time of processes can be reduced in the SGEA algorithm.
    Keywords: Energy-efficient computation; Power consumption model; SLEA (simple locally energy-aware) and SGEA (simple globally energy-aware) algorithms.

  • Secure Multipath Routing for Multimedia Communication in Cognitive Radio Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Ansuman Bhattacharya, Sasthi C. Ghosh, Koushik Sinha, Bhabani P. Sinha 
    Abstract: In this paper, a novel technique for secure multihop communication of multimedia data in cognitive radio networks is proposed even when a single contiguous band of required width for maintaining the desired {em Quality of Service} ($QoS$) is not available for any hop in the route. The proposed technique first creates a number of sub-packets formed by suitably shuffling the bits of the original packet, finds multiple routes by executing the max-flow algorithm on a derivative of the network graph ($G$) (which may not be, in general, a symmetric graph due to variation of transmission/sensing range of different nodes) to meet the required bandwidth, allocates channels for each hop appropriate for either $FDM-FDMA$ or $OFDM-FDMA$ technique adopted for channel access, and sends the sub-packets along these channels which are received by the destination node to form the original packet. This strategy of multi-path routing also leads to enhanced security of the data packets as an added advantage. This is because when these multiple paths chosen for transmitting the sub-packets are node-disjoint, it will be extremely difficult for an eavesdropper to guess {em any part} of the original information from the sub-packets received along a single route as they contain only some {em selected} bits of the original packet, and this would significantly enhance the security of the original message. The proposed technique for multi-path routing takes $O(pf + T_{SD})$ time, where $p$ and $f$ are the number of edges and maximum flow, respectively of $G$ and $T_{SD}$ is the time for constructing $G$.
    Keywords: Cognitive radio network; max-flow; multimedia communication; secure multi-hop routing; $FDM-FDMA$; $OFDM-FDMA$.

  • Energy Efficient with time synchronized and Service Coverage Guarantee in Wireless Sensor Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Chirihane Gherbi, Aliouat Zibouda, Mohamed Benmohammed 
    Abstract: Load balancing is an effective enhancement to the proposed routing protocol, the basic idea is to share traffic load among cluster members in order to reduce the dropping probability due to queue overflow at some nodes. Sharing traffic inside a cluster is reasonable, because nodes in the same cluster have similar mobility pattern, and thus similar ability to deliver data messages. In this paper, a novel hierarchical approach called distributed energy efficient adaptive clustering protocol with data gathering, Load-Balancing and self-adaptation (DEACP) is proposed for Wireless Sensor Network. We have proposed (DEACP) approach to reach the following objectives: reduce the overall network energy consumption, balance the energy consumption among the sensors and extend the lifetime of the network, the clustering must be completely distributed, the clustering should be efficient in complexity of message and time, the cluster-heads should be well-distributed across the network, the load balancing should be done well, the clustered WSN should be fully-connected. We consider the problem of conserving energy by turning off the nodes radio for periods of a fixed time length. While packets may continue to arrive at the nodes buffer during the sleep periods, the node cannot transmit them until it wakes up, the objective is to design sleep control laws that minimize the expected value of a cost function representing both energy consumption costs and holding costs for backlogged packets. As a result transmission power of the node is reduced which subsequently reduces the energy consumption of the node. Our proposed work is simulated through Network Simulator (NS-2). Simulations show that (DEACP) clusters have good performance characteristics.
    Keywords: Energy saving; Distributed algorithm ,Load Balancing ,Cluster- based routing ,Wireless Sensor Network.

  • Performance Analysis of WMNs by WMN-GA Simulation System for Two WMN Architectures and Different TCP Congestion-Avoidance Algorithms and Client Distributions   Order a copy of this article
    by Keita Matsuo, Shinji Sakamoto, Tetsuya Oda, Admir Barolli, Makoto Ikeda, Leonard Barolli 
    Abstract: In this paper, we evaluate the performance of two Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) architectures considering Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR), throughput, delay and fairness index metrics. For simulations, we used ns-3, Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) and Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR). We compare the performance of Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) Tahoe, Reno and NewReno for normal and uniform distributions of mesh clients by sending multiple Constant Bit Rate (CBR) flows in the network. The simulation results show that the PDR for both distributions and architectures is almost the same, but the PDR of I/B WMN for uniform distribution is a little bit higher than normal distribution. For both WMN architectures, the throughput of normal distribution is better than uniform distribution. The delay of Tahoe is a little bit lower compared with other algorithms for normal distribution and Hybrid WMN, but in case of uniform distribution, the NewReno performs better than other algorithms for both architectures. The fairness index of normal distribution is higher than uniform distribution.
    Keywords: Wireless Mesh Networks; Genetic Algorithm; Node Placement; WMN Architectures; TCP Congestion-Avoidance Algorithms.

  • k-hop neighbour knowledge-based clustering in CRN under opportunistic channel access   Order a copy of this article
    by Rajiv Misra, Ram Narayan Yadav 
    Abstract: Cognitive radio networks (CRNs) enables cognitive users (CUs) to use available spectrum of primary users (PUs) using innovative techniques. On appearance of PUs, the available channel of CUs at different position may have different available channels which changes dynamically over time. Due to temporal and spatial variations of opportunistic channel availability, to ensure connectivity and robustness in CRN is of great research interests. We have proposed novel approach of k-hop neighbour knowledge-based clustering algorithm which guarantees robustness in CRN and converges in O(n2m), for n CUs and m clusters in the network. We have evaluated for varying 3-hop, 4-hop, k-hop through simulation which shows that our scheme achieves 25%-30% more numbers of outward common channels and outperforms in terms of inner common channel index, outward common channel index, number of isolated nodes, throughput and frequency of route discovery compared to the competitive approaches.
    Keywords: cognitive radio network; CRN; connectivity; clustering; performance analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2017.10007987
  • Load balanced routing scheme for MANETs with power and delay optimisation   Order a copy of this article
    by Mamata Rath, Bibudhendu Pati, Binod Kumar Pattanayak, Chhabi Rani Panigrahi, Joy Lal Sarkar 
    Abstract: Innovative research on mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) and their wide applications have created a revolution of today's wireless communication. Efficient routing for dynamically changing network and unstable wireless medium is a challenging task. The conventional AODV routing protocol works on selecting the hop count-based shortest path while delivering the packet towards the destination. This often creates uneven load distribution among network nodes. As a result, any central node hopelessly carries heavier loads that significantly deplete node energy with higher packet loss and delay in processing. In this work, a protocol based on power and delay named as power and delay optimised AODV (PDO-AODV) has been presented which is based on load balanced routing strategy in AODV that improves the quality of service for MANETs. The proposed approach takes neighbouring node's power and delay into consideration for selecting load balanced path. Simulation results manifest that the proposed PDO-AODV achieves improved performance as compared to existing AODV routing protocol in terms of packet drop, network delay, throughput, and retransmission attempts.
    Keywords: load balancing; mobile ad hoc network; MANET; delay; power; packet delivery ratio; PDR.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2017.10007992
  • Compiling, verifying and simulating dynamic software architectures using ANTLR and coloured-ADL   Order a copy of this article
    by Rabah Mokhtari, Allaoua Chaoui 
    Abstract: The concept of reconfigurable and dynamic software architecture (DSA) occupies today an important place in the field of software engineering. As result, several architecture description languages (ADLs) and approaches have been proposed for describing DSA in the highest level of abstraction. However, most of these works present theoretical solutions without giving an idea on the execution of final systems at run time. In this paper, we propose a new DSA called coloured software architecture (CSA) based on two concepts coloured operation and coloured connector. Then, we propose a new ADL called coloured-ADL and implement a compiling, verification and simulation tool dedicated to CSA. The simulation of system instances, derived from a CSA, is mainly used to explain coloured-ADL and evaluate the reliability of the simulated system. On the other hand, the verification is focused on checking a new defined safety property called architectural stack overflow (ASO). A safe CSA should be free of ASO violation property. To check a CSA, the verification uses also finite state processes (FSP) and labelled transition state (LTS) to expect this kind of property. We illustrate our propositions through two case studies from the literature.
    Keywords: coloured software architecture; CSA; architecture description languages; ADL; compiler; ANTLR; discrete event simulation; DES; reconfiguration; reliability; finite state processes; FSP; labelled transition state; LTS.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2017.10007996
  • A fuzzy-based mechanism for delay window adjustment to improve TCP performance in wireless multi-hop networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammad Nassiri, Mojtaba Mehdizadeh 
    Abstract: TCP protocol was initially designed for wired networks to guarantee reliable data transfer. In wired networks, TCP assumes congestion if data packets are dropped. However, this assumption does not hold when the end-to-end path includes wireless links, where, high bit error rate (BER), shared medium and dynamic nature of the wireless channel may cause packet loss. This results in a severe degrade in performance of standard TCP in wireless networks. On the other hand, TCP cannot be changed fundamentally due to the large base of installation in the wired network. Delayed-ACK generation at the TCP receiver has been proposed to mitigate collision rate within wireless network. However, choosing appropriate delayed window size is an important issue. In this article, we propose a new delayed-ACK approach based on a fuzzy controller to improve TCP performance in wireless networks. The major advantage of our mechanism is reducing the overhead and the collision rate in multi-hop wireless networks. We also compare our proposal with some of well-known studies. Simulations results confirm good performance of our mechanism.
    Keywords: multi-hop wireless network; TCP; performance; fuzzy controller; delayed ACK; 802.11.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2017.10007997
  • An effective resource management in cloud computing   Order a copy of this article
    by P. Mohamed Shameem, Nimmy Johnson, R.S. Shaji, E. Arun 
    Abstract: Provision of resources must be provided such that all resources are made available to user's request in efficient manner to satisfy their needs. Resource allocation in virtualised environment should provide elasticity. When the workload increases, existing approaches cannot respond to the growing performance in an effective way. This may lead to the violation of service level agreement (SLA) which will decrease the quality of service (QoS). Existing methods cannot take an accurate decision on the allocation of resources in an optimal way and are not predictive in nature. Before any problems occur, they cannot take a precaution on resource management. Therefore, a framework is used to ensure effective resource management. This framework uses rough set algorithm in order to make an accurate decision on the allocation of resources. Variation in workloads is adapted by considering new parameters like type of application, garbage processing policy and internal application resources.
    Keywords: cloud computing; resource management; virtualisation; service level agreement; SLA; elasticity; quality of service; QoS; rough set theory; resource allocation; case- based reasoning.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2017.10007995
  • Route recommendation system to support multiple destinations and multiple routes to minimise road congestion   Order a copy of this article
    by Chayanon Sub-r-pa, Goutam Chakraborty, Bhabani P. Sinha 
    Abstract: Multiple destinations routing is important for car navigation when a user requests for a service instead of a specific destination. Existing navigation systems can suggest k shortest routes to a destination, where the cost is defined in terms of distance, travel time, or other parameter. In case of a special event like a festival or an unforeseen situation such as tsunami, a large number of users would require the same service, e.g., a parking lot or a safe shelter, not a specific destination. When service points are known, the proposed algorithm first computes multiple near-optimal routes to those destinations, and then optimally distributes the traffic along those routes based on respective costs. This reduces congestion both on road network as well as at service points. Our proposed algorithm has been simulated with real-life traffic data on real city road network, showing encouraging results compared to conventional routing.
    Keywords: intelligent transportation system; multiple destination routing; traffic distribution; congestion control.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2017.10007998
  • An enhanced anonymous remote user authentication scheme using smart card in insecure communication channel   Order a copy of this article
    by Subhasish Banerjee, Manash Pratim Dutta, Chandan Tilak Bhunia 
    Abstract: To prove the legitimacy among the users and to ensure the secure communication over the insecure network the remote user authentication using smart card and password is one of the simplest and efficient mechanisms. In this context, Kumari et al. proposed an improved remote user authentication scheme and claimed, their scheme is more user friendly, can resist various possible attacks at very low cost than existing ones. Unfortunately, during our research we have found this is not the case, their scheme cannot sustain against all those attacks for which the scheme was meant. In this paper, we have pointed out that their scheme not only can suffer from user anonymity problem but also fails to resist against offline password guessing attack, server masquerading attack and can create the risk of session key agreement too. Then, while retaining the original merits of their scheme we propose an efficient and modified scheme to overcome from aforesaid weaknesses, but at low computational cost.
    Keywords: authentication; smart card; dynamic-ID.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2017.10007999

Special Issue on: Recent Advances in Communication and Networking

  • RQ-AQM: A Rate and Queue-based Active Queue Management Using Feedback Control Theory   Order a copy of this article
    by Sukant Bisoy 
    Abstract: This work proposes a rate and queue based active queue management (RQ-AQM) algorithm to improve the stability of the network system supporting TCP flows. Classical control theory employed to analyze the stability of TCP/RQ-AQM system and provide systematic guidelines to select control gain parameters of the RQ-AQM. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated and compared with existing algorithms using network simulator-2 (NS2). Simulation results demonstrate that RQ-AQM achieves stability with faster responsive to the dynamic network conditions. The proposed algorithm obtains better performance with respect to throughput, link utilization, average delay and achieves fastest settling time than others.
    Keywords: AQM; Control theory; Feedback system; Stability; Settling time.