Forthcoming articles


International Journal of Communication Networks and Distributed Systems


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International Journal of Communication Networks and Distributed Systems (66 papers in press)


Regular Issues


  • Steady-state Throughput Discrete Model of Multipath TCP based on Linked Increase Algorithm   Order a copy of this article
    by Huang Hongcheng, Sun Xinran, Hu Min 
    Abstract: This paper established a discrete model for the steady-state throughput of Multi-Path TCP(MPTCP), which is based on Linked Increase Algorithm (LIA) and is presented to analyze the relationship between subflow performances and throughput capacity under the steady-state bulk transmission of MPTCP data. Due to the congestion control provided by LIA, each subflow congestion windows is variation coupling. Therefore, with the sampling period set to subflow Round Trip Time (RTT), the congestion window value of discrete MPTCP subflow can be discretized and then exploited to analyze the characteristics of subflow in states such as the congestion avoidance, fast recovery timeout retransmission and slow start. Furthermore, by calculating the expectations of transmitted packet number and transmission duration in a given MPTCP connection, the discrete model of MPTCP steady-state throughput can be established. Simulation results show that the proposed model can achieve the improved accuracy and robustness when predicting the steady-state transmission throughput of MPTCP.
    Keywords: Congestion control; Linked Increase algorithm; Markov regenerative process; Multipath TCP; Throughput model; Discrete Model; Round Trip Time.

  • A neural-MCDM-based routing protocol for packet transmission in mobile ad hoc networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammad Samadi Gharajeh 
    Abstract: A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is an emerging type of wireless networking, which is composed of mobile devices (e.g., vehicles). Some of the essential applications such as rescue operations, military purposes, and automobile tracking can be designed and implemented by this network. This paper proposes a novel neural-MCDM based routing protocol, called NMRouting, to transmit data packets in MANET. It presents a new classification of routing mechanisms in MANET, namely smart routing. This protocol transmits data packets from source node to destination node via a multi-path process. Data packets are transmitted through neighboring nodes that have high success rates from among a list of available neighbors. A neural controller and a MCDM controller are suggested to conduct routing process, efficiently. The perceptron-based neural controller specifies a success rate for every neighbor based on remaining energy, occupied buffer, and mobility speed. The MCDM controller determines the number of paths based on packet priority rate, distance, and average mobility speed. Besides, an energy management model is suggested to conduct energy consumption of the nodes efficiently as well as three queue types critical, reliability, and ordinary are considered to guarantee network reliability precisely. Main goal of the proposed protocol is to give an intelligent decision-making to routing process in MANET in order to enhance network reliability, prolong network lifetime, and reduce network traffic. Additionally, the paper presents UML diagrams to develop NMRouting in real applications. Simulation results show that the proposed protocol has a high performance in terms of packet delivery ratio, network lifetime, and network traffic, compared to the DSR, AODV, DPG, and QMRPRNS methods.
    Keywords: Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET); Wireless Networking; Packet Transmission; Routing Protocol; Neural Network; Multi-Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM).

  • Mobile Adhoc Networks (MANETs) Problem- A Queueing approach   Order a copy of this article
    by S. Maragathasundari, K.S. Dhanalakshmi 
    Abstract: This paper investigates a study on mobilie communication network by means of Queuing theory approach.The Good QOS in mobile communication network is necessary at this, the presence financially viable situation of global economic meltdown and competitive business environment with low tariff. In order to endure in this present economic situation, the network operators must put into consideration the effective use of their available resources (channels), which leads to the effectual network design and network planning. The calls sinking probability, is the probability that calls that original (initially) granted access to the network channels (switches), but due to technical error (such as Electromagnetic causes, irregular user behavior etc.) the calls are truncated (forced termination) during conversation.Also the congestion is caused when the offered load of the network is more than the available resources. This problem of congestion and other breakdown occurring in MANET is approached through Queueing theory in this study.It has been transformed as a queueing model problem and by applying the concept of Birth and death process the queuing performance measures of the model are derived. Queueing attitude defines the slip-up in the networking and gives out the required ideas to be passed out to minimize the error occurring resources. It also introduces the concept of preservation period after the completion of service. Numerical illustration is carried out to validate the model. An elaborate study of Graphical representation of the model is made at the end. It gives a clear thought about the conceptual study of queueing theory in mobile Adhoc Networks.
    Keywords: Service Stoppage; Revamp process; Maintenance period; Deterministic repair time and deterministic vacation.

  • Service Orchestration over Clouds and Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Afaq Muhammad, Dong-hun Kang, Seung-Joon Seok, Wang-Cheol Song 
    Abstract: The dynamic and constantly changing nature of request by a typical end-user for resource allocation demands service orchestration over clouds and networks. In order to meet such requests, it is necessary to control and aggregate diverse types of resources from cloud infrastructures and network functions. To that end, in this paper, we propose an orchestration framework for resource management and provisioning. The proposed orchestrator manages and provisions resources by: 1) exploiting application program interfaces (APIs) provided by the cloud provider in order to control/manage/allocate storage and compute resources; 2) interacting with software-defined networking (SDN) controller to get the details of the available resources, and instructing the changes/rules to manage the network based on the cloud service requirements. For resource allocation, an algorithm is proposed, which allocates resources on the basis of unutilized resources in a pool of virtual machines. An algorithm has been taken into account for comparison with the proposed resource allocation algorithm. The experiment results show that the considered algorithm is outperformed by the proposed algorithm.
    Keywords: Service abstraction; orchestration; SDN; network and cloud resources; OpenStack; ONOS.

  • Failure Detection and Recovery in Self-Healing WSN   Order a copy of this article
    by Chaganti B Lakshmi, S. Krishana Mohan Rao 
    Abstract: In Wireless sensor networks (WSNs), there are some problems of failures in self-healing network which need to be detect and recovered. So, there is need of failures detection and recovery technique for these failures. For this we propose correlation-based detection and self-healing based recover technique. The proposed technique, detects the communication backbone node failures and use self-healing policy for recovery. In proposed technique, the mean values of sensor signals are use for correlation which detect inconsistencies in sensor inputs lucratively and having low false positives. We use self healing method for recovery which is able to recover both the backbone node failure and sentry node failure. This recovery technique is more reactive to node failures through considerable energy efficiency.
    Keywords: Wireless sensor networks ;failures detection ;recovery technique ;self-healing.

  • Clique-Based Socially-Aware Intelligent Message Forwarding Scheme for Delay Tolerant Network   Order a copy of this article
    by Vandana Juyal, Ravish Saggar, Nitin Pandey 
    Abstract: Delay Tolerant Network (DTN) is a challenged class of Mobile Ad-hoc Network that allows unbounded delay and intermittent contacts. In such a network the routing strategies involve storing a message and forward it to some future contact. In past, most of the strategies defined were flooding based that eventually creates multiple duplicate copies of a message. This leads to the consumption of most of the network resources like energy, buffer space, processing power etc. For this, we have extended our previous work based on Artificial Neural Network based forwarding using trust value, which has potential to diminish these issues. Using Trust as a modeling factor, we propose a Trusted DTN Clique which is socially aware and intelligently forwards in DTN. The work is examined using extensive simulation on real-world external traces. Also, the work is compared with existing routing protocols namely Prophet, SprayAndWait, and EpidemicOracle. The performance metric chosen for the proposed algorithm are messages aborted, messages relayed and messages dropped. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm limits the number of message copies relayed in the DTN network and further provides a lightweight intrinsic security to the DTN nodes.
    Keywords: Clique Formation; Delay Tolerant Network; Disruptive Network; Intermittently Connected Network; Performance Evaluation; Trust implementation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2018.10013676
  • A comparative study and analysis of agent based monitoring and fuzzy load balancing in distributed systems   Order a copy of this article
    by Moazam Ali, Susmit Bagchi 
    Abstract: Load balancing algorithms are designed to achieve efficient resource utilization in large scale distributed systems. The primary goal of designing load balancing algorithms is to balance the overall workload among all the nodes in distributed systems to improve the performance. This paper presents an indepth study and detailed comparative analysis of different load monitoring and balancing algorithms employing fuzzy logic and mobile agents. A detailed qualitative as well as quantitative analysis of algorithmic performances is included. The analytical survey presented in this paper would enable understanding of applications of different algorithms under different computing environments. Furthermore, this paper proposes a hybrid architecture combining fuzzy logic and mobile agents for load balancing and monitoring in distributed systems.
    Keywords: Distributed computing; load balancing; fuzzy logic; load monitoring; software agents.

  • Three-Party Password-Based Authenticated Key Exchange Protocol Based on the Computational Diffie-Hellman Assumption   Order a copy of this article
    by Aqeel Sahi, David Lai, Yan Li 
    Abstract: The Three-Party Password-Based Authenticated Key Exchange (3PAKE) protocol gives two clients the ability to negotiate a session key through a trusted server over a public channel. Clients need only remember a single password to commence negotiating with another partner through the server. Most of the proposed 3PAKE protocols use public keys to guarantee identities; however, the sharing of public keys may lead to various types of attacks, such as a man-in-the-middle attack, which allows an attacker to simply intercept and insert traffic traversing a network. In this paper, we briefly describe an updated Three-Party Password-Based Authenticated Key Exchange (TPAKE) protocol and analyse its security. The proposed TPAKE protocol does not share plain-text data. Data shared between the parties are either hashed or encrypted. Using the Random Oracle Model (ROM), the security of the proposed TPAKE protocol is formally proven under the Computational Diffie-Hillman (CDH) assumption. Furthermore, the analyses included in this paper show that our protocol can ensure perfect forward secrecy and can also resist many types of common attacks such as man-in-the-middle, online dictionary, offline dictionary, replay and known key attacks.
    Keywords: Authentication; Cryptography; Key exchange protocols; Password-based; Three-party.

  • MAC Improvements for Very High Throughput WLANs   Order a copy of this article
    by Vijay B T, Malarkodi B 
    Abstract: Here we present the first amendments of high throughput networks identified as IEEE 802.11n originated in 2009 to achieve 150 Mbps speed for typical wireless systems to provide better wireless technology. At the same time, to further improve the medium access control (MAC) throughput, a pair of new amendments for WLAN standard are developed which are IEEE 802.11ac and IEEE 802.11ad. The 802.11ac is designed to achieve 1.3 Gbps speed due to its larger frame sizes, improved queuing and enhance the quality of service (QoS) features with the help of multi-user MIMO. The 802.11ad is designed to allow around 7 Gbps while using the possibility of transmitting in the 60 GHz band that can offer the chance to get the high gain and fewer interference features of directional antennas. At last simulation results shows the study of QoS requirements for interactive multimedia transport flow is readily achievable in 802.11ac/ad when compared to 802.11n and other legacy standards.
    Keywords: MAC; 802.11n; 802.11ac; 802.11ad; Throughput.

  • Poisson Point Process Based Network Modelling and Performance Analysis of Multi-hop D2D Chain Relay Formation in Heterogeneous Wireless Network   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: This article presents stochastic geometry based unified analytical framework to analyze the functionality of Device-to-Device (D2D) assisted cellular network in inband overlay mode. Independent marked Poisson Point Process (imPPP) is incorporated to probabilistically model the aggregate interference and SINR distribution of the randomly distributed nodes in the spatial domain. The proposed framework is applied to evaluate the overall network coverage probability improvement due to minimization of congestion in the base station oriented core network by involving more devices in direct communication (through traffic offloading). Statistical analysis of slotted-synchronous and slotted-asynchronous traffic patterns in terms of throughput for varying transmission probability is also presented. From the application point of view, in the case of base station service interruption due to any natural calamity or power failure, the proposed multi-hop D2D chain relay formation helps to extend the cellular coverage in cell edges as well as in adjacent affected cell areas.
    Keywords: Device to Device Communication; Poisson Point Process; Interference Characterization; Traffic Pattern; Traffic Offloading; Device-to-Device Relay; Coverage Extension.

    by Rakhi , G.L. Pahuja 
    Abstract: TThe Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs) are an infrastructure-less network consisting of a collection of wireless mobile self-directed nodes that communicate with each other without using any centralized authority. MANET is a network in which large numbers of powered mobile nodes are used but the network has always suffered from limited power resource problem due to the mobility nature of nodes. So, in the proposed work we have focused on the least power utilization by developing an artificial intelligence based Enhanced LEACH (E-LEACH) routing protocol and designed a hybrid Neuro-Soft Computing Technique for the problem. The proposed solution is effective in solving the power resource problem and trust management in MANETs. This work has found a reliable solution to the route optimization problem in E-LEACH protocol. The whole framework has been titled as Energy Efficient Neuro Genetic Leach (EENG Leach).Various performance metrics as Throughput, Bit error rate, Packet delivery ratio, Congestion, and Energy consumption have been calculated to authenticate the proposed method.
    Keywords: E-LEACH; Neural Networks; Reliability; Path Optimization.

  • Security Model based Mobile Agent for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Maqbol Ahmed, Kazar Okba, Bali Mouadh 
    Abstract: A Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) is a wireless network, with no fixed infrastructure, usually using the radio medium, dynamic creation and organization. Therefore, MANET is vulnerable to attacks. It is characterized by resource constraints, need to cooperate, scalability, etc. The security issue is becoming a main concern in the applications of a Mobile Ad Hoc Networks . In this paper, we propose a security model based mobile agent for MANETs, the objective here is to improve the security level of the network communication without affecting its performance. The model includes a hierarchical clustering and mobile agents. We apply the concept of dominating set based clustering for partitioning the network into clusters. The cluster head election is based on both the trust and resources ability of the node. We define four agent types. The Node Agent manages the use of node resources. The Ambassador Agent is created by the control agent and it is sent into the cluster of to each node to monitor all the actions of the node agent. The Control Agent is created in the most trusted with best resources node to control the communication into the cluster and participates with its counterparts in the security network completely, and the Transporter Agent carries the encrypted information in the network.
    Keywords: Ad Hoc Network; Mobile Agent; Security Model; Trust; IDS; Aglets.

    by Swagatika Shrabanee, Amiya Kumar Rath 
    Abstract: Cloud computing is a materialized environment for several users due to its unpredictable nature. However cloud is a challengeable environment for many researches because of its hardness on predicting the accurate status of Virtual Machines (VM) in order to allocate resources for cloud consumers. Many researchers focus on optimization and scheduling algorithms for predicting accurate status about VMs and their researches fail in providing the predominant results. In order to furnish efficacious results, we propose a novel cloud framework with resource optimization. Two special components are chosen on it: one is Resource Manager (RM) and the other one is Virtual Machine Re-Allocator (VMRA). This framework has several methodologies like Task clustering, Task Allocation, VM clustering and Re-allocation of VMs. Specifically we introduce SLA-Priority Clustering algorithm for several tasks available on cloud, and these are allocated using ETC Matrix with PSO algorithm. Our proposed cloud framework can be implemented using a Cloudsim simulation tool which furnishes the efficient results. Thus our process effectively allocates resources on cloud environment and we also solve the problem of re-allocation of VM, Power Efficient VM Re-Allocation algorithm is proposed to solving the random failure issues.
    Keywords: Cloud Computing Resource Optimization; Resource Allocation; Resource Management; SLA constraints; PSO scheduling.

  • Exploiting Spatial-Temporal Correlations To Improve Energy-Efficiency in Data Collection Applications in WSN   Order a copy of this article
    by Oualid Demigha, Slimane Bedda, Mossab Chabane 
    Abstract: Energy-Efficiency is a fundamental constraint that must be resolved to enable WSN (Wireless Sensor Network) applications such as monitoring and zone surveillance where long-term operation mode is required. In this paper, we propose a data-driven approach to optimize energy-efficiency in data collection applications by taking profit from nodes' data correlations without deteriorating data quality specified by the end-user.rnWe present simple but effective spatial and temporal correlation models based on the intrinsic characteristics of randomly deployed WSN. We integrate the correlation distance and the temporal series of the monitored phenomenon into protocol LEACH (Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy) taken as a case study rnto show the gain of such an approach in terms of two opposite metrics: energy-efficiency and data quality.rnWe implement, test and compare our proposed solutions with protocol LEACH and some other variants. The simulation results confirm our hypotheses and show a clear improvement in terms of network lifetime, network coverage and residual energy of the nodes. As for data quality, our proposed solutions maintain an acceptable level compared to LEACH and its variants.
    Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks; Spatial Temporal Correlation; Clustering; LEACH; Energy Efficiency; Data Quality; Data Collection.

  • Design of Crescent Slot Circularly Polarized Patch for 4G Wireless Communications   Order a copy of this article
    by Manavalan Saravanan, Madihally Janardhana Srinivasa Rangachar 
    Abstract: A single fed circularly polarized patch antenna operating at 4G Long Term Evolution (LTE) is proposed. The antenna is excited by means of 50 Ω coaxial cable placed near to edge of the patch element. In order to achieve circular polarization, a crescent-shaped slot is incorporated in the radiating element which perturbs the surface current fields on the radiating patch element. Based on the slot orientation, the antenna radiates either left-hand or right-hand polarization. The shape of the crescent slot and position of feed point are tuned to improve 3db axial ratio beam width of the antenna. The antenna parameters are characterized using Ansoft high frequency structure simulator and further, parametric analysis on antenna dimensions are carried and its effects on antenna performance are discussed. The antenna attains -10dB impedance bandwidth (2.55GHz to 2.6GHz) in the 4G band and achieves a return loss of -16.06 dB with a peak gain of 5.94 dB at its operating frequency. The antenna also achieves wider axial ratio (AR) beam width of 105 deg (AR ≤ -3dB) and good cross-polarization isolation of -17.93dB which makes it more suitable for modern wireless communications.
    Keywords: Axial Ratio; Co-Polarization; Impedance Matching; Patch antennas; Slot antennas.

  • Balanced Clustering Approach with Energy Prediction and Round-Time Adaptation in Wireless Sensor Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Nassima Merabtine, Djamel Djenouri, Djamel-Eddine Zegour, Billel Boumessaidia, Abdelghani Boutahraoui 
    Abstract: This paper proposes three techniques to improve the energy efficiency of clustering protocols in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The first technique reduces the periodic network re-clustering cost while distributing the load evenly amongst the nodes. The second technique adapts the rounds durations to the cluster heads (CHs) residual energy, and the third one ensures fair and spatially balanced distribution of CHs over the network. The proposed techniques are generic and may be applied to any centralized clustering protocol. Without loss of generality and for the purpose of performance evaluation, these techniques are implemented on TPSO-CR, one of the state-of-the-art clustering protocols. TPSO-CR, its enhanced version with the proposed techniques (ETPSO-CR) and the LEACH-C protocol are then extensively simulated and compared with various realistic topologies for both homogeneous and heterogeneous networks. The results demonstrate that the proposed solutions remarkably reduce and balance the total energy consumed in the network. Thereby, the time to the first node death is more than doubled in some scenarios. Further, we define several network lifetime metrics related to the nodes lifetime and network partition, which are used in the comparison. The results show improvement ranging from 25% to 76%. The total number of received data at the base station is also increased by more than 30% on average, and reaches 70% in some cases.
    Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks; Clustering Protocols; Re-clustering; Data Routing; Energy Efficient Communication; Energy prediction; Load Balancing; Adaptive Round Time.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2019.10012413
  • Virtual Machine Allocation Strategy in Energy-efficient Cloud Data Centers   Order a copy of this article
    by Shunfu Jin, Xiuchen Qie, Shanshan Hao 
    Abstract: Energy consumption is significant in cloud data centers even whenrnsome virtual machines (VMs) are idle. Taking into account both thernenergy efficiency and the response performance, we propose a VMrnallocation strategy with speed switch and VM consolidation in therncloud data center. When the traffic is lighter, the processingrnspeed of VMs in base-line module will be switched between a lowrnspeed and a high speed. When the traffic is much heavier, the VMsrnin reserved module will be consolidated with the VMs in base-linernmodule, and operate at a high speed. We establish a two-dimensionalrnMarkov chain to mathematically estimate the energy-saving degree andrnthe response performance. Numerical experiments with analysis andrnsimulation show that our proposed VM allocation strategy canrneffectively reduce the energy consumption as well as guarantee thernresponse performance.
    Keywords: Cloud Data Center; Energy Efficiency; VM Allocation; Speed Switch; VM Consolidation.

  • Performance Evaluation of Speculative Semantics-Based Algorithm for Read Operations in Distributed File System   Order a copy of this article
    by Lakshmi Siva Rama Krishna Talluri, Ragunathan Thirumalaisamy 
    Abstract: File sharing semantics is proposed in the literature for sharing the files among the concurrent applications executed in the system. Many file sharing semantics are proposed for the distributed file system (DFS). Existing file sharing semantics in the distributed file system are unable to provide the most recent data to the read client applications while concurrent write client applications are modifying that data. We have proposed a new file sharing semantics called speculative semantics which can provide the most recent data to read client applications without affecting data consistency. We have proposed a new metric called data currency to compare the performance of the file sharing semantics. In this paper, we have developed an analytical model to measure the performance of proposed speculative semantics-based algorithm with session and linearizability semantics-based approaches. The results obtained through analytical model indicate that the proposed speculative semantics-based algorithm performs better thanrnthe session and linearizability-based approaches by considering the metric data currency.
    Keywords: Distributed System;Distributed File System; Concurrency; File Sharing Semantics; Consistency;Speuclation;Performance;.

  • Energy efficient cooperative CRN spectrum sharing using multi-level hierarchical clustering with MCDM   Order a copy of this article
    by Loganathan Jayakumar, S. Janakiraman, Ankur Dumka, P. Victer Paul 
    Abstract: Spectrum sensing is playing vital role in cognitive radio networks (CRN). In cooperative sensing model, energy, task assignment and free channel allocation for requested CRs are mostly varies based on location of CR from cluster head. Since heterogeneous CR users are participating in the cooperation, their willingness, battery power and sensing accuracy are to be considered for CRs weight calculation. Otherwise overall sensing results trustworthiness and performance of sensing task may be degraded. using multi criteria decision making (MCDM) scheme we have calculated each node weight and given that as input to Multi-level hierarchical clustering technique. Based on the traffic of each blocks, sensing task will be allocated to a cluster. In MCDM, we derived the weight by using combination of modified analytical hierarchical process (MAHP) for giving weight for attributes of each CR and VIKOR. Final result shows that increased average lifetime of each participating nodes in the simulation.
    Keywords: cognitive radio; cooperative sensing; multi-criteria decision making schemes; VIKOR; modified-AHP; multi-level hierarchical clustering.

  • Incorporating Novel Hierarchical Secure Model for Performance and Reliability Evaluation in Mobile Agent System   Order a copy of this article
    by Prashant Kumar Mishra, Raghuraj Singh, Vibhash Yadav 
    Abstract: Emerging mobile agent paradigm supports towards wider applications of Mobile Agent System (MAS). To guarantee security challenges due to several vulnerable threats into MAS, reliability issues are addressed. In this paper, a hierarchical secure model is designed for reliability prediction of MAS. The proposed security model is categorized as: host security, agent security and communication channel security. Security improvising effects over the reliability enhancements, security is maintained in Mobile Agent, Host and during Mobile Agent migration. A novel Multi-Factor Authentication is used at mobile agent verification; hosts are verified with respect to the certificate originality and Pseudo Identity. Opinions from neighboring host are requested for secure migration of Mobile Agent. Security based challenges solved in this paper shows enhancements in reliability of MAS that is estimated in terms of confidentiality, authentication at origin, integrity of agent, quality of mobile agent, security, fault tolerance, dynamic topology and link connectivity. Our proposed MAS are designed in NS3 simulator that results reliability enhancement according to number of mobile agents, size of MAS and number of hosts.
    Keywords: MAS; Mobile Agents; Host systems; Reliability Model; Reliability Estimation.

  • A Priority Based - Weighted Clustering Algorithm for Mobile Ad Hoc Network   Order a copy of this article
    by Sunil Pathak, SONAL JAIN 
    Abstract: One major problem in clustering is the setback involved in cluster formation, cluster maintenance and in the selection of a suitable cluster head. In this paper we have proposed a Priority Based Weighted Clustering Algorithm for MANETs which works on three approaches to reduce cluster head changes and clustering overhead. The first phase helps to dynamically determine the cluster head based on their initial priority of neighbor nodes within cluster. The second and third phase helps in cluster maintenance and selecting the new cluster head automatically without any delay when remaining battery power of old cluster head reaches up to the minimum threshold value or in the absence of cluster head. From the simulation result it is clear that the proposed algorithm reduces the frequent cluster head changes, communication overheads and also improves the efficiency of transmission in the network. Priority of each mobile node is calculated based on node degree and battery power.
    Keywords: Cluster Head; Cluster Member; Clustering Overhead; Cluster Maintenance; Cluster head Changes; Threshold Value; Remaining Battery Power; Stable Clustering; Routing; Heterogeneity; Energy Consumption; Scalability; Routing Protocols.

  • Improving Quality of Service for Internet Protocol Television and Voice Over Internet Protocol over Long Term Evolution Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Hegazi Ibrahim 
    Abstract: The quality of data transmission and quality of service in both technologies IPTV and VOIP is considered as a sensitive parameter that all users are concerning it. These streaming applications are facing major challenges that affect directly on the overall performance as higher delay values, lower throughput ranges, and higher number of packet conflicts, lower SNR, and higher BER and lower ranges of stability. In this paper, we have thoroughly inspected the effect of multiple factors which can be considered high impact factors of the QoS over LTE networks. Also, we have proposed to study the effect of power and distance variations on the stability of service with lower ranges for noise and errors through LTE networks. We have carried out a detailed study of the effect of the following parameters: (i) transmission power; (ii) distance variation, and (iii) different modulation techniques. The simulation results showed that LTE with flexible bandwidth and high spectral efficiency makes a massive expansion in the IPTV and VOIP systems such that packet delay and throughput meet the conditions of applying video and voice streaming to access IPTV and VOIP services at any place without any limitations with changing power ranges, modulation schemes, and distance between base station (BS) and subscriber station (SS) over LTE area. The simulation satisfies: (i) higher SNR rates; (ii) lower values of BER, and (iii) acceptable delay and throughput ranges which providing the stability for all QoS parameters.
    Keywords: Internet Protocol Television (IPTV); Long Term Evolution (LTE); Voice over IP (VOIP); Quality of Service (QoS); Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR); Bit Error Rate (BER); Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN); Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA); Mean Opinion Score (MOS).

    by Natasha Saini, Nitin Pandey 
    Abstract: Cognitive Radio Network (CRN) is an emerging technology that provides ability of adapting operating parameters to wireless devices in order to overcome spectrum scarcity problems. However, involvement of numerous pervasive smart wireless devices introduces many security threats in CRN. This paper mainly focused on three major attacks held on CRN such as, Primary User Emulation (PUE), Spectrum Sensing Data Falsification (SSDF), and eavesdropper attacker. To overcome such attacks, this paper designs an effective agent assisted defense system in CRN. Initially network is partitioned into four different groups based on communication range of PBS. Group Head (GH) in each group is selected by Trust Aware Head Selection (TAHS) scheme in which active factor, reputation value, and consistency factor of each node are considered. Secondary User (SU) performs spectrum sensing by Enhanced Threshold based Energy Detection (ETED) method. Here PUE attack is detected by Signal Strength based Location Estimation (SSLE) scheme which attempts to detect location of signal source. SSDF attack is detected by FC with the help of Coextensive Neural Network (CNN) and Spectrum Agent (SA) which is a new entity incorporated in each group. To mitigate SSDF attack the malicious node is isolated from the network. This decision is made by Tri-state Markov Chain Model (MCM) which predicts future activity of the node. Communication in the network is protected by Hybrid Advance Encryption with Diffie-Hellman Encryption (HAES-DHE) algorithm to alleviate eavesdropper attack. Experimental result shows promising improvements in probability of detection, probability of miss detection, estimation of attack strength, average estimate of honest nodes, and throughput.
    Keywords: CRN; spectrum agent; PUE; SSDF; eavesdropper; fusion center.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2019.10013306
  • Reinforcement Learning based Real Time Search Algorithm for Routing Optimization in Wireless Sensor Networks using Fuzzy Link Cost Estimation   Order a copy of this article
    by Kuldeep Singh, Jyoteesh Malhotra 
    Abstract: Internet of Things (IoT) is a technological advancement of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) which are characterized by highly complex, large scale, heterogeneous, dynamically changing and asymmetric wireless network. Such constraints makes routing in WSNs a difficult task. This paper introduces Fuzzy link cost estimation based Real Time Search Routing Algorithm (Fuzzy RTS) in which fuzzy logic based link cost estimation is obtained from physical and mac layer parameters like residual energy, packet drop rate and RSSI. Its performance has been evaluated with traditional reinforcement learning based algorithms like real time search, adaptive tree, ant routing and constrained flooding algorithms on the basis of metrics like throughput, loss rate, success rate, energy consumption, energy efficiency and lifetime. The simulation results reveal that Fuzzy RTS algorithm is most appropriate reinforcement learning based routing algorithm among given algorithms for ensuring energy efficient and QoS aware routing in dynamically changing, asymmetric and unreliable environment of WSNs.
    Keywords: IoT; wireless sensor networks; search algorithm; fuzzy logic; link cost; reinforcement learning.

  • A hybrid Quantum evolutionary algorithm with Cuckoo Search algorithm for QoS multicast routing problem   Order a copy of this article
    by Yassine MERAIHI, Amar RAMDANE-CHERIF, Mohammed MAHSEUR, Dalila ACHELI 
    Abstract: The QoS multicast routing problem is one of the most interesting combinatorial optimization problems for transmission in the areas of networks and distributed systems.It is known to be an NP-hard problem, so many heuristic algorithms have been employed to solve this problem. This paper proposes two-hybrid approaches based on the hybridization of Cuckoo Search (CS) algorithm with Quantum Evolutionary algorithm (QEA) to solve the Quality of Service (QoS) multicast routing problem. The main idea of the first approach, named CSQEA1, is the integration of the evolutionary equation of CS in the evolutionary operator of QEA, the rotation angle of quantum gates is adjusted by the evolution equation of CS; while the main idea of the second approach, named CSQEA2, is the replacement of the evolutionary equation of QEA by the evolutionary equation of CS, the rotation angle is used to encode the new Q-bit. The aim of these approaches is to avoid the premature convergence, ensure the diversity of the solutions and improve the effectiveness and the robustness of QEA. The simulation results show the successfulness and the efficiency of our proposed algorithms compared with other existing algorithms in the literature.
    Keywords: Quantum evolutionary algorithm; Cuckoo Search algorithm; Quality of Service (QoS); multicast routing; multicast tree.

  • Efficient Job Scheduling in Cloud Computing Based on Genetic Algorithm   Order a copy of this article
    by Shirin Hosseinzadeh Sahraei, Mohammad Mansour Riahi Kashani, Javad Rezazadeh, Reza Farahbakhsh 
    Abstract: Scheduling in cloud is one of the challenging issues in resource management domain where the main question is how to manage time and cost in an optimized way. This study tackles this problem by managing time and cost through a genetic based algorithm. The primary goal is to manage jobs in a shorter time with cheaper cost and higher utilization by leveraging the genetic algorithm approaches. Toward that end, a new model is proposed where jobs are created in genetic format. rnIn the evaluation part, different scenarios based on taking different fitness functions and format of the population are considered. We have analyzed makespan, cost, and utilization in comparison to other two existing scheduling models (MAX-MIN and MIN-MIN). The results show considerable improvements in the cost, makespan, and utilization.
    Keywords: Cloud Computing; Job Scheduling; Genetic Algorithm; Cost; Makespan; Utilization.

  • Performance of multiple-input-multiple-output free space optics using hybrid subcarrier intensity modulation with avalanche photodiode receiver   Order a copy of this article
    by Rajat Kumar Giri, Bijayananda Patnaik 
    Abstract: In order to improve the performance of a free space optical (FSO) communication system, hybrid pulse position modulation-binary phase shift keying-subcarrier intensity modulation (PPM-BPSK-SIM) technique is proposed. The system performance is further improved by using multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) configuration and avalanche-photodiode (APD) receiver. The use of multiple lasers and photo-detectors in MIMO FSO system reduces the scintillation effect in the atmosphere. In this study, the impact of different parameters like irradiance, link distance, and turbulence level have been considered for the bit error rate (BER) analysis. The relevant mathematical model is also presented. The simulation results show that the hybrid PPM-BPSK-SIM scheme performs better compared to PPM and BPSK-SIM schemes. Also, APD receiver shows a noticeable BER improvement than p-type intrinsic n-type (PIN) receiver in our proposed scheme.
    Keywords: Free-space-optics (FSO); subcarrier-intensity-modulation (SIM); scintillation; pulse position modulation (PPM); multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO); equal gain combining (EGC); avalanche-photodiode (APD).

  • Performance Evaluation of various Link Quality Metrics using Cross Layer Routing for Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Shailendra Aswale, Vijay R. Ghorpade 
    Abstract: For the past few years, link quality estimation has been an active area of research in wireless networks. Low-power wireless links are error-prone, asymmetric, and unreliable in nature. Therefore, understanding the behaviour and characteristics of low-power radio links is essential to design effective and efficient routing protocol in wireless networks. The objective of this paper is to estimate and evaluate the quality of a link with single link quality metric and amalgamated link quality metric. In addition, these estimated link quality metrics are respectively used in a generic routing cost function of the proposed Link Quality based Cross Layer Routing (LQCLR) Protocol. Extensive simulation results are presented, which give insights on how estimated link quality with single and amalgamated link quality metrics affects the performance of routing protocol in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Network (WMSN).
    Keywords: wireless multimedia sensor networks; quality of service; link quality indicator; signal-to-noise ratio; packet reception ratio; triangle metric; cross layer.

  • Assessing Link Availability in Communications Networks under Regional Failures   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohamed Mostafa A. Azim 
    Abstract: The evolving spreading of data-centers implementations with hundreds of thousands of servers in-site, has imposed new benchmarks on network survivability. Therefore, assessing the network availability under a set of geographically correlated failures known as regional failures has become imperative. In this paper, we assess the network robustness against regional failures. In particular, we develop a probabilistic model to estimate the availability of a networks link in the event of a failure scenario. Then, using the estimated probabilities of all links to provide a general overview of the network-wide availability. This paper is distinguished by providing a failure model that is continuous over the failure region. This model provides a quantitative tool to estimate the amount of resources required for repairing the faulty parts of the network. Finally, extensive numerical results on the U.S. backbone network for different failure scenarios indicate the applicability and accuracy of the proposed model
    Keywords: Availability Analysis ; Regional Failure; large scale geographical failure.

  • A novel approach to improve handover performance   Order a copy of this article
    by Jyoti Verma, Sunanda Gupta, Pratima Manhas, Vasudha Arora 
    Abstract: Nowadays, mobile communications have heterogeneous wireless networks offering variable coverage and quality of service (QoS). The availability of alternatives generates a problem of occurrence of unnecessary handoff that results in wastage of network resources. In order to maintain seamless mobility, service continuity and optimise usage of network resources, it is desirable to minimise handover failures and unnecessary handovers. In this paper, a handover necessity estimation algorithm is introduced. This algorithm is made up of two modules. The first module estimates handoff necessity. It involves received signal strength (RSS) prediction, travelling distance estimation and velocity estimation. In a second module, candidate networks are discovered from the available networks. Based upon the predicted future values of RSS and travelling distance inside the wireless local area network (WLAN), the proposed algorithm improves the probability of unnecessary handoff and handover failures.
    Keywords: quality of service; QoS; received signal strength; RSS; predicted received signal strength; PRSS; next generation wireless networks; NGWN; wireless local area network; WLAN; universal mobile telecommunication; UMTS.

  • A Multi-Agent System Approach for Service Deployment in the Cloud   Order a copy of this article
    by Abdelhak Merizig, Okba Kazar, Maite Lopez Sanchez 
    Abstract: Nowadays, Cloud Computing is regarded as a new paradigm in the field of Information Technology. Since the emergence of this paradigm, most of corporations have started using it through the deployment or the use of its services. Furthermore, service deployment in the Cloud forms its kernel function. To ensure a good function of service deployment we need to combine a set of services. In fact, to find a limited number candidate services constitutes a problem due to the absence of a unified service description. In this paper, we propose a solution to solve the deployment problem by considering it as a service composition taking into account the quality of service. Since we have many atomic services, this paper transforms this composition problem into an optimization problem. Moreover, to reduce the number of service candidates we propose a new service description language to assist the discovery process. The implementation of this model has been provided in order to evaluate our system. The obtained results demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed system.
    Keywords: Cloud Computing; Service Deployment; Service Composition; Multi-agent System; Agent; Dominance Relationship; Multi-objective problem; Quality of Service (QoS); Distributed Architecture.

  • Geographic Opportunistic Routing Protocol based on Two-Hop Information for Wireless Sensor Networks   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: To improve energy efficiency and packet delivery ratio in WSNs. We propose a Two-Hop Geographic Opportunistic Routing(THGOR) protocol that selects a subset of 2-hop neighbors of node which have higher packet reception ratio and residual energy as the next forwarder node, it also selects 1-hop neighbors that have excellent coverage of 2-hop neighbors as relay nodes. The proposed protocol is compared with Geographic Opportunistic Routing(GOR) and Efficient QoS aware Geographic Opportunistic(EQGOR). GOR and EQGOR select a forwarding sensor node on the basis of distance. However, GOR,EQGOR results in lower packet delivery rate, and quick depletion of an energy. The THGOR is comprehensively evaluated through NS-2 and compared results with EQGOR and GOR. Simulation results show that THGOR significant improvement in packet advancement, reliable transmission, energy efficiency and optimizes packet transmission delay.
    Keywords: Two-Hop Packet progress; Geographic Opportunistic Routing; Media delay; Packet Reception Ratio, inclination angle; forwarding node.

  • Graph-Based Analysis of Cloud Connectivity at the Internet Protocol Level   Order a copy of this article
    by Sebastian Dombrowski, Tatiana Ermakova, Benjamin Fabian 
    Abstract: Internet connectivity of cloud services is of exceptional importance for both their providers and consumers. This article demonstrates the outlines of a method for measuring cloud-service connectivity at the Internet Protocol level from a clients perspective. For this, we actively collect connectivity data via traceroute measurements from PlanetLab to several major cloud services. Furthermore, we construct graph models from the collected data, and analyze the connectivity of the services based on important graph-based measures. Then, random and targeted node removal attacks are simulated, and the corresponding vulnerability of cloud services is evaluated. Our results indicate that cloud service hosts are, on average, much better connected than average hosts. However, when interconnecting nodes are removed in a targeted manner, cloud connectivity is dramatically reduced.
    Keywords: Cloud Computing; Connectivity; Availability; Reliability; Internet Topology; Graph Analysis; Complex Networks.

  • Interference Aware Frequency Assignment and Association Control for Uplink and Downlink Traffic in WLAN   Order a copy of this article
    by BABUL P. TEWARI, Sasthi C. Ghosh 
    Abstract: In IEEE 802.11 wireless local area network, interference and association control play a significant role to determine the network performance. The problem of interference becomes more challenging in simultaneous presence of uplink and downlink communication traffic. This paper addresses the issue of interference not only from the perspective of access points but also from the perspective of clients considering a mixed traffic. We first define several types of transmission conflicts influenced by different communication traffic and based on that we model effective interference. Importance of such effective interference has been described through a motivational example. We then propose an efficient greedy algorithm that jointly considers association control and frequency assignment to avoid the effective interference for maximizing the aggregate throughput. The novelty of the proposed approach is evaluated through extensive simulations. We also have shown that the proposed algorithm gives comparable results with other existing approaches.
    Keywords: IEEE 802.11 WLAN; Frequency assignment; Association control; Interference ; Network performance; Channel interference.

  • A Review on Spectrum Allocation in Cognitive Radio Network   Order a copy of this article
    by Wangjam Niranjan Singh, Ningrinla Marchang 
    Abstract: Cognitive radio is a recent technology that enhances the usage of spectrum resources. Efficient assignment of unused spectrum to unlicensed users is an important problem. Spectrum allocation is an important mechanism that limits and avoids the interference between cognitive radio devices and licensed primary users, thus enabling a better efficient usage of the wireless radio spectrum. In this paper, we present a study of different approaches and techniques w.r.t. spectrum allocation in cognitive radio network. We not only compare them in terms of the assignment scheme, execution model, etc. but also highlight their contributions and shortcomings. Additionally, we also highlight the security attacks on spectrum allocation. The challenges that a CR spectrum allocation technique should take into consideration are also discussed in the end with the hope of aiding future research.
    Keywords: channel assignment; spectrum assignment; spectrum allocation;cognitive radio; cognitive radio network.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2019.10014474
  • Service composition approaches for Internet of Things: a review   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: The Internet of things (IoT) is the integration of information space and physical space, becoming more and more popular in several places. In order to answer the complicated user request, most IoT devices do not work alone, a multiple service composition must be made, and it is defined as the services composition. A number of approaches to IoTs service composition have been proposed in the literature. We have noticed a lack of studies that review the different works of the service composition in IoT. Thereby, in this paper, we present a review of existing approaches for service composition in IoT. It describes and compares them among each other with respect to some criteria, which we have defined based on the different challenges of service composition in IoT. Finally, we conclude by discussing open research issues and avenues for further work.
    Keywords: Internet of Things; IoT service composition; adaptability; context; Smart Object; resource constraints; IoT service composition challenges.

  • Intelligence in Wireless Network Routing through Reinforcement Learning   Order a copy of this article
    by Simi Surendran, Maneesha Vinodini Ramesh 
    Abstract: One of the critical challenges in mobile wireless network is resource optimized routing of messages without compromising the performance criteria of the network. Routing in wireless networks has been extensively studied and a variety of routing protocols have been proposed. But these protocols experiences problems due to the dynamism in network topology. To address these problems, reinforcement learning approaches are integrated in routing solutions. This review focuses on the impact of reinforcement learning algorithms to achieve intelligence in wireless network routing. We provide contexts and benefits of applying reinforcement learning paradigm and discuss the major techniques applied to optimize routing solutions. A survey of state of the art reinforcement learning based routing protocols is presented and categorized these protocols according to the learning strategies. We also provide open issues and suggestions for future research in improving routing solutions.
    Keywords: Wireless Network; Routing; Reinforcement Learning; Performance Improvement; Adaptive Algorithms; Dynamic System.

  • Task allocation based modified bacterial foraging algorithm for maximising reliability of a heterogeneous distributed system   Order a copy of this article
    by Abbache Farid, Hamoudi Kalla 
    Abstract: modified bacterial foraging algorithm for allocation and scheduling tasks on processors and links with high reliability is proposed (MBFA). MBFA ensure high reliability without redundancy of processors or links by using an efficient and simple structure. MBFA is improved by adding an efficient model to deal with the weak solution (i.e. allocation with low reliability). Also a simulated annealing technique is integrated into MBFA in order to strengthen the search of best solution. The efficiency and effectiveness of MBFA are tested using random generated problems. MBFA is tested over the published approaches HPSO and GAA using density parameter (DS), number of nodes (N) and the communication to computation ratio parameter (CCR). The results show the superiority of MBFA over the published approaches in all test cases
    Keywords: task allocation; heterogeneous distributed system; reliability; bacterial foraging algorithm; simulated annealing algorithm.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2019.10013812
  • Limits of the OFDM use in the radio mobile context   Order a copy of this article
    by Fatima Zohra Boumediene, Mohamed Tayebi, Merahi Bouziani 
    Abstract: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is very vulnerable to the Carrier Frequency Offset (CFO) generated mainly by the Doppler Effect. The Inter-Carrier Interference (ICI) generated by this offset degrades the system performances. Before stabilizing its speed, a mobile must pass through a startup phase where the speed varies gradually in time. The same thing happens during a braking; the speed varies up to a zero value. In this paper, we investigate the effect induced by these speed variations on the OFDM system performances. The weight and the speed of the degradations are taken into account for further enhancement of the performances. The limits of the OFDM modulation are depicted in the Line-Of-Sight (LOS) path where a mobile is subject to different types of accelerations. Simulation results show clearly the sensitivity of OFDM when mobile is subject to higher values of acceleration.
    Keywords: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing; OFDM; Carrier Frequency Offset; CFO; Inter-Carrier Interference; ICI; Doppler Effect; Acceleration.

  • Modeling and performance analysis of energy detector based spectrum sensing with maximum ratio combining over Nakagami-m/log-normal fading channels   Order a copy of this article
    by Pappu Verma, Rahul Kumar 
    Abstract: Spectrum sensing (SS) is one of the crucial functions of cognitive radio networks (CRNs). It decides whether the band or sub-band of the spectrum is available or not for secondary users (SUs). Energy detection (ED) is one of the very fundamental approaches of SS to detect whether primary users (PUs) are present or absent. It is mathematically intractable to derive closed-form expressions of composite multipath/shadowing for average probability of detection and average area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. In this paper, we have considered Nakagami-m/log-normal as composite fading with maximum ratio combing (MRC) diversity, and it is approximated by Gaussian-Hermite integration (G-HI). In addition, adaptive threshold or optimized threshold has been incorporated to overcome the problem of spectrum sensing at low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). To verify the correctness of exact results and obtained analytical expression is collaborated with Monte Carlo simulations.
    Keywords: Cognitive radio; probability density function; average probability of detection; complementary receiver operating characteristics.

  • Modelling and performance evaluation over Nakagami-m/log-normal fading environments   Order a copy of this article
    by Pappu Verma, Sanjay Soni, Priyanka Jain 
    Abstract: In this paper, we present the closed-form expressions of composite Nakagami-m/log-normal (NL) fading channel by Holtzman approximation. The obtained expressions are used to derive the important performance parameters of wireless communications systems. These performance matrices are amount of fading (AF), outage probability (PO), average channel capacity (CC) and average symbol error probability (ASEP) of coherent modulation comprising binary orthogonal, antipodal, M-ary phase shift keying (M-PSK) and M-ary pulse amplitude modulation (M-PAM). Furthermore, energy detection (ED) is one of the ways to determine whether the signal is present or not. The performance of ED is studied in terms of complementary receiver operating characteristics (CROC) curve. To verify the correctness of our analysis, the derived closed-form expressions are corroborated via exact result and Monte Carlo simulations.
    Keywords: Nakagami-m distribution; Log-normal distribution; Probability density function; Energy detection.

  • Distributed Denial of Service attacks detection in Cloud Computing using Extreme Learning Machine   Order a copy of this article
    by Gopal Singh Kushwah, Syed Taqi Ali 
    Abstract: Cloud computing has become popular due to its on-demand, pay-as-you-use, and ubiquitous features. This technology suffers from various security risks. Distributed denial of service (DDoS) attack is one of these security risks. It is used to disrupt the services provided by cloud computing. In DDoS attack, the cloud server is overwhelmed with fake requests by the attacker. This makes long response time for legitimate users or shut down of the service completely. In this work, a DDoS attack detection model based on Extreme learning machine (ELM) has been proposed. Experiments show that proposed model can be trained in a very short period of time and provides high detection accuracy.
    Keywords: Cloud Computing; DDoS attack; Extreme Learning Machines; Artificial Neural Networks.

  • Wireless Sensor Network Monitoring System: architecture, applications, and future directions   Order a copy of this article
    by Maroua Abdelhafidh, Mohamed Fourati, Lamia Chaari Fourati, Abdessalam Chouaya 
    Abstract: Wireless Sensor Network Monitoring Systems (WSNMS) have emerged as one of the most promising research area due to reliable technology progress related to the deployed sensors. This solution is efficiently involved with advanced technologies such as Internet of Things (IoT) and Physical Cyber System (CPS) that are designed as a bridge connecting the real world to the digital world. This survey gives a holistic view of WSNMS based on a recent state-of-the art. We address WSNMS applications and its challenges to facilitate its deployment in real world. We demonstrates the synergy between WSN and the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and its major specifications. Finally, we depict open research issues that need to be more studied in the future. We expect to help researchers to get basic knowledge on WSNMS and to open for them new opportunities in regards to understand new technologies considered as an evolution of WSN.
    Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks; Monitoring Systems; Multimedia sensor network; Information and Communication Technologies; Internet of Things; Cyber Physical System.

  • Firefly Algorithm Inspired Energy Aware Clustering Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network   Order a copy of this article
    by Anupkumar Bongale, Nirmala C R 
    Abstract: Most of the existing cluster based routing protocols focus either on cluster head election schemes or on refinement of routing process ignoring process of cluster formation. In this paper, Firefly algorithm inspired Energy Aware Clustering Protocol for WSN is presented. The idea of the proposed protocol is to elect the cluster head nodes by assigning them intensity value defined through firefly algorithm. Another contribution of this paper is energy efficient cluster formation where cluster members join to cluster heads based on intensity parameter associated with cluster head. The presented protocol ensures that the elected cluster heads are usually located in densely populated area of the network resulting in low distance intra-cluster data transmissions and ultimately leading to low energy consumption. The firefly based protocol is compared with popular routing protocols such as LEACH, LEACH-C and EOICHD and comparative results indicate that proposed protocol is highly energy efficient than other protocols.
    Keywords: Cluster Formation; Cluster Head Election; Firefly Algorithm; Wireless Sensor Network;.

  • Quality of Service Class Mapping and Scheduling Scheme for Converged LTE-WiFi in the Next Generation Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Amer T. Saeed, Amir Esmailpour 
    Abstract: Abstract--In this paper, a novel Quality of Service (QoS) class mapping and scheduling scheme for the LTE-WiFi converged network is proposed to ensure that end-to-end QoS support is provisioned seamlessly. A mapping among QoS classes of LTE and WiFi is performed first, then scheduling scheme is outlined. For scheduling scheme, traffic is separated into Real-Time (RT) and Non-Real-Time (NRT) components, then a two-stage complex queuing strategy is performed. In the first stage, Deficit Weighted Round Robin Queuing (DWRRQ) and Class-Based Weighted Fair Queuing (CBWFQ) are used for RT and NRT applications respectively to segregate and forward traffic according to resource requirements. Whereas in the second stage, Rate-Control Priority Queuing (RCPQ) is used for all types of traffic to give each class appropriate priority level. Performance evaluation of the converged network was done based on different metrics such as jitter, end-to-end delay, throughput, and packet loss ratio. Simulation results show significant improvements for RT with slight degradation on NRT applications after using the new scheduling scheme.
    Keywords: QoS; LTE; WiFi; Converged; Next Generation Networks; Scheduling Scheme.

  • Energy-efficient Real-time Deployment of Mobile Sensors in Disaster-prone Location   Order a copy of this article
    by Williams Nwadiugwu, Dong-Seong Kim, Jae-Min Lee 
    Abstract: Recent research works on real-time robot-assisted mobile sensor deployment have become rapid, as they tend to accomplish problem-solving tasks at both safe location and unsafe location. This paper proposes a technique to achieve a real-time energy-efficient deployment of mobile sensors in a disaster-prone location using a path-tracking algorithm. An enhanced path- tracking algorithm was introduced to be able to deploy mobile sensors in both presence and absence of obstacles. The simulation result investigates the real- time performances of the mobile sensor nodes deployment with respect to factors such as the minimal energy consumption of the nodes with neighborhood sharing scheme, the end-to-end system threshold and the time variance for the deployed sensor nodes to reach the target location and back to the base station.
    Keywords: Data center; disaster-prone location; IEEE 802.15.4(ZigBee); GPS-less mobile sensor deployment; path-tracking scheme.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2019.10015202
  • A Hybrid Behavioral Based Cyber Intrusion Detection System   Order a copy of this article
    by Henock M. Melaku, Alemtsehay Adhanom 
    Abstract: The experience of deploying Intrusion Detection System (IDS) for securing computer system is being matured. There are Knowledge based (misuse) and anomaly IDS. In knowledge based IDS, prior knowledge of the attack is needed for detection, and during anomaly, behavior of normal data is studied, when new data is arrived and there is a deviation, it is considered as an attack. In this thesis, we present a hybrid intrusion detection system called Behavioral Based Cyber Intrusion Detection System, based on two data mining algorithms, decision tree and association rule mining. The decision tree algorithm is used to detect misuse intrusions but it considers new attacks as normal. Association rule mining works by using the normal output of decision tree as input for further detection.Further, we implement the proposed model using java programming language. We have used a reduced and enhanced non-redundant NSL_KDD data set for training and testing. Evaluation results show that it provides improved detection rate and lower false alarm rates.
    Keywords: Intrusion Detection System,Knowledge Discovery Data Mining; Genetic Algorithm.

  • Distributive Justice in Network Communications   Order a copy of this article
    by Gautam Moktan, Jukka Manner 
    Abstract: Communication networks often have limited resources to serve all users and flows, and therefore different network resource assignment schemes have been deployed that satisfy fairness notions such as max-min fairness or proportional fairness. The justification of why one notion suits over other must be given due analysis in designing and administrating of communication networks. We explore the development of such fairness notions and resource assignment policies from philosophical and economics roots and how they translate into network communications and its layered protocol architecture. We find that resource assignment policies are not commutative, which impacts communications traffic and its bidirectional nature. We observe the effect of prioritization in assigned resource amounts under different notions of the α-fairness spectrum and when the proportion of prioritized participants is varied. After an exploratory discourse, we formulate steps for designing and administrating resource allocation schemes for network communications that takes distributive justice into consideration.
    Keywords: Networking; Fairness; Resource Allocation; Distributive Justice; Prioritization; Socio-Economics.

  • Mitigating the Interferences and Intruders in Cognitive Radio Networks Using an Authentication protocol over Reed - Solomon codes   Order a copy of this article
    by Pavan Kumar C, Selvakumar R 
    Abstract: Cognitive Radio Networks has emerged as a promising solution for spectrum scarcity problem. Secondary users (unlicensed users) accessing cognitive radio network suffer from continuous unintentional interference from Primary Users (licensed users). Also, the adversary present in the channel tries to thwart the secondary users' communication. To address these two problems, an inherent authentication protocol is defined over Reed - Solomon codes. Reed - Solomon codes with authentication protocol is used, with M-ary Frequency Shift Keying modulation technique, for transmissions over cognitive radio network. Similarly, the received message is demodulated and decoded to get the original information bits at the receiver. The performance of the proposed scheme is given in terms of Bit Error Rate. The experimental results show that the proposed system performs better in terms of BER reduction. Also, it is shown that the proposed scheme is resistant to replay attack, man-in-the-middle and impersonation kind of attacks.
    Keywords: Cognitive Radio Network; Reed Solomon codes; Frequency Shift Keying (FSK); Secondary Users (SUs); {Reliability; Security;} Authentication Protocol.

  • Resilient Intrusion Detection System for Cloud Containers   Order a copy of this article
    by Amr Abed, Mohamed Azab, Charles Clancy 
    Abstract: The lightweight virtualization and isolated execution offered by Linux containers qualify it to be the dominant virtualization platform for cloud-based applications. The fact that Linux containers run on the same host while sharing the same kernel opens the door for new attacks. However, limited research has been conducted in the area of securing cloud containers. This paper presents a resilient intrusion detection and resolution system for cloud-based containers. The system relies on two main pillars, a real-time smart behavior monitoring mechanism to detect maliciously behaving containers, and a Moving-target defense approach that applies runtime container migration to quarantine such containers and to minimize attack dispersion. To avoid zero-day targeted attacks, the system also induces random live migrations between running containers to obfuscate its execution behavior. Such obfuscation makes it harder for attackers to execute their targeted attacks. The system was tested by a big-data application using a container-based Apache Hadoop cluster to demonstrate the system
    Keywords: Cloud-Security;Intrusion-Detection; Behavior-Modeling; Resilience ; Linux-container ; Moving-target defense.

  • A Review on propagation of secure data, prevention of attacks and Routing in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs)   Order a copy of this article
    by Gautam M Borkar, Mahajan A. R. 
    Abstract: Wireless communication is considered as a significant part in modern technology for transmitting the packets from source node to destination node in which MANET plays a major role. In this paper, developed a detailed survey about the algorithms and techniques used for solving the various issues like security, authentication and routing. The absence of any central contrivance and wireless medium makes MANETs more prone to cyber-attacks. So as to combat attacks, a secure ad hoc network is expected to meet the different security requirements such as authentication, confidentiality, integrity, anonymity, and availability to mobile users. In addition to that the authentication problem is also focused to provide more security in which authentication is a process carried out by two parties in order to identify one another. Without authentication, an unauthorized node could easily come in and use the available resources within the network. Moreover, consider the problem of incorporating security mechanisms into routing protocols, it also has to be resolved for attaining the best secure communication. To obtain accurate solutions to that issues a large number of protocols, routing technique and algorithms have been employed, but it is very challenging to find out the optimal and efficient method and that can be used globally. In this paper, presented various existing techniques and then critically analyzed the work done by the various researchers in the field of MANETs.
    Keywords: Wireless networks; MANET; communication.

  • An Adaptive Model for Spectrum Assignment in Elastic Optical Networks   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: For an Elastic Optical Network, considering cases of various lightpaths pairs requiring different actual guard bands, we propose an adaptive spectrum assignment (ASA) model which formulates the problem such that, it is possible to investigate as to how spectrum resources can be efficiently assigned in the considered cases. Initially, ASA is formulated as an integer linear program (ILP), followed by its simplification to an ordered-ASA problem which is solvable in polynomial time. To solve ASA in tractable time, we propose a dual stage heuristic algorithm in which, an initial solution is obtained in the first stage, followed by a second stage which resorts to the use of random optimization for improving the initial solution's quality. We conduct simulations considering various graph types and realistic network topology(s), and the obtained results show that, in comparison to ILP model, the proposed dual stage heuristic algorithm finds almost optimal solutions for the ASA.
    Keywords: EONs; adaptive spectrum assignment; ILP; heuristics; conflict graph.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2019.10013619
  • An Automated Fault-Tolerant Route Discovery with Congestion Control using TFRF model for 3D Network-on-Chips   Order a copy of this article
    by Sapna Tyagi, Amit Agarwal, Vinay Avasthi, P. Maheswari 
    Abstract: As one of the principle patterns of communication technology for 3D-Integrated Circuit (ICs), the 3D-Networks-on-Chips (3D-NoCs) have lot of attention from scientific research community. 3D-NoCs has been provided as a propitious solution merging the high parallelism of Network-on-Chip (NoCs) interconnect paradigm with the high-performance and lower interconnect-power of 3-dimensional integration circuits. For the permanent link faults, the fault-tolerant routing scheme has been regarded as an effective mechanism to ensure the performance of the 2D NoCs. In this paper, we propose a Triggered Fault-Free Route Forwarding model called TFRF for 3D Mesh NoCs without requiring any virtual channels (VCs).TFRF is a deadlock-free scheme by adopting a logic-based routing named TFRF guided by a turn activating rule model. The experimental results show that TFRF possesses better performance, improved reliability and lower overhead compared with the state-of-the-art reliable routing schemes.
    Keywords: 3D-Networks-on-Chips (3D-NoCs); Triggered Fault-Free Route Forwarding model; virtual channels (VCs); deadlock; turn activating rules.

  • Detection of wormhole attacks in mobility-based wireless sensor networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Manish Patel, Akshai Aggarwal, Nirbhay K. Chaubey 
    Abstract: Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have many limitations in terms of their computational capability, memory, and battery power. In addition, the sensor nodes use insecure wireless communication channels. Thus, WSNs are vulnerable to many types of attacks such as jamming, sinkhole, wormhole, Sybil, and selective forwarding. Among all these attacks, detecting a wormhole attack is very difficult in mobility-based WSNs. In these WSNs, two genuine nodes that are located far apart can become one-hop neighbours for valid reasons. However, the same scenario might indicate the presence of a wormhole attack instead. Differentiating genuine nodes from malicious nodes is a highly challenging task. Our detection method is based on the concept of the rate of change of neighbouring nodes and the length of an alternative path between two nodes. The proposed method does not require any additional hardware such as synchronised clocks or timing information, GPS, or cryptographic methods that require large amounts of computational power. The simulation results indicate that our method has good detection accuracy.
    Keywords: wireless sensor network; mobility; wormhole; malicious; detection accuracy.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2018.10014500
  • Security aware dual authentication-based routing scheme using fuzzy logic with secure data dissemination for mobile ad-hoc networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Gautam M. Borkar, A.R. Mahajan 
    Abstract: The security of mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) has been getting a great deal of consideration in the field of wireless networking because MANETs are vulnerable to malicious attacks. Secure transmission without node failure in MANETs is a testing issue because of the nonappearance of centralised administration, and openness in the network topology. In order to upgrade the security of network and shield the nodes from vulnerabilities, this paper proposes a highly efficient dual authentication routing scheme which utilises fuzzy logic prediction rules to select the most reliable path and the proposed scheme coordinates with cipher text policy-attribute-based encryption (CP-ABE) for secure data dispersal among the source to destination with game theory-based jammer attack detection model. The performance of the proposed scheme is assessed with respect to different evaluation metrics in different node density levels. The results obtained clearly describes the proposed scheme provides a flexible and feasible decision to select the route that meets the security requirement of data packets transmission in MANETs environment.
    Keywords: mobile ad-hoc networks; MANETs; highly efficient dual authenticated routing; HEDAR; fuzzy logic control; FLC; game theory; cipher text policy-attribute-based encryption; CP-ABE.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2018.10014501
  • A modified DV-Hop algorithm for wireless sensor network localisation   Order a copy of this article
    by Santar Pal Singh, Subhash Chandra Sharma 
    Abstract: In previous years, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have gained significant consideration from the industrial and research community. However, WSNs uses are restricted by many obstacles. In several applications, monitored data is of no importance if sensor location is unknown because location is needed to spot the network task. So; it is most significant that nodes address the information with the positions. Hence, localisation is an essential process to determine the nodes' location. The localisation methods broadly classified as: range-based and range-free. Range-based methods use actual distance measures whereas range-free schemes use approximate measures. Hence, the range-free methods are a cost effective alternative to range-based because they don't need any added hardware. However, range-free methods have higher localisation error compared to range-based methods. In this paper, we propose a modified algorithm for localisation based on DV-Hop. The simulation results confirm that proposed algorithm improves the results with respect to localisation error and error variance.
    Keywords: WSN; connectivity; localisation; range-free; DV-Hop.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2018.10014503
  • K-mMA VM selection in dynamic VM consolidation for improving energy efficiency at cloud data centre   Order a copy of this article
    by Guruh Fajar Shidik, Azhari Azhari, Khabib Mustofa 
    Abstract: Dynamic virtual machine (VM) consolidation is an alternative solution for managing and optimising energy efficiency in a cloud data centre. This research proposed VM selection method in dynamic VM consolidation based on K-means clustering technique and computational model Markov normal algorithm (K-mMA). The objective of VM selection is to select proper VM, which should be migrated away from the overloaded physical machine and to avoid oversubscribe host. The VM selection method has been tested in simulation condition using CloudSim and PlanetLabs datasets with various conditions of VM instances (homogeneous and heterogeneous). The performance metrics in this research are energy consumption (EC), SLA time per active host (SLATAH), performance degradation due migration (PDM) and SLA violation (SLAV). Results experiment has shown that K-mMA could improve energy efficiency and quality of service (QOS) at cloud data centre significantly. Compared with existing method such as CFS, MMT, RC, and MC the proposed K-mMA could improve efficiency energy in cloud data centre by optimising VM selection problem up to 3.9%, 6.8%, 5.5%, and 5.3% respectively.
    Keywords: K-means; Markov normal algorithm; MNA; cloud data centre; energy efficiency.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2018.10014504
  • An overview of flow-based anomaly detection   Order a copy of this article
    by Rohini Sharma, Ajay Guleria, R.K. Singla 
    Abstract: Intrusions in computer networks are handled using misuse or anomaly-based solutions. Deep packet inspection is generally incorporated in solutions for better detection and mitigation but with the growth of networks at exponential speed, it has become an expensive solution and makes real-time detection difficult. In this paper, network flows-based anomaly detection techniques are reviewed. The review starts with motivation behind using network flows and justifies why flow-based anomaly detection is the need of the hour. Flow-based datasets are also investigated and reviewed. The main focus is on techniques and methodologies used by researchers for anomaly detection in computer networks. The techniques reviewed are categorised into five classes: statistical, machine learning, clustering, frequent pattern mining and agent-based. At the end the core research problems and open challenges are discussed.
    Keywords: network flows; anomaly detection; security; privacy; flow-based dataset; statistical techniques; machine learning; clustering; frequent pattern mining; software agents.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2018.10014505
  • QoS enhanced distributed load balancing and task scheduling framework for wireless networks using hybrid optimisation algorithm   Order a copy of this article
    by Abhijit A. Rajguru, S.S. Apte 
    Abstract: Quality of service (QoS) is the main challenging issue in load balancing, task scheduling process in dynamic systems, such as grid system, peer-to-peer system, ad hoc networks, cloud computing system, pervasive computing system, and online social network system. The inefficient task scheduling process reduces QoS parameters, such as energy consumption, throughput, network lifetime, deadline missing ratio and schedule delay time. In this paper, we proposed QoS enhanced distributed load balancing, task scheduling frameworks for wireless networks (WNs) using hybrid optimisation algorithm (EDFHOA). We improve QoS of distributed frameworks by two phase system through an efficient clustering methodology using particle swarm optimisation (PSO) algorithm for load balancing in the first phase. A cuckoo search (CS) algorithm with load balanced for task scheduling in the second phase. The proposed two-phase hybrid algorithms enhance task scheduling, such as latency experienced by the balanced clustering, energy consumption, throughput, network lifetime, efficient resource utilisation and less processing time requirement and highly accurate than fault tolerant task allocation algorithm (FTAOA).
    Keywords: load balancing; task scheduling; particle swarm optimisation; PSO; cuckoo search; CS; distributed wireless networks; DWNs.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2018.10014506
  • Multiple criteria-based efficient schemes for participants selection in mobile crowd sensing   Order a copy of this article
    by Ahmed A.A. Gad-ElRab, Almohammady S. Alsharkawy 
    Abstract: Nowadays there is an increasing demand to provide a real-time environmental information. So, the growing number of mobile devices carried by users establishes a new and fast-growing sensing paradigm to satisfy this need which is called mobile crowd sensing (MCS). In MCS, the optimality of sensory data quality may not be satisfied due to the existence of inexperienced users and uncoordinated task management. This paper proposes a novel participant selection schemes for enhancing the data quality in MCS. The proposed selection schemes minimise incentive payments by selecting some participants while still satisfying sensory data quality constraint. Multiple criteria factors are used to evaluate the data quality of candidate users for selecting a minimal set of users with the best data quality values by using fuzzy logic controller. These factors include a user experience and a quality of sensory units of a mobile device with each user. The experimental results by using synthetic and real data show that the proposed selection schemes can gather high-quality sensory data with low cost compared to existing schemes.
    Keywords: mobile crowd sensing; MCS; user experience; device context; fuzzy logic controller.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2018.10015059
  • Perturbation-minimising frequency assignment to address short term demand fluctuation in cellular network   Order a copy of this article
    by Soumen Atta, Priya Ranjan Sinha Mahapatra 
    Abstract: In cellular network short term demand fluctuation is a very common phenomenon. The demand of any cell may increase or decrease slightly or the system may expand by adding additional cells or the system may shrink if the demands of certain number of cells become zero. In this paper, the perturbation-minimising frequency assignment problem (PMFAP) is considered to address the short term fluctuation in demand vector. PMFAP is a frequency assignment problem in which newly generated demands are satisfied with minimum changes in the already existing frequency assignment keeping all the interference constraints. In this paper, an efficient heuristic algorithm for PMFAP is presented. The efficiency of this algorithm is compared with the existing results from literature. With a slight modification to the proposed algorithm, it can solve the well-known frequency assignment problem (FAP) and its performance is also compared with the existing results using the standard benchmark data sets for FAP.
    Keywords: short term demand fluctuation; frequency assignment problem; FAP; PMFAP; cellular network; perturbation; heuristic algorithm.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2018.10015058

Special Issue on: Recent Advances in Communication and Networking

  • RQ-AQM: a rate and queue-based active queue management using feedback control theory   Order a copy of this article
    by Sukant Kishoro Bisoy, Prasant Kumar Pattnaik 
    Abstract: This work proposes a rate and queue based active queue management (RQ-AQM) algorithm to improve the stability of the network system supporting TCP flows. Classical control theory is employed to analyse the stability of TCP/RQ-AQM system and provide systematic guidelines to select control gain parameters of the RQ-AQM. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated and compared with existing algorithms using network simulator-2 (NS2). Simulation results demonstrate that RQ-AQM achieves stability with faster responsive to the dynamic network conditions. The proposed algorithm obtains better performance with respect to throughput, link utilisation, average delay and achieves fastest settling time than others.
    Keywords: active queue management; AQM; control theory; feedback system; stability; settling time.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2018.10014494

Special Issue on: Emerging Trends, Applications and Services in Communication Networks

  • Adaptive spectral subtraction to improve quality of speech in mobile communication   Order a copy of this article
    by U. Purushotham, K. Suresh 
    Abstract: With the development of VLSI technology, mobile communication is supported by smart devices for transmission and reception of information in various forms. In order to improve the quality of speech communication smart devices are provided with pre-processing algorithms. These algorithms should be adaptive in nature to suppress the real-time noise. The performance of smart devices depends on the algorithms. The performance of smart devices is excellent in noise-free surroundings; however, their performances worsen in noisy surroundings. Spectral domain weighting approaches, which estimate spectral density of noise, are considered for speech enhancement. These algorithms process speech in short frames. In this paper, we propose one such novel algorithm for assessment of noise in very small bands based on type of disturbance. Thus, using multiband time-varying filtering coefficients, speech signals are modelled by autoregressive process. Experimental results demonstrate an improvement of 25% to 45% as compared to other conventional multiband approach.
    Keywords: mobile; communication; smart; algorithms; adaptive; speech; enhancement; spectral; multiband; autoregressive.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2018.10015053
  • CD-SFA: stochastic frontier analysis approach to revenue modelling in large cloud data centres   Order a copy of this article
    by Jyotirmoy Sarkar, Bidisha Goswami, Snehanshu Saha, Saibal Kar 
    Abstract: Data centre is a facility, which houses computer systems and associated components, such as telecommunications and storage systems. Due to the emergence of data centre-based computing services, it has become necessary to examine how the costs associated with data centres evolve over time, mainly in view of efficiency issues. We have presented a quasi form of Cobb-Douglas model, which addresses revenue and profit issues in running large data centres. The stochastic form has been introduced and explored along with the quasi Cobb-Douglas model to understand the behaviour of the model in depth. Harrod neutrality and Solow neutrality are incorporated in the model to identify the technological progress in cloud data centres. This allows us to shed light on the stochastic uncertainty of cloud data centre operations. The insightful results are found to be quite useful in view of production reorganisation in large data centres' around the world.
    Keywords: data centre; Cobb-Douglas; CD; Harrod neutrality; Solow neutrality; optimisation; stochastic frontier analysis; cloud computing; utility computing.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2018.10015052
  • An enhanced message verification system for vehicle-to-vehicle communication   Order a copy of this article
    by Trupil Limbasiya, Debasis Das 
    Abstract: Smart vehicle plays a major role in today's technological universe and we have different vehicle applications with the help of the internet of things. To fulfil it, there is a requirement of expeditious communication along with integrity, availability, high delivery ratio and low overhead assets. Otherwise, specific information or data may be useless or there will be possibility of the serious problem(s). Vehicular communication is mostly preferable to transfer datagrams from one user to other applicants to accomplish these characteristics. However, the delivery of packets successfully is not a simple task and be familiar with the updated information due to various obstacles. Researchers suggested discrete protocols to procure different properties in this noisy vehicular ad-hoc network (VANET). Scientists designed systematic authentication models using user identity for vehicular technology. In this article, we investigate multiple vehicle communication algorithms. But, we find some vulnerabilities after performing analysis on the particular scheme. After that, we propose an enhanced authentication system focused on vehicle-to-vehicle data transmission to overcome the present flaws. In addition, the suggested protocol is protected against multiple attacks and efficient in terms of the execution.
    Keywords: authentication; communication; geo-location; security; vehicular ad-hoc network; VANET.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2018.10015055
  • Public key cryptography using sphere and spheroid   Order a copy of this article
    by K. John Singh, Kunal Gagneja 
    Abstract: Encryption has different requirements such as speed and immunity to side channel attacks. In this paper, a novel mechanism for public key encryption is proposed. It is faster and has inbuilt compression. Experiments are carried out with video, high definition video and image files. Results when compared with various encryption algorithms indicate that the proposed cryptosystem has a stronger and faster architecture. The proposed algorithm can be modified to work both as a block and stream cipher. Generally, block cipher increases the size of ciphertext due to padding. Such phenomenon is lesser observed in the proposed cipher. It makes cipher convenient for resource constraint networks. Most of the symmetric key algorithms have XOR and shuffling in their blocks. This is one of the reasons why they have similar kind of vulnerabilities. Spheroid cryptosystem proved to be at least 77.2% faster than other algorithms.
    Keywords: networks; digital envelope; lossy compression; lossless compression; block cipher; stream cipher; digital signature; confusion; diffusion; prime numbers; logarithm.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2018.10015057