Forthcoming articles


International Journal of Communication Networks and Distributed Systems


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International Journal of Communication Networks and Distributed Systems (46 papers in press)


Regular Issues


  • Web user interface based on OGC standards for Sensor Cloud using Big Data   Order a copy of this article
    by Vijayasherly Velayutham, Srimathi Chandrasekaran, Subaji Mohan 
    Abstract: Sensor Cloud is the combination of wireless sensor networks and Cloud computing which perform real-time data acquisition and processing in a distributed environment. Sensor cloud infrastructure enables collection, processing, sharing, visualization, archival and searching of large amounts of sensor data. Sensor Cloud makes it possible for the sharing of computing resources and data, on an unprecedented scale, among an infinite number of geographically distributed groups. The paper provides an implementation of efficient web based technology for processing large and heterogeneous set of data based on Open Geospatial Consortium Standards. The web user interface proposed uses the sensor cloud middleware and wireless sensors for distributed applications that process large amounts of data. Sensor cloud middleware in the proposed work uses Open Stack, the open source cloud, and Hadoop framework along with utilities such as a modeling tool named Generic Modeling Environment for workflow modeling, HBase for big data management and Zabbix for monitoring. The user interface with features such as viewing sensor data, scheduling sensors for data collection and alerting users based on Open Geospatial Consortium standards have also been discussed.
    Keywords: Sensor Cloud; middleware; Open Stack; Hadoop; big data; sensor web; user interface.

  • Resource Prediction based Routing using Agents in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Shilpa Chaudhari, Rajashekhar Biradar 
    Abstract: QoS routing in multimedia applications over MANET is affected by limited resources, shared channel, unpredictable mobility, improper load balancing, and variation in signal strength. Existing works on MANET routing focuses on only one of the factor such as bandwidth, mobility or energy neglecting dependent behavior. QoS routing must consider efficient usage of resources with intelligent schemes such as software agents for identifying routes with sufficient resources in future. The proposed resource prediction based routing in this paper uses intelligent agents to route the packets on the path with adequate buffer-space, energy and bandwidth resources. It has four steps of execution: resource prediction, resource prediction factor computation, route establishment, and route maintenance. Resources are predicted to compute resource prediction factors for reliable route establishment. Route maintenance against link and node failure. Simulation results show an improvement in terms of packet delivery ratio, packet delivery latency, memory overhead and energy consumption.
    Keywords: Mobile Ad hoc Networks; Wavelet neural network; Resource prediction; Cognitive Agents; Routing.

  • Achieving efficiency in Autonomic Network Management of IP networks based on SDN management logic   Order a copy of this article
    by Madjed Bencheikh Lehocine, Mohamed Batouche 
    Abstract: The layer-three redundancy in large companies IP networks remains a major concern, aiming to increase, as much as possible, the availability ratio for the offered services to the customers. However, deploying the existing protocols requires in addition to providing backup links and physical equipment, the manual configuration which is time-consuming and error-prone. ARRC (Autonomic Router Redundancy Controller) was the first autonomic solution whose objective was to deploy redundancy on existing networks. Yet, this solution was unable to handle redundancy in all network scenarios. In this paper, we propose a new approach E-ARRC (Extended ARRC), inspired from Software Defined Networking (SDN) management logic to address ARRC shortcomings and limitations. SDN represents a new vision for the future networks, aiming to reduce complexity and to ensure an efficient control of the network behaviour. Based on a global view of the network, SDN achieves business needs via a high-level specification of rules which are applied accordingly on the SDN capable nodes. The results of our approach, which is based on shared-networks reachability, illustrate a more granular level of redundancy, with a reliable exploitation of all the available resources.
    Keywords: Autonomic Network Management; Self-Management; Autonomic Computing; MAPE Loop; Software Defined Networking; SNMP; FHRP; VRRP; ARRC; Policy Based Routing; SLA; Layer-Three Topology Discovery.

  • E-ABRM: Enhanced ABRM Routing Protocol for MSNs with Multiple Mobile Sinks   Order a copy of this article
    by Maged S. Soliman, Hossam FAHMY 
    Abstract: The recent technological advances in the field of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have expanded the range of WSN applications. In some of these applications, sensor nodes are mobile rather than static. Also, the recent advances in personal digital assistants (PDAs) allow the existence of multiple mobile sinks to collect the sensors data. These characteristics require the design of new routing protocols to meet the existence of mobile sensors and multiple mobile sinks while taking into consideration the limited resources for sensor nodes especially the energy. In-network aggregation is one of the important techniques used to save power consumption by aggregating the data on sensor nodes before transmitting towards the sinks and hence reduce the number of transmissions required. ABRM, as previously proposed, is an aggregation based routing protocol for mobile sensor networks (MSNs) with multiple mobile sinks. This paper proposes Enhanced ABRM (E-ABRM) to improve the aggregation results and reduce the routing overhead and power consumption. E-ABRM is compared to ABRM and CCBR through mathematical analysis and simulation results. The comparisons show that E-ABRM reduces aggregation error, routing overhead, and energy consumption.
    Keywords: E-ABRM; ABRM; In-Network Aggregation; Wireless Networks; Wireless Sensor Networks; Mobile Sensor Networks; Routing; WSN; MSN; Multiple Sinks; Mobile Sinks;.

  • Data Anonymization of Vertically Partitioned Data Using Map Reduce Techniques on Cloud   Order a copy of this article
    by Thangaramya Kalidoss, Ganapathy Sannasi, Sairamesh Lakshmanan, Kulothungan Kanagasabai, Kannan Arputharaj 
    Abstract: Security is an important challenge in cloud database. It can be provided using cryptographic techniques, access control and key management. However, encryption and compression are useful for secured storage. Hence, a new security mechanism is proposed in this paper to enhance the security of cloud databases. The major objective of this paper is to propose a new technique for data security in cloud databases. This techniques consists of two phases namely anonymization & encryption and is implemented using map reduce techniques. We use the Advanced Encryption Standard algorithm for effective encryption of data and also used the secured hash algorithm for security and compression of data which are used for read only applications. Experimental results of this work show that our approach provides higher security and effective storage over the existing approaches.rnrnrn
    Keywords: Data Anonymization; Top-Down Specialization; Map Reduce; Cloud; Privacy Preservation.

  • RQ-AQM: A Rate and Queue-based Active Queue Management Using Feedback Control Theory   Order a copy of this article
    by Sukant Bisoy 
    Abstract: This work proposes a rate and queue based active queue management (RQ-AQM) algorithm to improve the stability of the network system supporting TCP flows. Classical control theory employed to analyze the stability of TCP/RQ-AQM system and provide systematic guidelines to select control gain parameters of the RQ-AQM. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated and compared with existing algorithms using network simulator-2 (NS2). Simulation results demonstrate that RQ-AQM achieves stability with faster responsive to the dynamic network conditions. The proposed algorithm obtains better performance with respect to throughput, link utilization, average delay and achieves fastest settling time than others.
    Keywords: AQM; Control theory; Feedback system; Stability; Settling time.

  • Simple Algorithms for Selecting an Energy-efficient Server in a Cluster of Servers   Order a copy of this article
    by Dilawaer Duolikun, Hiroki Kataoka, Tomoya Enokido, Makoto Takizawa 
    Abstract: Electric energy consumed by computers, especially servers in scalable clusters has to be reduced to realize eco society. In this paper, we first propose a power consumption model, MLPCM (multi-level power consumption) model which gives how much electric power a server consumes to perform application processes. We also propose a computation model, MLCM (multi-level computation) model which shows the expected execution time of an application process performed on a server. By using the MLPCM and MLCM models, we propose a pair of SLEA (simple locally energy-aware) and SGEA (simple globally energy-aware) algorithms to select a host server to perform an application process issued by a client. In the SLEA algorithm, a host server is selected, which is expected to consume the minimum electric energy to perform the process. In the SGEA algorithm, a host server is selected,where the total expected electric energy of not only the host server but also the other servers is minimum.rnIn the evaluation, we show the total electric energy consumption and active time of the servers and the average execution time of processes can be reduced in the SGEA algorithm.
    Keywords: Energy-efficient computation; Power consumption model; SLEA (simple locally energy-aware) and SGEA (simple globally energy-aware) algorithms.

  • Secure Multipath Routing for Multimedia Communication in Cognitive Radio Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Ansuman Bhattacharya, Sasthi C. Ghosh, Koushik Sinha, Bhabani P. Sinha 
    Abstract: In this paper, a novel technique for secure multihop communication of multimedia data in cognitive radio networks is proposed even when a single contiguous band of required width for maintaining the desired {em Quality of Service} ($QoS$) is not available for any hop in the route. The proposed technique first creates a number of sub-packets formed by suitably shuffling the bits of the original packet, finds multiple routes by executing the max-flow algorithm on a derivative of the network graph ($G$) (which may not be, in general, a symmetric graph due to variation of transmission/sensing range of different nodes) to meet the required bandwidth, allocates channels for each hop appropriate for either $FDM-FDMA$ or $OFDM-FDMA$ technique adopted for channel access, and sends the sub-packets along these channels which are received by the destination node to form the original packet. This strategy of multi-path routing also leads to enhanced security of the data packets as an added advantage. This is because when these multiple paths chosen for transmitting the sub-packets are node-disjoint, it will be extremely difficult for an eavesdropper to guess {em any part} of the original information from the sub-packets received along a single route as they contain only some {em selected} bits of the original packet, and this would significantly enhance the security of the original message. The proposed technique for multi-path routing takes $O(pf + T_{SD})$ time, where $p$ and $f$ are the number of edges and maximum flow, respectively of $G$ and $T_{SD}$ is the time for constructing $G$.
    Keywords: Cognitive radio network; max-flow; multimedia communication; secure multi-hop routing; $FDM-FDMA$; $OFDM-FDMA$.

  • Energy Efficient with time synchronized and Service Coverage Guarantee in Wireless Sensor Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Chirihane Gherbi, Aliouat Zibouda, Mohamed Benmohammed 
    Abstract: Load balancing is an effective enhancement to the proposed routing protocol, the basic idea is to share traffic load among cluster members in order to reduce the dropping probability due to queue overflow at some nodes. Sharing traffic inside a cluster is reasonable, because nodes in the same cluster have similar mobility pattern, and thus similar ability to deliver data messages. In this paper, a novel hierarchical approach called distributed energy efficient adaptive clustering protocol with data gathering, Load-Balancing and self-adaptation (DEACP) is proposed for Wireless Sensor Network. We have proposed (DEACP) approach to reach the following objectives: reduce the overall network energy consumption, balance the energy consumption among the sensors and extend the lifetime of the network, the clustering must be completely distributed, the clustering should be efficient in complexity of message and time, the cluster-heads should be well-distributed across the network, the load balancing should be done well, the clustered WSN should be fully-connected. We consider the problem of conserving energy by turning off the nodes radio for periods of a fixed time length. While packets may continue to arrive at the nodes buffer during the sleep periods, the node cannot transmit them until it wakes up, the objective is to design sleep control laws that minimize the expected value of a cost function representing both energy consumption costs and holding costs for backlogged packets. As a result transmission power of the node is reduced which subsequently reduces the energy consumption of the node. Our proposed work is simulated through Network Simulator (NS-2). Simulations show that (DEACP) clusters have good performance characteristics.
    Keywords: Energy saving; Distributed algorithm ,Load Balancing ,Cluster- based routing ,Wireless Sensor Network.

  • CD-SFA: Stochastic Frontier Analysis Approach to Revenue Modeling in Large Cloud Data Centers   Order a copy of this article
    by Jyotirmoy Sarkar, Bidisha Goswami, Snehanshu Saha, Saibal Kar 
    Abstract: Enterprises are investing heavily in cloud data centers to meet the ever surging business demand. Data Center is a facility,rnwhich houses computer systems and associated components, such as telecommunications and storage systems. It generally includesrnpower supply equipment, communication connections and cooling equipment. A large data center can use as much electricity as arnsmall town. In todays world due to the emergence of data-center based computing services, it has become necessary to examine howrnthe costs associated with data centers evolve over time, mainly in view of efficiency issues. We have presented a quasi form ofrnCobb-Douglas model, which addresses revenue and profit issues in running large data centers. The stochastic form has beenrnintroduced and explored along with the quasi Cobb-Douglas model to understand the behavior of the model in depth. Harrod neutralityrnand Solow neutrality are incorporated in the model to identify the technological progress in cloud data centers.This allows us to shedrnlight on the stochastic uncertainty of cloud data center operations. A general approach to optimizing the revenue/cost of data centersrnusing Cobb Douglas Stochastic Frontier Analysis(CD-SFA) is presented. Next, we develop the optimization model for data centers.rnThe mathematical basis of CD-SFA has been utilized for cost optimization and profit maximization in data centers. The results arernfound to be quite useful in view of production reorganization in large data centers around the world.
    Keywords: Data Center; Cobb-Douglas; Harrod neutrality; Solow neutrality; Optimization; Stochastic Frontier Analysis; Cloud andrnUtility Computing.

  • Adaptive Spectral Subtraction to improve quality of speech in Mobile Communication   Order a copy of this article
    by Purushotham Ugraiah 
    Abstract: With the development of VLSI Technology, Mobile communication is supported by smart devices for transmission and reception of information in various forms. In order to improve the quality of speech communication smart devices are provided with Pre-Processing algorithms. These Algorithms should be adaptive in nature to suppress the real time noise. The performance of smart devices depends on the algorithms, which depends on various parameters. The Performance of smart devices is excellent in noise-free surroundings; however their performances worsen in noisy surroundings. Generally spectral domain weighting approaches which estimates amplitude and spectral density of noise are considered for speech enhancement. Considering delay and complexity involved in processing complex speech signals, short frames are used in algorithms. In this paper we propose one such novel algorithm for assessment of noise in very small bands based on type of disturbance .Thus using multiband time-varying filtering coefficients, speech signals are modelled by autoregressive process. Experimental results demonstrate an improvement of 25% to 45% as compared to other conventional multiband approach
    Keywords: Smart; Algorithms; Enhancement; Multiband; Autoregressive.

  • Implementation and Performance Evaluation of an Intelligent Fuzzy-based Testbed for WSANs: A Case Study for Object Tracking   Order a copy of this article
    by Donald Elmazi, Makoto Ikeda, Leonard Barolli 
    Abstract: Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks (WSANs) have emerged as a variation of Wireless Sensor Networks. WSANs are capable of monitoring physical phenomenons, processing sensed data, making decisions based on the sensed data and completing appropriate tasks when needed. In this paper, we propose an intelligent fuzzy-based testbed that based on data provided by sensors and actors selects an appropriate actor node. From the evaluation results, the system selects the actors in order to have low latency and proper task assignment considering multi actors for different job types.
    Keywords: Fuzzy Logic; Wireless Sensor Actor Networks; Wireless Sensor Networks; Actor Selection; Testbed Implementation.

  • Implementation of Two Fuzzy-based Systems for IoT Device Selection in Opportunistic Networks: Effect of Storage Parameter on IoT Device Selection   Order a copy of this article
    by Miralda Cuka, Donald Elmazi, Elis Kulla, Tetsuya Oda, Makoto Ikeda, Leonard Barolli 
    Abstract: Recently, there are many research works on opportunistic networks and Internet of Things (IoT). In this paper, we integrate these two technologies by using fuzzy logic. We propose a fuzzy-based approach and implement two rnfuzzy-based systems for IoT device selection in opportunistic networks. We call the implemented systems: FSIO1 and FSIO2. For FSIO1, we use three input parameters: IoT Device Speed (IDS), IoT Device Distance from Task (IDDT) and IoT Device Remaining Energy (IDRE). The output parameter is IoT Device Selection Decision (IDSD). For FSIO2, we consider four input parameters by adding IoT Device Storage (IDST) as a new parameter. Comparing complexity of FSIO1 and FSIO2, the FSIO2 is more complex than FSIO1. But, the FSIO2 is more flexible and makes a better selection of IoT devices than FSIO1.
    Keywords: Opportunistic Netowrks; IoT; IoT Device Selection; Fuzzy Logic; Delay-tolerant Networks.

  • Performance Efficiency of a Predictive Scheme into Publish/Subscribe   Order a copy of this article
    by Fatma Abdennadher, Maher Ben Jemaa 
    Abstract: Nowadays, the importance of mobility into publish/subscribe systems has increased due to the increased number of applications into handheld devices. For offering the best service to mobile subscribers, mobility management is very much necessary. Previous mobility management schemes suffers from an increase in the transfer delay, message loss, and network load. In this paper a predictive mobility management scheme has been proposed to overcome these problems. The proposed scheme selects the most probable candidates brokers for being the caching points. This selection is based on the probabilities of movements higher than the threshold value. The proposed scheme and previous proactive scheme have been compared through a set experiments. Performance comparison shows that our approach performs better than previous works in terms of messages loss, network load and transfer delay under distinct factors such as frequency of movements, period of disconnection, and publication rate.
    Keywords: mobile networks; publish/subscribe; mobility prediction; performance efficiency; network management; performance evaluation; distributed systems; communication networks; mobile users; caching points.

  • Adaptive Jitter Buffer Management: A Game Theoretic Approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Priya Chandran, Chelpa Lingam 
    Abstract: Network impairments like delay and jitter significantly affect the quality of Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) calls. The main challenge is the synchronous playout of voice packets at the receiver side in face of varying jitter. This is typically solved using a jitter buffer so that the playout time of received packets can be delayed to accommodate late packets. In this paper, we propose a game theoretic approach to solve the tradeoff between additional buffer delay and buffer scaling. We formulate the model as a zero-sum game between players, ie., the playout scheduler and buffer manager, to adaptively adjust buffer size according to the buffer delay of the packets and is solved using uncertainty principle of game theory. Experimental results show that the proposed model allocates optimal buffer space with lowest late loss rate when compared with other algorithms.
    Keywords: Playout scheduling; PLC; VoIP; Jitter buffer scaling; Adaptive jitter buffer; Zero-sum game; Uncertainty principle.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2018.10011127
  • Detection of Wormhole Attacks in Mobility Based Wireless Sensor Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Manish Patel 
    Abstract: Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have many limitations in terms of their computational capability, memory, and battery power. In addition, the sensor nodes use insecure wireless communication channels. Thus, WSNs are vulnerable to many types of attacks such as jamming, sinkhole, wormhole, Sybil, and selective forwarding. Among all these attacks, detecting a wormhole attack is very difficult in mobility-based WSNs. In these WSNs, two genuine nodes that are located far apart can become one-hop neighbors for valid reasons. However, the same scenario might indicate the presence of a wormhole attack instead. Differentiating genuine nodes from malicious nodes is a highly challenging task. Our detection method is based on the concept of the rate of change of neighboring nodes and the length of an alternative path between two nodes. The proposed method does not require any additional hardware such as synchronized clocks or timing information, GPS, or cryptographic methods that require large amounts of computational power. The simulation results indicate that our method has good detection accuracy.
    Keywords: Wireless sensor network; mobility; wormhole; malicious; detection accuracy.

  • Security aware Dual Authentication based Routing Scheme using Fuzzy Logic with Secure data dissemination for Mobile Ad-hoc Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Gautam M Borkar, A.R. Mahajan 
    Abstract: In order to upgrade the security of network and shield the nodes from vulnerabilities, this paper proposes a highly efficient dual authentication routing scheme which utilizes fuzzy logic prediction rules to select the most reliable path. We have coordinated the proposed scheme into the cipher text policy-attribute based encryption (CP-ABE) for secure data dispersal among the source to destination with game theory based jammer attack detection model. The performance of the proposed scheme is assessed with respect to different evaluation metrics in different node density levels. The results obtained clearly describes the proposed scheme provides a flexible and feasible decision to select the route that meets the security requirement of data packets transmission in Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) environment
    Keywords: Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs); Highly Efficient Dual Authenticated Routing (HEDAR); Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC); Game Theory; Cipher text Policy-Attribute based Encryption (CP-ABE).

  • A Modified DV-Hop Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Network Localization   Order a copy of this article
    by Santar Pal Singh, Subhash Chandra Sharma 
    Abstract: In the previous years, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have gained lot of consideration from the industrial as well as research society. However, nowadays the uses of WSNs are far restricted by many obstacles. In several applications, the monitored data is of no importance if location of sensor is unknown because location is needed to spot the events arises in WSNs. such as, in combat zone surveillance, the information of adversary source can be of much importance than advent of the enemy. Thats why; it is most significant that nodes address the information along with the positions. Hence, localization is an essential process to find out the sensors location by using some algorithms. The contemporary localization methods can be broadly classified as: range based and range free. Range based methods use actual measures of distance among nodes whereas range free schemes use approximate measures on the basis of the nodes connectivity info. Hence, the range free methods are cost effective choice to range based due to no need of additional hardware in these schemes. However, range free methods have higher localization error as compared to range based methods. In this paper, we propose a modified algorithm for localization based on DV-Hop method. By observing the simulation results section, it is stated that the proposed localization algorithm improves the results of localization in term localization error and error variance.
    Keywords: WSN; connectivity; localization; range free; DV-Hop.

  • K-mMA VM Selection in Dynamic VM Consolidation for Improving Energy Efficiency at Cloud Data Center   Order a copy of this article
    by Guruh Fajar Shidik, Azhari Azhari, Khabib Mustofa 
    Abstract: Dynamic virtual machine (VM) consolidation is an alternative solution for managing and optimizing energy efficiency in a cloud data center. This research proposed VM selection method in dynamic VM consolidation based on K-means clustering technique and computational model markov normal algorithm (K-mMA). The objective of VM selection is to select proper VM, which should be migrated away from the overloaded physical machine and to avoid oversubscribe host. The VM selection method has been tested in simulation condition using cloudsim and planetlabs datasets with various conditions of VM instances (homogeneous and heterogeneous). The performance metrics in this research are energy consumption (EC), SLA time per active host (SLATAH), performance degradation due migration (PDM) and SLA violation (SLAV). Results experiment has shown that K-mMA could improve energy efficiency and quality of service (QOS) at cloud data center significantly. Compared with existing method such as CFS, MMT, RC, and MC the proposed K-mMA could improve efficiency energy in cloud data center by optimizing VM selection problem up to 3.9%, 6.8%, 5.5%, and 5.3% respectively.
    Keywords: K-Means; Markov Normal Algorithm; Cloud Data Center; Energy efficiency.

  • An Enhanced Message Verification System for Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communication   Order a copy of this article
    by Trupil Limbasiya, Debasis Das 
    Abstract: Smart vehicle plays a major role in today's technological universe, and we have different vehicle applications with the help of the Internet of things. To fulfill it, there is a requirement of expeditious communication along with integrity, availability, high delivery ratio, low overhead assets. Otherwise, specific information or data may be useless or there will be the possibility of the serious problem(s). Vehicle communication is mostly preferable to transfer datagrams from one user to other applicants to accomplish these characteristics. However, the delivery of packets successfully is not a simple task and be familiar with the updated information due to various obstacles. Researchers suggested discrete protocols to procure different properties in this noisy vehicular ad-hoc network (VANET). Scientists designed systematic authentication models using user identity for vehicular technology. In this article, we investigate multiple vehicle communication algorithms. But, we find some vulnerabilities after performing analysis on the particular scheme. After that, we propose an enhanced authentication system focused on vehicle-to-vehicle data transmission to overcome the present flaws. In addition, the suggested protocol is protected against multiple attacks and efficient in terms of the execution.
    Keywords: Authentication; Communication; Geo-location; Security; VANET.

  • Public Key Cryptography using Sphere and Spheroid   Order a copy of this article
    by Kunal Gagneja, K. John Singh 
    Abstract: Encryption has different requirements such as speed and vulnerability to side channel attacks. In this paper, a novel mechanism for public key encryption is proposed. It is faster and has inbuilt compression. Experiments are carried out with video, high definition video and image files. Results when compared with various encryption algorithms indicate that the proposed cryptosystem has a stronger and faster architecture. The proposed algorithm can be modified to work both as a block and stream cipher. Generally, block cipher increases size of ciphertext, due to padding. Such phenomenon is lesser observed in the proposed cipher. It makes cipher convenient for resource constraint networks. Most of the symmetric key algorithms have XOR and shuffling in their blocks. This is one of the reasons why they have similar kind of vulnerabilities. Spheroid cryptosystem proved to be at least 77.2 percent faster than other algorithms.
    Keywords: Networks; Digital Envelope; Lossy Compression; Lossless Compression; Block Cipher; Stream Cipher; Digital Signature; Confusion; Diffusion; Prime Numbers; Logarithm.

  • An Overview of Flow Based Anomaly Detection   Order a copy of this article
    by Rohini Sharma, Ajay Guleria, R.K. Singla 
    Abstract: Intrusions in computer networks are handled using misuse or anomaly based solutions. Deep packet inspection is generally incorporated in solutions for better detection and mitigation but with the growth of networks at exponential speed, it has become an expensive solution and makes real time detection difficult. In this paper, network flows based anomaly detection techniques are reviewed. The review starts with motivation behind using network flows and justifies why flow based anomaly detection is the need of the hour. Flow based data sets are also investigated and reviewed. The main focus is on techniques and methodologies used by researchers for anomaly detection in computer networks. The techniques reviewed are categorized into five classes: Statistical, Machine Learning, Clustering, Frequent Pattern Mining and Agent based. At the end the core research problems and open challenges are discussed.
    Keywords: Network flows; Anomaly Detection; Security; Privacy; Flow based Data set; Statistical Techniques; Machine Learning; Clustering; Frequent Pattern Mining; Software Agents.

  • Qos enhanced distributed load balancing and task scheduling framework for wireless networks using hybrid optimization algorithm   Order a copy of this article
    by Abhijit Rajguru, Sulabha Apte 
    Abstract: Quality-of-service (QoS) is main challenging issues in task scheduling process in dynamic systems, such as grid system, peer-to-peer system, ad hoc networks, cloud computing system, pervasive computing system, and online social network system. The task scheduling process reduces QoS parameters, such as energy consumption, throughput, network life time, dead line missing ratio and schedule delay time. In this paper, we proposed QoS enhanced distributed load balancing, task scheduling frameworks for wireless networks (WNs) using hybrid optimization algorithm (EDFHOA). We improve QoS of distributed frameworks by two phase system through an efficient clustering methodology using particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm for load balancing in first phase. A cuckoo search (CS) algorithm with load balanced for task scheduling in second phase. The proposed two phase hybrid algorithms enhance task scheduling, such as latency experienced by the balanced clustering, energy consumption, throughput, network lifetime, efficient resource utilization and less processing time requirement and highly accurate than fault tolerant task allocation algorithm (FTAOA).
    Keywords: load balancing; task scheduling; particle swarm optimization (PSO); cuckoo search (CS); distributed wireless networks (DWNs).

  • Perturbation-Minimizing Frequency Assignment to Address Short Term Demand Fluctuation in Cellular Network   Order a copy of this article
    by Soumen Atta, Priya Ranjan Sinha Mahapatra 
    Abstract: In cellular network short term demand fluctuation is a very common phenomenon. The demand of any cell may increase or decrease slightly or the system may expand by adding additional cells or the system may shrink if the demands of certain number of cells become zero. In this paper, the Perturbation-Minimizing Frequency Assignment Problem (PMFAP) is considered to address the short term fluctuation in demand vector. PMFAP is a frequency assignment problem in which newly generated demands are satisfied with minimum changes in the already existing frequency assignment keeping all the interference constraints. In this paper, an efficient heuristic algorithm for PMFAP is presented. The efficiency of this algorithm is compared with the existing results from literature. With a slight modification to the proposed algorithm, it can solve the well-known Frequency Assignment Problem (FAP) and its performance is also compared with the existing results using the standard benchmark data sets for FAP.
    Keywords: Short Term Demand Fluctuation; Frequency Assignment Problem (FAP); Perturbation-Minimizing Frequency Assignment Problem (PMFAP); Cellular Network; Perturbation; Heuristic Algorithm.

  • Steady-state Throughput Discrete Model of Multipath TCP based on Linked Increase Algorithm   Order a copy of this article
    by Huang Hongcheng, Sun Xinran, Hu Min 
    Abstract: This paper established a discrete model for the steady-state throughput of Multi-Path TCP(MPTCP), which is based on Linked Increase Algorithm (LIA) and is presented to analyze the relationship between subflow performances and throughput capacity under the steady-state bulk transmission of MPTCP data. Due to the congestion control provided by LIA, each subflow congestion windows is variation coupling. Therefore, with the sampling period set to subflow Round Trip Time (RTT), the congestion window value of discrete MPTCP subflow can be discretized and then exploited to analyze the characteristics of subflow in states such as the congestion avoidance, fast recovery timeout retransmission and slow start. Furthermore, by calculating the expectations of transmitted packet number and transmission duration in a given MPTCP connection, the discrete model of MPTCP steady-state throughput can be established. Simulation results show that the proposed model can achieve the improved accuracy and robustness when predicting the steady-state transmission throughput of MPTCP.
    Keywords: Congestion control; Linked Increase algorithm; Markov regenerative process; Multipath TCP; Throughput model; Discrete Model; Round Trip Time.

  • A Neural-MCDM Based Routing Protocol for Packet Transmission in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammad Samadi Gharajeh 
    Abstract: A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is an emerging type of wireless networking, which is composed of mobile devices (e.g., vehicles). Some of the essential applications such as rescue operations, military purposes, and automobile tracking can be designed and implemented by this network. This paper proposes a novel neural-MCDM based routing protocol, called NMRouting, to transmit data packets in MANET. It presents a new classification of routing mechanisms in MANET, namely smart routing. This protocol transmits data packets from source node to destination node via a multi-path process. Data packets are transmitted through neighboring nodes that have high success rates from among a list of available neighbors. A neural controller and a MCDM controller are suggested to conduct routing process, efficiently. The perceptron-based neural controller specifies a success rate for every neighbor based on remaining energy, occupied buffer, and mobility speed. The MCDM controller determines the number of paths based on packet priority rate, distance, and average mobility speed. Besides, an energy management model is suggested to conduct energy consumption of the nodes efficiently as well as three queue types critical, reliability, and ordinary are considered to guarantee network reliability precisely. Main goal of the proposed protocol is to give an intelligent decision-making to routing process in MANET in order to enhance network reliability, prolong network lifetime, and reduce network traffic. Additionally, the paper presents UML diagrams to develop NMRouting in real applications. Simulation results show that the proposed protocol has a high performance in terms of packet delivery ratio, network lifetime, and network traffic, compared to the DSR, AODV, DPG, and QMRPRNS methods.
    Keywords: Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET); Wireless Networking; Packet Transmission; Routing Protocol; Neural Network; Multi-Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM).

  • Mobile Adhoc Networks (MANETs) Problem- A Queueing approach   Order a copy of this article
    by S. Maragathasundari, K.S. Dhanalakshmi 
    Abstract: This paper investigates a study on mobilie communication network by means of Queuing theory approach.The Good QOS in mobile communication network is necessary at this, the presence financially viable situation of global economic meltdown and competitive business environment with low tariff. In order to endure in this present economic situation, the network operators must put into consideration the effective use of their available resources (channels), which leads to the effectual network design and network planning. The calls sinking probability, is the probability that calls that original (initially) granted access to the network channels (switches), but due to technical error (such as Electromagnetic causes, irregular user behavior etc.) the calls are truncated (forced termination) during conversation.Also the congestion is caused when the offered load of the network is more than the available resources. This problem of congestion and other breakdown occurring in MANET is approached through Queueing theory in this study.It has been transformed as a queueing model problem and by applying the concept of Birth and death process the queuing performance measures of the model are derived. Queueing attitude defines the slip-up in the networking and gives out the required ideas to be passed out to minimize the error occurring resources. It also introduces the concept of preservation period after the completion of service. Numerical illustration is carried out to validate the model. An elaborate study of Graphical representation of the model is made at the end. It gives a clear thought about the conceptual study of queueing theory in mobile Adhoc Networks.
    Keywords: Service Stoppage; Revamp process; Maintenance period; Deterministic repair time and deterministic vacation.

  • Service Orchestration over Clouds and Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Afaq Muhammad, Dong-hun Kang, Seung-Joon Seok, Wang-Cheol Song 
    Abstract: The dynamic and constantly changing nature of request by a typical end-user for resource allocation demands service orchestration over clouds and networks. In order to meet such requests, it is necessary to control and aggregate diverse types of resources from cloud infrastructures and network functions. To that end, in this paper, we propose an orchestration framework for resource management and provisioning. The proposed orchestrator manages and provisions resources by: 1) exploiting application program interfaces (APIs) provided by the cloud provider in order to control/manage/allocate storage and compute resources; 2) interacting with software-defined networking (SDN) controller to get the details of the available resources, and instructing the changes/rules to manage the network based on the cloud service requirements. For resource allocation, an algorithm is proposed, which allocates resources on the basis of unutilized resources in a pool of virtual machines. An algorithm has been taken into account for comparison with the proposed resource allocation algorithm. The experiment results show that the considered algorithm is outperformed by the proposed algorithm.
    Keywords: Service abstraction; orchestration; SDN; network and cloud resources; OpenStack; ONOS.

  • Failure Detection and Recovery in Self-Healing WSN   Order a copy of this article
    by Chaganti B Lakshmi, S. Krishana Mohan Rao 
    Abstract: In Wireless sensor networks (WSNs), there are some problems of failures in self-healing network which need to be detect and recovered. So, there is need of failures detection and recovery technique for these failures. For this we propose correlation-based detection and self-healing based recover technique. The proposed technique, detects the communication backbone node failures and use self-healing policy for recovery. In proposed technique, the mean values of sensor signals are use for correlation which detect inconsistencies in sensor inputs lucratively and having low false positives. We use self healing method for recovery which is able to recover both the backbone node failure and sentry node failure. This recovery technique is more reactive to node failures through considerable energy efficiency.
    Keywords: Wireless sensor networks ;failures detection ;recovery technique ;self-healing.

  • Multiple Criteria-Based Efficient Schemes for Participants Selection in Mobile Crowd Sensing   Order a copy of this article
    by Ahmed Gad-Elrab, Almohammady Alsharkawy 
    Abstract: Nowadays there is an increasing demand to provide a real-time environmental information. So, the growing number of mobile devices carried by users establishes a new and fast-growing sensing paradigm to satisfy this need which is called Mobile Crowd Sensing (MCS). In MCS, the optimality of sensory data quality may not be satisfied due to the existence of inexperienced users and uncoordinated task management. This paper proposes a novel participant selection schemes for enhancing the data quality in MCS. The proposed selection schemes minimize incentive payments by selecting some participants while still satisfying sensory data quality constraint. Multiple criteria factors are used to evaluate the data quality of candidate users for selecting a minimal set of users with the best data quality values by using Fuzzy logic controller. These factors include a user experience and a quality of sensory units of a mobile device with each user. The experimental results by using synthetic and real data show that the proposed selection schemes can gather high-quality sensory data with low cost compared to existing schemes.
    Keywords: Mobile Crowd Sensing; User experience; Device context; Fuzzy logic controller.

  • Clique-Based Socially-Aware Intelligent Message Forwarding Scheme for Delay Tolerant Network   Order a copy of this article
    by Vandana Juyal, Ravish Saggar, Nitin Pandey 
    Abstract: Delay Tolerant Network (DTN) is a challenged class of Mobile Ad-hoc Network that allows unbounded delay and intermittent contacts. In such a network the routing strategies involve storing a message and forward it to some future contact. In past, most of the strategies defined were flooding based that eventually creates multiple duplicate copies of a message. This leads to the consumption of most of the network resources like energy, buffer space, processing power etc. For this, we have extended our previous work based on Artificial Neural Network based forwarding using trust value, which has potential to diminish these issues. Using Trust as a modeling factor, we propose a Trusted DTN Clique which is socially aware and intelligently forwards in DTN. The work is examined using extensive simulation on real-world external traces. Also, the work is compared with existing routing protocols namely Prophet, SprayAndWait, and EpidemicOracle. The performance metric chosen for the proposed algorithm are messages aborted, messages relayed and messages dropped. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm limits the number of message copies relayed in the DTN network and further provides a lightweight intrinsic security to the DTN nodes.
    Keywords: Clique Formation; Delay Tolerant Network; Disruptive Network; Intermittently Connected Network; Performance Evaluation; Trust implementation.

  • A comparative study and analysis of agent based monitoring and fuzzy load balancing in distributed systems   Order a copy of this article
    by Moazam Ali, Susmit Bagchi 
    Abstract: Load balancing algorithms are designed to achieve efficient resource utilization in large scale distributed systems. The primary goal of designing load balancing algorithms is to balance the overall workload among all the nodes in distributed systems to improve the performance. This paper presents an indepth study and detailed comparative analysis of different load monitoring and balancing algorithms employing fuzzy logic and mobile agents. A detailed qualitative as well as quantitative analysis of algorithmic performances is included. The analytical survey presented in this paper would enable understanding of applications of different algorithms under different computing environments. Furthermore, this paper proposes a hybrid architecture combining fuzzy logic and mobile agents for load balancing and monitoring in distributed systems.
    Keywords: Distributed computing; load balancing; fuzzy logic; load monitoring; software agents.

  • Three-Party Password-Based Authenticated Key Exchange Protocol Based on the Computational Diffie-Hellman Assumption   Order a copy of this article
    by Aqeel Sahi, David Lai, Yan Li 
    Abstract: The Three-Party Password-Based Authenticated Key Exchange (3PAKE) protocol gives two clients the ability to negotiate a session key through a trusted server over a public channel. Clients need only remember a single password to commence negotiating with another partner through the server. Most of the proposed 3PAKE protocols use public keys to guarantee identities; however, the sharing of public keys may lead to various types of attacks, such as a man-in-the-middle attack, which allows an attacker to simply intercept and insert traffic traversing a network. In this paper, we briefly describe an updated Three-Party Password-Based Authenticated Key Exchange (TPAKE) protocol and analyse its security. The proposed TPAKE protocol does not share plain-text data. Data shared between the parties are either hashed or encrypted. Using the Random Oracle Model (ROM), the security of the proposed TPAKE protocol is formally proven under the Computational Diffie-Hillman (CDH) assumption. Furthermore, the analyses included in this paper show that our protocol can ensure perfect forward secrecy and can also resist many types of common attacks such as man-in-the-middle, online dictionary, offline dictionary, replay and known key attacks.
    Keywords: Authentication; Cryptography; Key exchange protocols; Password-based; Three-party.

  • MAC Improvements for Very High Throughput WLANs   Order a copy of this article
    by Vijay B T, Malarkodi B 
    Abstract: Here we present the first amendments of high throughput networks identified as IEEE 802.11n originated in 2009 to achieve 150 Mbps speed for typical wireless systems to provide better wireless technology. At the same time, to further improve the medium access control (MAC) throughput, a pair of new amendments for WLAN standard are developed which are IEEE 802.11ac and IEEE 802.11ad. The 802.11ac is designed to achieve 1.3 Gbps speed due to its larger frame sizes, improved queuing and enhance the quality of service (QoS) features with the help of multi-user MIMO. The 802.11ad is designed to allow around 7 Gbps while using the possibility of transmitting in the 60 GHz band that can offer the chance to get the high gain and fewer interference features of directional antennas. At last simulation results shows the study of QoS requirements for interactive multimedia transport flow is readily achievable in 802.11ac/ad when compared to 802.11n and other legacy standards.
    Keywords: MAC; 802.11n; 802.11ac; 802.11ad; Throughput.

  • Poisson Point Process Based Network Modelling and Performance Analysis of Multi-hop D2D Chain Relay Formation in Heterogeneous Wireless Network   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: This article presents stochastic geometry based unified analytical framework to analyze the functionality of Device-to-Device (D2D) assisted cellular network in inband overlay mode. Independent marked Poisson Point Process (imPPP) is incorporated to probabilistically model the aggregate interference and SINR distribution of the randomly distributed nodes in the spatial domain. The proposed framework is applied to evaluate the overall network coverage probability improvement due to minimization of congestion in the base station oriented core network by involving more devices in direct communication (through traffic offloading). Statistical analysis of slotted-synchronous and slotted-asynchronous traffic patterns in terms of throughput for varying transmission probability is also presented. From the application point of view, in the case of base station service interruption due to any natural calamity or power failure, the proposed multi-hop D2D chain relay formation helps to extend the cellular coverage in cell edges as well as in adjacent affected cell areas.
    Keywords: Device to Device Communication; Poisson Point Process; Interference Characterization; Traffic Pattern; Traffic Offloading; Device-to-Device Relay; Coverage Extension.

    by Rakhi , G.L. Pahuja 
    Abstract: TThe Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs) are an infrastructure-less network consisting of a collection of wireless mobile self-directed nodes that communicate with each other without using any centralized authority. MANET is a network in which large numbers of powered mobile nodes are used but the network has always suffered from limited power resource problem due to the mobility nature of nodes. So, in the proposed work we have focused on the least power utilization by developing an artificial intelligence based Enhanced LEACH (E-LEACH) routing protocol and designed a hybrid Neuro-Soft Computing Technique for the problem. The proposed solution is effective in solving the power resource problem and trust management in MANETs. This work has found a reliable solution to the route optimization problem in E-LEACH protocol. The whole framework has been titled as Energy Efficient Neuro Genetic Leach (EENG Leach).Various performance metrics as Throughput, Bit error rate, Packet delivery ratio, Congestion, and Energy consumption have been calculated to authenticate the proposed method.
    Keywords: E-LEACH; Neural Networks; Reliability; Path Optimization.

  • Security Model based Mobile Agent for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Maqbol Ahmed, Kazar Okba, Bali Mouadh 
    Abstract: A Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) is a wireless network, with no fixed infrastructure, usually using the radio medium, dynamic creation and organization. Therefore, MANET is vulnerable to attacks. It is characterized by resource constraints, need to cooperate, scalability, etc. The security issue is becoming a main concern in the applications of a Mobile Ad Hoc Networks . In this paper, we propose a security model based mobile agent for MANETs, the objective here is to improve the security level of the network communication without affecting its performance. The model includes a hierarchical clustering and mobile agents. We apply the concept of dominating set based clustering for partitioning the network into clusters. The cluster head election is based on both the trust and resources ability of the node. We define four agent types. The Node Agent manages the use of node resources. The Ambassador Agent is created by the control agent and it is sent into the cluster of to each node to monitor all the actions of the node agent. The Control Agent is created in the most trusted with best resources node to control the communication into the cluster and participates with its counterparts in the security network completely, and the Transporter Agent carries the encrypted information in the network.
    Keywords: Ad Hoc Network; Mobile Agent; Security Model; Trust; IDS; Aglets.

    by Swagatika Shrabanee, Amiya Kumar Rath 
    Abstract: Cloud computing is a materialized environment for several users due to its unpredictable nature. However cloud is a challengeable environment for many researches because of its hardness on predicting the accurate status of Virtual Machines (VM) in order to allocate resources for cloud consumers. Many researchers focus on optimization and scheduling algorithms for predicting accurate status about VMs and their researches fail in providing the predominant results. In order to furnish efficacious results, we propose a novel cloud framework with resource optimization. Two special components are chosen on it: one is Resource Manager (RM) and the other one is Virtual Machine Re-Allocator (VMRA). This framework has several methodologies like Task clustering, Task Allocation, VM clustering and Re-allocation of VMs. Specifically we introduce SLA-Priority Clustering algorithm for several tasks available on cloud, and these are allocated using ETC Matrix with PSO algorithm. Our proposed cloud framework can be implemented using a Cloudsim simulation tool which furnishes the efficient results. Thus our process effectively allocates resources on cloud environment and we also solve the problem of re-allocation of VM, Power Efficient VM Re-Allocation algorithm is proposed to solving the random failure issues.
    Keywords: Cloud Computing Resource Optimization; Resource Allocation; Resource Management; SLA constraints; PSO scheduling.

  • Exploiting Spatial-Temporal Correlations To Improve Energy-Efficiency in Data Collection Applications in WSN   Order a copy of this article
    by Oualid Demigha, Slimane Bedda, Mossab Chabane 
    Abstract: Energy-Efficiency is a fundamental constraint that must be resolved to enable WSN (Wireless Sensor Network) applications such as monitoring and zone surveillance where long-term operation mode is required. In this paper, we propose a data-driven approach to optimize energy-efficiency in data collection applications by taking profit from nodes' data correlations without deteriorating data quality specified by the end-user.rnWe present simple but effective spatial and temporal correlation models based on the intrinsic characteristics of randomly deployed WSN. We integrate the correlation distance and the temporal series of the monitored phenomenon into protocol LEACH (Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy) taken as a case study rnto show the gain of such an approach in terms of two opposite metrics: energy-efficiency and data quality.rnWe implement, test and compare our proposed solutions with protocol LEACH and some other variants. The simulation results confirm our hypotheses and show a clear improvement in terms of network lifetime, network coverage and residual energy of the nodes. As for data quality, our proposed solutions maintain an acceptable level compared to LEACH and its variants.
    Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks; Spatial Temporal Correlation; Clustering; LEACH; Energy Efficiency; Data Quality; Data Collection.

  • Design of Crescent Slot Circularly Polarized Patch for 4G Wireless Communications   Order a copy of this article
    by Manavalan Saravanan, Madihally Janardhana Srinivasa Rangachar 
    Abstract: A single fed circularly polarized patch antenna operating at 4G Long Term Evolution (LTE) is proposed. The antenna is excited by means of 50 Ω coaxial cable placed near to edge of the patch element. In order to achieve circular polarization, a crescent-shaped slot is incorporated in the radiating element which perturbs the surface current fields on the radiating patch element. Based on the slot orientation, the antenna radiates either left-hand or right-hand polarization. The shape of the crescent slot and position of feed point are tuned to improve 3db axial ratio beam width of the antenna. The antenna parameters are characterized using Ansoft high frequency structure simulator and further, parametric analysis on antenna dimensions are carried and its effects on antenna performance are discussed. The antenna attains -10dB impedance bandwidth (2.55GHz to 2.6GHz) in the 4G band and achieves a return loss of -16.06 dB with a peak gain of 5.94 dB at its operating frequency. The antenna also achieves wider axial ratio (AR) beam width of 105 deg (AR ≤ -3dB) and good cross-polarization isolation of -17.93dB which makes it more suitable for modern wireless communications.
    Keywords: Axial Ratio; Co-Polarization; Impedance Matching; Patch antennas; Slot antennas.

  • A robust deterministic approach to node localisation using NLOS signal
    by Kaushik Mondal, Partha Sarathi Mandal, Bhabani P. Sinha 
    Abstract: Localisation in an urban area is a challenging problem due to the blocking of line-of-sight (LOS) paths and the multipath effect arising out of reflection, scattering and diffraction of signals. We propose a technique to localise sensor nodes based on receiving reflected signals transmitted by anchor nodes. This method can calculate the position of a node by receiving non-line-of-sight (NLOS) signals in presence of range measurement error with better accuracy compared to existing works. We, however, assume that a signal is reflected at most once before reaching a node. While a network is growing, wrong position information may get assigned to some nodes by accident. According to our robust localisation in NLOS, an anchor can detect inconsistency of the wrong position information with the help of three reply signals from a particular node via different paths.
    Keywords: localisation; NLOS signal; angle of arrival; AoA; time of arrival; ToA; wireless sensor networks; communication networks; distributed systems.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2018.10010685
  • Routing in networks using genetic algorithm
    by Meenakshi Moza, Suresh Kumar 
    Abstract: With the recent increase in the traffic, internet service providers are forced to seek solutions for better and improved services within the available resources. While the current traffic loads have to be taken into account for computation of paths in routing protocols, network applications require the shortest paths to be used for a speedy communication. The open shortest path first (OSPF) is the routing algorithm used to find the shortest path from source to destination, however, the overloading of the path or link congestion exposes the limitations of OSPF. This shortcoming can be overcome by optimisation of the network through the application of genetic algorithm, as it provides a valuable alternative to the overloaded path between the source and the destination. This paper proposes a distinct method of calculating the shortest path in a network by extending OSPF algorithm with genetic algorithm (OSGA) for achieving the desired improved performance.
    Keywords: genetic algorithm; GA; open shortest path first; OSPF; quality of service; QOS; chromosome; mutation; routing.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2018.10010684
  • Routing selection in mobile ad hoc network using soft computing approaches
    by Hany Ramadan, Ben Bella S. Tawfik, Alaa El-Din M. Riad 
    Abstract: Routing in the mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a challenging task and has received a great amount of attention from researchers. This paper introduces an exact reference routing model to find the shortest path (optimum route). This model is a conventional combinatorial that selects the shortest route from all possible routes. To demonstrate the use of this reference model for comparison a second model is selected which is a modified ant colony optimisation (ACO). The good selection of the heuristic parameters of the ACO model increases its matching degree with the reference one. Therefore, a training pre-processing phase is added to select the best parameters for ACO model. The two models are compared using four different criteria. These criteria are the execution time, energy consumption, the total cost, and the network lifetime. A simulation experiment is performed, and the results show that the modified ant colony algorithm is superior in execution time but consumed more energy than the reference combinatorial and its total cost is greater than or equal to the other one. The lifetime analysis shows that the reference model has better lifetime than the modified ACO model.
    Keywords: routing; mobile ad hoc network; MANET; ant colony; energy consumption; execution time; total cost; shortest path; optimum route; simulation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2018.10010691
  • Performance analysis of WMNs by WMN-GA simulation system for two WMN architectures and different TCP congestion-avoidance algorithms and client distributions
    by Keita Matsuo, Shinji Sakamoto, Tetsuya Oda, Admir Barolli, Makoto Ikeda, Leonard Barolli 
    Abstract: In this paper, we evaluate the performance of two wireless mesh networks (WMNs) architectures considering packet delivery ratio (PDR), throughput, delay and fairness index metrics. For simulations, we used ns-3, distributed coordination function (DCF) and optimised link state routing (OLSR). We compare the performance of transmission control protocol (TCP) Tahoe, Reno and NewReno for normal and uniform distributions of mesh clients by sending multiple constant bit rate (CBR) flows in the network. The simulation results show that the PDR for both distributions and architectures is almost the same, but the PDR of I/B WMN for uniform distribution is a little bit higher than normal distribution. For both WMN architectures, the throughput of normal distribution is better than uniform distribution. The delay of Tahoe is a little bit lower compared with other algorithms for normal distribution and Hybrid WMN, but in case of uniform distribution, the NewReno performs better than other algorithms for both architectures. The fairness index of normal distribution is higher than uniform distribution.
    Keywords: wireless mesh networks; genetic algorithm; node placement; WMN architectures; TCP congestion-avoidance algorithms.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2018.10010703
  • Energy conservation routing algorithm for wireless sensor networks using hybrid optimisation approach
    by R. Logambigai, A. Kannan 
    Abstract: In designing wireless sensor network (WSN), the conversation of energy is an important issue to prolong the network lifetime. Most of the energy is wasted during transmission. To overcome this, an energy efficient routing protocol is proposed in this paper using a hybrid optimisation technique. Moreover, a nature inspired hybrid optimisation approach called bacterial swarm optimisation (BSO) is used in this work for energy optimisation in WSN. BSO is an amalgam of two optimisation techniques namely particle swarm optimisation (PSO) and bacterial foraging optimisation (BFO). BSO is used to identify the optimal next hop node for each gateway which in turn results in optimal route. The optimal relay nodes are selected based on lifetime of the gateways and distance in hops between gateways and base station. The results obtained from the simulation show that this proposed BSO based algorithm outperforms the other existing algorithm for routing.
    Keywords: bacterial swarm optimisation; BSO; wireless sensor networks; WSN; routing; gateways; clustering; particle swarm optimisation; PSO; bacterial foraging optimisation; BFO.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2018.10010692
  • Energy efficient QoS routing for mobile ad hoc networks
    by R. Saravanan 
    Abstract: Many researchers developed several routing techniques to reduce the power consumption of the nodes without decreasing capacity of the network, to increase life time of the network while preserving the connectivity of nodes. A routing protocol is presented in this paper that reduces overall energy consumption of nodes in the mobile ad hoc networks. This routing protocol focuses on energy conservation and also it provides some of the necessary quality of services in routing such as throughput, packet delivery ratio and less error rate. This routing protocol utilises the bandwidth of the network effectively and finds the minimum energy consuming path that has less error rate. Recharging capability of the nodes is taken into consideration while computing minimal energy consuming path from source to destination. The protocol is simulated for various network parameters using a network simulator. The performance of proposed protocol is evaluated by comparing the simulation results with the results of one of the popular routing protocols such as DSR.
    Keywords: energy efficient routing; mobile ad hoc network; MANET; network life time; QoS routing.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2018.10010693