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International Journal of Communication Networks and Distributed Systems

 

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International Journal of Communication Networks and Distributed Systems (45 papers in press)

 

Regular Issues

 

  • SLA-AWARE TASK ALLOCATION WITH RESOURCE OPTIMIZATION ON CLOUD ENVIRONMENT   Order a copy of this article
    by Swagatika Shrabanee, Amiya Kumar Rath 
    Abstract: Cloud computing is a materialized environment for several users due to its unpredictable nature. However cloud is a challengeable environment for many researches because of its hardness on predicting the accurate status of Virtual Machines (VM) in order to allocate resources for cloud consumers. Many researchers focus on optimization and scheduling algorithms for predicting accurate status about VMs and their researches fail in providing the predominant results. In order to furnish efficacious results, we propose a novel cloud framework with resource optimization. Two special components are chosen on it: one is Resource Manager (RM) and the other one is Virtual Machine Re-Allocator (VMRA). This framework has several methodologies like Task clustering, Task Allocation, VM clustering and Re-allocation of VMs. Specifically we introduce SLA-Priority Clustering algorithm for several tasks available on cloud, and these are allocated using ETC Matrix with PSO algorithm. Our proposed cloud framework can be implemented using a Cloudsim simulation tool which furnishes the efficient results. Thus our process effectively allocates resources on cloud environment and we also solve the problem of re-allocation of VM, Power Efficient VM Re-Allocation algorithm is proposed to solving the random failure issues.
    Keywords: Cloud Computing Resource Optimization; Resource Allocation; Resource Management; SLA constraints; PSO scheduling.

  • Exploiting Spatial-Temporal Correlations To Improve Energy-Efficiency in Data Collection Applications in WSN   Order a copy of this article
    by Oualid Demigha, Slimane Bedda, Mossab Chabane 
    Abstract: Energy-Efficiency is a fundamental constraint that must be resolved to enable WSN (Wireless Sensor Network) applications such as monitoring and zone surveillance where long-term operation mode is required. In this paper, we propose a data-driven approach to optimize energy-efficiency in data collection applications by taking profit from nodes' data correlations without deteriorating data quality specified by the end-user.rnWe present simple but effective spatial and temporal correlation models based on the intrinsic characteristics of randomly deployed WSN. We integrate the correlation distance and the temporal series of the monitored phenomenon into protocol LEACH (Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy) taken as a case study rnto show the gain of such an approach in terms of two opposite metrics: energy-efficiency and data quality.rnWe implement, test and compare our proposed solutions with protocol LEACH and some other variants. The simulation results confirm our hypotheses and show a clear improvement in terms of network lifetime, network coverage and residual energy of the nodes. As for data quality, our proposed solutions maintain an acceptable level compared to LEACH and its variants.
    Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks; Spatial Temporal Correlation; Clustering; LEACH; Energy Efficiency; Data Quality; Data Collection.

  • Design of Crescent Slot Circularly Polarized Patch for 4G Wireless Communications   Order a copy of this article
    by Manavalan Saravanan, Madihally Janardhana Srinivasa Rangachar 
    Abstract: A single fed circularly polarized patch antenna operating at 4G Long Term Evolution (LTE) is proposed. The antenna is excited by means of 50 Ω coaxial cable placed near to edge of the patch element. In order to achieve circular polarization, a crescent-shaped slot is incorporated in the radiating element which perturbs the surface current fields on the radiating patch element. Based on the slot orientation, the antenna radiates either left-hand or right-hand polarization. The shape of the crescent slot and position of feed point are tuned to improve 3db axial ratio beam width of the antenna. The antenna parameters are characterized using Ansoft high frequency structure simulator and further, parametric analysis on antenna dimensions are carried and its effects on antenna performance are discussed. The antenna attains -10dB impedance bandwidth (2.55GHz to 2.6GHz) in the 4G band and achieves a return loss of -16.06 dB with a peak gain of 5.94 dB at its operating frequency. The antenna also achieves wider axial ratio (AR) beam width of 105 deg (AR ≤ -3dB) and good cross-polarization isolation of -17.93dB which makes it more suitable for modern wireless communications.
    Keywords: Axial Ratio; Co-Polarization; Impedance Matching; Patch antennas; Slot antennas.

  • Balanced Clustering Approach with Energy Prediction and Round-Time Adaptation in Wireless Sensor Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Nassima Merabtine, Djamel Djenouri, Djamel-Eddine Zegour, Billel Boumessaidia, Abdelghani Boutahraoui 
    Abstract: This paper proposes three techniques to improve the energy efficiency of clustering protocols in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The first technique reduces the periodic network re-clustering cost while distributing the load evenly amongst the nodes. The second technique adapts the rounds durations to the cluster heads (CHs) residual energy, and the third one ensures fair and spatially balanced distribution of CHs over the network. The proposed techniques are generic and may be applied to any centralized clustering protocol. Without loss of generality and for the purpose of performance evaluation, these techniques are implemented on TPSO-CR, one of the state-of-the-art clustering protocols. TPSO-CR, its enhanced version with the proposed techniques (ETPSO-CR) and the LEACH-C protocol are then extensively simulated and compared with various realistic topologies for both homogeneous and heterogeneous networks. The results demonstrate that the proposed solutions remarkably reduce and balance the total energy consumed in the network. Thereby, the time to the first node death is more than doubled in some scenarios. Further, we define several network lifetime metrics related to the nodes lifetime and network partition, which are used in the comparison. The results show improvement ranging from 25% to 76%. The total number of received data at the base station is also increased by more than 30% on average, and reaches 70% in some cases.
    Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks; Clustering Protocols; Re-clustering; Data Routing; Energy Efficient Communication; Energy prediction; Load Balancing; Adaptive Round Time.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2019.10012413
     
  • Virtual Machine Allocation Strategy in Energy-efficient Cloud Data Centers   Order a copy of this article
    by Shunfu Jin, Xiuchen Qie, Shanshan Hao 
    Abstract: Energy consumption is significant in cloud data centers even whenrnsome virtual machines (VMs) are idle. Taking into account both thernenergy efficiency and the response performance, we propose a VMrnallocation strategy with speed switch and VM consolidation in therncloud data center. When the traffic is lighter, the processingrnspeed of VMs in base-line module will be switched between a lowrnspeed and a high speed. When the traffic is much heavier, the VMsrnin reserved module will be consolidated with the VMs in base-linernmodule, and operate at a high speed. We establish a two-dimensionalrnMarkov chain to mathematically estimate the energy-saving degree andrnthe response performance. Numerical experiments with analysis andrnsimulation show that our proposed VM allocation strategy canrneffectively reduce the energy consumption as well as guarantee thernresponse performance.
    Keywords: Cloud Data Center; Energy Efficiency; VM Allocation; Speed Switch; VM Consolidation.

  • Performance Evaluation of Speculative Semantics-Based Algorithm for Read Operations in Distributed File System   Order a copy of this article
    by Lakshmi Siva Rama Krishna Talluri, Ragunathan Thirumalaisamy 
    Abstract: File sharing semantics is proposed in the literature for sharing the files among the concurrent applications executed in the system. Many file sharing semantics are proposed for the distributed file system (DFS). Existing file sharing semantics in the distributed file system are unable to provide the most recent data to the read client applications while concurrent write client applications are modifying that data. We have proposed a new file sharing semantics called speculative semantics which can provide the most recent data to read client applications without affecting data consistency. We have proposed a new metric called data currency to compare the performance of the file sharing semantics. In this paper, we have developed an analytical model to measure the performance of proposed speculative semantics-based algorithm with session and linearizability semantics-based approaches. The results obtained through analytical model indicate that the proposed speculative semantics-based algorithm performs better thanrnthe session and linearizability-based approaches by considering the metric data currency.
    Keywords: Distributed System;Distributed File System; Concurrency; File Sharing Semantics; Consistency;Speuclation;Performance;.

  • Energy efficient cooperative CRN spectrum sharing using multi-level hierarchical clustering with MCDM   Order a copy of this article
    by Loganathan Jayakumar, S. Janakiraman, Ankur Dumka, P. Victer Paul 
    Abstract: Spectrum sensing is playing vital role in cognitive radio networks (CRN). In cooperative sensing model, energy, task assignment and free channel allocation for requested CRs are mostly varies based on location of CR from cluster head. Since heterogeneous CR users are participating in the cooperation, their willingness, battery power and sensing accuracy are to be considered for CRs weight calculation. Otherwise overall sensing results trustworthiness and performance of sensing task may be degraded. using multi criteria decision making (MCDM) scheme we have calculated each node weight and given that as input to Multi-level hierarchical clustering technique. Based on the traffic of each blocks, sensing task will be allocated to a cluster. In MCDM, we derived the weight by using combination of modified analytical hierarchical process (MAHP) for giving weight for attributes of each CR and VIKOR. Final result shows that increased average lifetime of each participating nodes in the simulation.
    Keywords: cognitive radio; cooperative sensing; multi-criteria decision making schemes; VIKOR; modified-AHP; multi-level hierarchical clustering.

  • Incorporating Novel Hierarchical Secure Model for Performance and Reliability Evaluation in Mobile Agent System   Order a copy of this article
    by Prashant Kumar Mishra, Raghuraj Singh, Vibhash Yadav 
    Abstract: Emerging mobile agent paradigm supports towards wider applications of Mobile Agent System (MAS). To guarantee security challenges due to several vulnerable threats into MAS, reliability issues are addressed. In this paper, a hierarchical secure model is designed for reliability prediction of MAS. The proposed security model is categorized as: host security, agent security and communication channel security. Security improvising effects over the reliability enhancements, security is maintained in Mobile Agent, Host and during Mobile Agent migration. A novel Multi-Factor Authentication is used at mobile agent verification; hosts are verified with respect to the certificate originality and Pseudo Identity. Opinions from neighboring host are requested for secure migration of Mobile Agent. Security based challenges solved in this paper shows enhancements in reliability of MAS that is estimated in terms of confidentiality, authentication at origin, integrity of agent, quality of mobile agent, security, fault tolerance, dynamic topology and link connectivity. Our proposed MAS are designed in NS3 simulator that results reliability enhancement according to number of mobile agents, size of MAS and number of hosts.
    Keywords: MAS; Mobile Agents; Host systems; Reliability Model; Reliability Estimation.

  • A Priority Based - Weighted Clustering Algorithm for Mobile Ad Hoc Network   Order a copy of this article
    by Sunil Pathak, SONAL JAIN 
    Abstract: One major problem in clustering is the setback involved in cluster formation, cluster maintenance and in the selection of a suitable cluster head. In this paper we have proposed a Priority Based Weighted Clustering Algorithm for MANETs which works on three approaches to reduce cluster head changes and clustering overhead. The first phase helps to dynamically determine the cluster head based on their initial priority of neighbor nodes within cluster. The second and third phase helps in cluster maintenance and selecting the new cluster head automatically without any delay when remaining battery power of old cluster head reaches up to the minimum threshold value or in the absence of cluster head. From the simulation result it is clear that the proposed algorithm reduces the frequent cluster head changes, communication overheads and also improves the efficiency of transmission in the network. Priority of each mobile node is calculated based on node degree and battery power.
    Keywords: Cluster Head; Cluster Member; Clustering Overhead; Cluster Maintenance; Cluster head Changes; Threshold Value; Remaining Battery Power; Stable Clustering; Routing; Heterogeneity; Energy Consumption; Scalability; Routing Protocols.

  • Improving Quality of Service for Internet Protocol Television and Voice Over Internet Protocol over Long Term Evolution Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Hegazi Ibrahim 
    Abstract: The quality of data transmission and quality of service in both technologies IPTV and VOIP is considered as a sensitive parameter that all users are concerning it. These streaming applications are facing major challenges that affect directly on the overall performance as higher delay values, lower throughput ranges, and higher number of packet conflicts, lower SNR, and higher BER and lower ranges of stability. In this paper, we have thoroughly inspected the effect of multiple factors which can be considered high impact factors of the QoS over LTE networks. Also, we have proposed to study the effect of power and distance variations on the stability of service with lower ranges for noise and errors through LTE networks. We have carried out a detailed study of the effect of the following parameters: (i) transmission power; (ii) distance variation, and (iii) different modulation techniques. The simulation results showed that LTE with flexible bandwidth and high spectral efficiency makes a massive expansion in the IPTV and VOIP systems such that packet delay and throughput meet the conditions of applying video and voice streaming to access IPTV and VOIP services at any place without any limitations with changing power ranges, modulation schemes, and distance between base station (BS) and subscriber station (SS) over LTE area. The simulation satisfies: (i) higher SNR rates; (ii) lower values of BER, and (iii) acceptable delay and throughput ranges which providing the stability for all QoS parameters.
    Keywords: Internet Protocol Television (IPTV); Long Term Evolution (LTE); Voice over IP (VOIP); Quality of Service (QoS); Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR); Bit Error Rate (BER); Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN); Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA); Mean Opinion Score (MOS).
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2019.10016428
     
  • AADS: DEVELOPING AGENT ASSISTED DEFENSE SYSTEM AGAINST HARMFUL ATTACKS IN COGNITIVE RADIO NETWORK   Order a copy of this article
    by Natasha Saini, Nitin Pandey 
    Abstract: Cognitive Radio Network (CRN) is an emerging technology that provides ability of adapting operating parameters to wireless devices in order to overcome spectrum scarcity problems. However, involvement of numerous pervasive smart wireless devices introduces many security threats in CRN. This paper mainly focused on three major attacks held on CRN such as, Primary User Emulation (PUE), Spectrum Sensing Data Falsification (SSDF), and eavesdropper attacker. To overcome such attacks, this paper designs an effective agent assisted defense system in CRN. Initially network is partitioned into four different groups based on communication range of PBS. Group Head (GH) in each group is selected by Trust Aware Head Selection (TAHS) scheme in which active factor, reputation value, and consistency factor of each node are considered. Secondary User (SU) performs spectrum sensing by Enhanced Threshold based Energy Detection (ETED) method. Here PUE attack is detected by Signal Strength based Location Estimation (SSLE) scheme which attempts to detect location of signal source. SSDF attack is detected by FC with the help of Coextensive Neural Network (CNN) and Spectrum Agent (SA) which is a new entity incorporated in each group. To mitigate SSDF attack the malicious node is isolated from the network. This decision is made by Tri-state Markov Chain Model (MCM) which predicts future activity of the node. Communication in the network is protected by Hybrid Advance Encryption with Diffie-Hellman Encryption (HAES-DHE) algorithm to alleviate eavesdropper attack. Experimental result shows promising improvements in probability of detection, probability of miss detection, estimation of attack strength, average estimate of honest nodes, and throughput.
    Keywords: CRN; spectrum agent; PUE; SSDF; eavesdropper; fusion center.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2019.10013306
     
  • Reinforcement Learning based Real Time Search Algorithm for Routing Optimization in Wireless Sensor Networks using Fuzzy Link Cost Estimation   Order a copy of this article
    by Kuldeep Singh, Jyoteesh Malhotra 
    Abstract: Internet of Things (IoT) is a technological advancement of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) which are characterized by highly complex, large scale, heterogeneous, dynamically changing and asymmetric wireless network. Such constraints makes routing in WSNs a difficult task. This paper introduces Fuzzy link cost estimation based Real Time Search Routing Algorithm (Fuzzy RTS) in which fuzzy logic based link cost estimation is obtained from physical and mac layer parameters like residual energy, packet drop rate and RSSI. Its performance has been evaluated with traditional reinforcement learning based algorithms like real time search, adaptive tree, ant routing and constrained flooding algorithms on the basis of metrics like throughput, loss rate, success rate, energy consumption, energy efficiency and lifetime. The simulation results reveal that Fuzzy RTS algorithm is most appropriate reinforcement learning based routing algorithm among given algorithms for ensuring energy efficient and QoS aware routing in dynamically changing, asymmetric and unreliable environment of WSNs.
    Keywords: IoT; wireless sensor networks; search algorithm; fuzzy logic; link cost; reinforcement learning.

  • A hybrid Quantum evolutionary algorithm with Cuckoo Search algorithm for QoS multicast routing problem   Order a copy of this article
    by Yassine MERAIHI, Amar RAMDANE-CHERIF, Mohammed MAHSEUR, Dalila ACHELI 
    Abstract: The QoS multicast routing problem is one of the most interesting combinatorial optimization problems for transmission in the areas of networks and distributed systems.It is known to be an NP-hard problem, so many heuristic algorithms have been employed to solve this problem. This paper proposes two-hybrid approaches based on the hybridization of Cuckoo Search (CS) algorithm with Quantum Evolutionary algorithm (QEA) to solve the Quality of Service (QoS) multicast routing problem. The main idea of the first approach, named CSQEA1, is the integration of the evolutionary equation of CS in the evolutionary operator of QEA, the rotation angle of quantum gates is adjusted by the evolution equation of CS; while the main idea of the second approach, named CSQEA2, is the replacement of the evolutionary equation of QEA by the evolutionary equation of CS, the rotation angle is used to encode the new Q-bit. The aim of these approaches is to avoid the premature convergence, ensure the diversity of the solutions and improve the effectiveness and the robustness of QEA. The simulation results show the successfulness and the efficiency of our proposed algorithms compared with other existing algorithms in the literature.
    Keywords: Quantum evolutionary algorithm; Cuckoo Search algorithm; Quality of Service (QoS); multicast routing; multicast tree.

  • Efficient Job Scheduling in Cloud Computing Based on Genetic Algorithm   Order a copy of this article
    by Shirin Hosseinzadeh Sahraei, Mohammad Mansour Riahi Kashani, Javad Rezazadeh, Reza Farahbakhsh 
    Abstract: Scheduling in cloud is one of the challenging issues in resource management domain where the main question is how to manage time and cost in an optimized way. This study tackles this problem by managing time and cost through a genetic based algorithm. The primary goal is to manage jobs in a shorter time with cheaper cost and higher utilization by leveraging the genetic algorithm approaches. Toward that end, a new model is proposed where jobs are created in genetic format. rnIn the evaluation part, different scenarios based on taking different fitness functions and format of the population are considered. We have analyzed makespan, cost, and utilization in comparison to other two existing scheduling models (MAX-MIN and MIN-MIN). The results show considerable improvements in the cost, makespan, and utilization.
    Keywords: Cloud Computing; Job Scheduling; Genetic Algorithm; Cost; Makespan; Utilization.

  • Performance of multiple-input-multiple-output free space optics using hybrid subcarrier intensity modulation with avalanche photodiode receiver   Order a copy of this article
    by Rajat Kumar Giri, Bijayananda Patnaik 
    Abstract: In order to improve the performance of a free space optical (FSO) communication system, hybrid pulse position modulation-binary phase shift keying-subcarrier intensity modulation (PPM-BPSK-SIM) technique is proposed. The system performance is further improved by using multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) configuration and avalanche-photodiode (APD) receiver. The use of multiple lasers and photo-detectors in MIMO FSO system reduces the scintillation effect in the atmosphere. In this study, the impact of different parameters like irradiance, link distance, and turbulence level have been considered for the bit error rate (BER) analysis. The relevant mathematical model is also presented. The simulation results show that the hybrid PPM-BPSK-SIM scheme performs better compared to PPM and BPSK-SIM schemes. Also, APD receiver shows a noticeable BER improvement than p-type intrinsic n-type (PIN) receiver in our proposed scheme.
    Keywords: Free-space-optics (FSO); subcarrier-intensity-modulation (SIM); scintillation; pulse position modulation (PPM); multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO); equal gain combining (EGC); avalanche-photodiode (APD).

  • Performance Evaluation of various Link Quality Metrics using Cross Layer Routing for Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Shailendra Aswale, Vijay R. Ghorpade 
    Abstract: For the past few years, link quality estimation has been an active area of research in wireless networks. Low-power wireless links are error-prone, asymmetric, and unreliable in nature. Therefore, understanding the behaviour and characteristics of low-power radio links is essential to design effective and efficient routing protocol in wireless networks. The objective of this paper is to estimate and evaluate the quality of a link with single link quality metric and amalgamated link quality metric. In addition, these estimated link quality metrics are respectively used in a generic routing cost function of the proposed Link Quality based Cross Layer Routing (LQCLR) Protocol. Extensive simulation results are presented, which give insights on how estimated link quality with single and amalgamated link quality metrics affects the performance of routing protocol in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Network (WMSN).
    Keywords: wireless multimedia sensor networks; quality of service; link quality indicator; signal-to-noise ratio; packet reception ratio; triangle metric; cross layer.

  • Assessing Link Availability in Communications Networks under Regional Failures   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohamed Mostafa A. Azim 
    Abstract: The evolving spreading of data-centers implementations with hundreds of thousands of servers in-site, has imposed new benchmarks on network survivability. Therefore, assessing the network availability under a set of geographically correlated failures known as regional failures has become imperative. In this paper, we assess the network robustness against regional failures. In particular, we develop a probabilistic model to estimate the availability of a networks link in the event of a failure scenario. Then, using the estimated probabilities of all links to provide a general overview of the network-wide availability. This paper is distinguished by providing a failure model that is continuous over the failure region. This model provides a quantitative tool to estimate the amount of resources required for repairing the faulty parts of the network. Finally, extensive numerical results on the U.S. backbone network for different failure scenarios indicate the applicability and accuracy of the proposed model
    Keywords: Availability Analysis ; Regional Failure; large scale geographical failure.

  • A novel approach to improve handover performance   Order a copy of this article
    by Jyoti Verma, Sunanda Gupta, Pratima Manhas, Vasudha Arora 
    Abstract: Nowadays, mobile communications have heterogeneous wireless networks offering variable coverage and quality of service (QoS). The availability of alternatives generates a problem of occurrence of unnecessary handoff that results in wastage of network resources. In order to maintain seamless mobility, service continuity and optimise usage of network resources, it is desirable to minimise handover failures and unnecessary handovers. In this paper, a handover necessity estimation algorithm is introduced. This algorithm is made up of two modules. The first module estimates handoff necessity. It involves received signal strength (RSS) prediction, travelling distance estimation and velocity estimation. In a second module, candidate networks are discovered from the available networks. Based upon the predicted future values of RSS and travelling distance inside the wireless local area network (WLAN), the proposed algorithm improves the probability of unnecessary handoff and handover failures.
    Keywords: quality of service; QoS; received signal strength; RSS; predicted received signal strength; PRSS; next generation wireless networks; NGWN; wireless local area network; WLAN; universal mobile telecommunication; UMTS.

  • A Multi-Agent System Approach for Service Deployment in the Cloud   Order a copy of this article
    by Abdelhak Merizig, Okba Kazar, Maite Lopez Sanchez 
    Abstract: Nowadays, Cloud Computing is regarded as a new paradigm in the field of Information Technology. Since the emergence of this paradigm, most of corporations have started using it through the deployment or the use of its services. Furthermore, service deployment in the Cloud forms its kernel function. To ensure a good function of service deployment we need to combine a set of services. In fact, to find a limited number candidate services constitutes a problem due to the absence of a unified service description. In this paper, we propose a solution to solve the deployment problem by considering it as a service composition taking into account the quality of service. Since we have many atomic services, this paper transforms this composition problem into an optimization problem. Moreover, to reduce the number of service candidates we propose a new service description language to assist the discovery process. The implementation of this model has been provided in order to evaluate our system. The obtained results demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed system.
    Keywords: Cloud Computing; Service Deployment; Service Composition; Multi-agent System; Agent; Dominance Relationship; Multi-objective problem; Quality of Service (QoS); Distributed Architecture.

  • Geographic Opportunistic Routing Protocol based on Two-Hop Information for Wireless Sensor Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by VENKATESH RAMANNA 
    Abstract: To improve energy efficiency and packet delivery ratio in WSNs. We propose a Two-Hop Geographic Opportunistic Routing(THGOR) protocol that selects a subset of 2-hop neighbors of node which have higher packet reception ratio and residual energy as the next forwarder node, it also selects 1-hop neighbors that have excellent coverage of 2-hop neighbors as relay nodes. The proposed protocol is compared with Geographic Opportunistic Routing(GOR) and Efficient QoS aware Geographic Opportunistic(EQGOR). GOR and EQGOR select a forwarding sensor node on the basis of distance. However, GOR,EQGOR results in lower packet delivery rate, and quick depletion of an energy. The THGOR is comprehensively evaluated through NS-2 and compared results with EQGOR and GOR. Simulation results show that THGOR significant improvement in packet advancement, reliable transmission, energy efficiency and optimizes packet transmission delay.
    Keywords: Two-Hop Packet progress; Geographic Opportunistic Routing; Media delay; Packet Reception Ratio, inclination angle; forwarding node.

  • Graph-Based Analysis of Cloud Connectivity at the Internet Protocol Level   Order a copy of this article
    by Sebastian Dombrowski, Tatiana Ermakova, Benjamin Fabian 
    Abstract: Internet connectivity of cloud services is of exceptional importance for both their providers and consumers. This article demonstrates the outlines of a method for measuring cloud-service connectivity at the Internet Protocol level from a clients perspective. For this, we actively collect connectivity data via traceroute measurements from PlanetLab to several major cloud services. Furthermore, we construct graph models from the collected data, and analyze the connectivity of the services based on important graph-based measures. Then, random and targeted node removal attacks are simulated, and the corresponding vulnerability of cloud services is evaluated. Our results indicate that cloud service hosts are, on average, much better connected than average hosts. However, when interconnecting nodes are removed in a targeted manner, cloud connectivity is dramatically reduced.
    Keywords: Cloud Computing; Connectivity; Availability; Reliability; Internet Topology; Graph Analysis; Complex Networks.

  • Interference Aware Frequency Assignment and Association Control for Uplink and Downlink Traffic in WLAN   Order a copy of this article
    by BABUL P. TEWARI, Sasthi C. Ghosh 
    Abstract: In IEEE 802.11 wireless local area network, interference and association control play a significant role to determine the network performance. The problem of interference becomes more challenging in simultaneous presence of uplink and downlink communication traffic. This paper addresses the issue of interference not only from the perspective of access points but also from the perspective of clients considering a mixed traffic. We first define several types of transmission conflicts influenced by different communication traffic and based on that we model effective interference. Importance of such effective interference has been described through a motivational example. We then propose an efficient greedy algorithm that jointly considers association control and frequency assignment to avoid the effective interference for maximizing the aggregate throughput. The novelty of the proposed approach is evaluated through extensive simulations. We also have shown that the proposed algorithm gives comparable results with other existing approaches.
    Keywords: IEEE 802.11 WLAN; Frequency assignment; Association control; Interference ; Network performance; Channel interference.

  • A Review on Spectrum Allocation in Cognitive Radio Network   Order a copy of this article
    by Wangjam Niranjan Singh, Ningrinla Marchang 
    Abstract: Cognitive radio is a recent technology that enhances the usage of spectrum resources. Efficient assignment of unused spectrum to unlicensed users is an important problem. Spectrum allocation is an important mechanism that limits and avoids the interference between cognitive radio devices and licensed primary users, thus enabling a better efficient usage of the wireless radio spectrum. In this paper, we present a study of different approaches and techniques w.r.t. spectrum allocation in cognitive radio network. We not only compare them in terms of the assignment scheme, execution model, etc. but also highlight their contributions and shortcomings. Additionally, we also highlight the security attacks on spectrum allocation. The challenges that a CR spectrum allocation technique should take into consideration are also discussed in the end with the hope of aiding future research.
    Keywords: channel assignment; spectrum assignment; spectrum allocation;cognitive radio; cognitive radio network.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2019.10014474
     
  • Service composition approaches for Internet of Things: a review   Order a copy of this article
    by Idir AOUDIA, Saber BENHARZALLAH, Laid KAHLOUL 
    Abstract: The Internet of things (IoT) is the integration of information space and physical space, becoming more and more popular in several places. In order to answer the complicated user request, most IoT devices do not work alone, a multiple service composition must be made, and it is defined as the services composition. A number of approaches to IoTs service composition have been proposed in the literature. We have noticed a lack of studies that review the different works of the service composition in IoT. Thereby, in this paper, we present a review of existing approaches for service composition in IoT. It describes and compares them among each other with respect to some criteria, which we have defined based on the different challenges of service composition in IoT. Finally, we conclude by discussing open research issues and avenues for further work.
    Keywords: Internet of Things; IoT service composition; adaptability; context; Smart Object; resource constraints; IoT service composition challenges.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2019.10017271
     
  • Intelligence in Wireless Network Routing through Reinforcement Learning   Order a copy of this article
    by Simi Surendran, Maneesha Vinodini Ramesh 
    Abstract: One of the critical challenges in mobile wireless network is resource optimized routing of messages without compromising the performance criteria of the network. Routing in wireless networks has been extensively studied and a variety of routing protocols have been proposed. But these protocols experiences problems due to the dynamism in network topology. To address these problems, reinforcement learning approaches are integrated in routing solutions. This review focuses on the impact of reinforcement learning algorithms to achieve intelligence in wireless network routing. We provide contexts and benefits of applying reinforcement learning paradigm and discuss the major techniques applied to optimize routing solutions. A survey of state of the art reinforcement learning based routing protocols is presented and categorized these protocols according to the learning strategies. We also provide open issues and suggestions for future research in improving routing solutions.
    Keywords: Wireless Network; Routing; Reinforcement Learning; Performance Improvement; Adaptive Algorithms; Dynamic System.

  • Task allocation based modified bacterial foraging algorithm for maximising reliability of a heterogeneous distributed system   Order a copy of this article
    by Abbache Farid, Hamoudi Kalla 
    Abstract: modified bacterial foraging algorithm for allocation and scheduling tasks on processors and links with high reliability is proposed (MBFA). MBFA ensure high reliability without redundancy of processors or links by using an efficient and simple structure. MBFA is improved by adding an efficient model to deal with the weak solution (i.e. allocation with low reliability). Also a simulated annealing technique is integrated into MBFA in order to strengthen the search of best solution. The efficiency and effectiveness of MBFA are tested using random generated problems. MBFA is tested over the published approaches HPSO and GAA using density parameter (DS), number of nodes (N) and the communication to computation ratio parameter (CCR). The results show the superiority of MBFA over the published approaches in all test cases
    Keywords: task allocation; heterogeneous distributed system; reliability; bacterial foraging algorithm; simulated annealing algorithm.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2019.10013812
     
  • Limits of the OFDM use in the radio mobile context   Order a copy of this article
    by Fatima Zohra Boumediene, Mohamed Tayebi, Merahi Bouziani 
    Abstract: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is very vulnerable to the Carrier Frequency Offset (CFO) generated mainly by the Doppler Effect. The Inter-Carrier Interference (ICI) generated by this offset degrades the system performances. Before stabilizing its speed, a mobile must pass through a startup phase where the speed varies gradually in time. The same thing happens during a braking; the speed varies up to a zero value. In this paper, we investigate the effect induced by these speed variations on the OFDM system performances. The weight and the speed of the degradations are taken into account for further enhancement of the performances. The limits of the OFDM modulation are depicted in the Line-Of-Sight (LOS) path where a mobile is subject to different types of accelerations. Simulation results show clearly the sensitivity of OFDM when mobile is subject to higher values of acceleration.
    Keywords: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing; OFDM; Carrier Frequency Offset; CFO; Inter-Carrier Interference; ICI; Doppler Effect; Acceleration.

  • Modeling and performance analysis of energy detector based spectrum sensing with maximum ratio combining over Nakagami-m/log-normal fading channels   Order a copy of this article
    by Pappu Verma, Rahul Kumar 
    Abstract: Spectrum sensing (SS) is one of the crucial functions of cognitive radio networks (CRNs). It decides whether the band or sub-band of the spectrum is available or not for secondary users (SUs). Energy detection (ED) is one of the very fundamental approaches of SS to detect whether primary users (PUs) are present or absent. It is mathematically intractable to derive closed-form expressions of composite multipath/shadowing for average probability of detection and average area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. In this paper, we have considered Nakagami-m/log-normal as composite fading with maximum ratio combing (MRC) diversity, and it is approximated by Gaussian-Hermite integration (G-HI). In addition, adaptive threshold or optimized threshold has been incorporated to overcome the problem of spectrum sensing at low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). To verify the correctness of exact results and obtained analytical expression is collaborated with Monte Carlo simulations.
    Keywords: Cognitive radio; probability density function; average probability of detection; complementary receiver operating characteristics.

  • Modelling and performance evaluation over Nakagami-m/log-normal fading environments   Order a copy of this article
    by Pappu Verma, Sanjay Soni, Priyanka Jain 
    Abstract: In this paper, we present the closed-form expressions of composite Nakagami-m/log-normal (NL) fading channel by Holtzman approximation. The obtained expressions are used to derive the important performance parameters of wireless communications systems. These performance matrices are amount of fading (AF), outage probability (PO), average channel capacity (CC) and average symbol error probability (ASEP) of coherent modulation comprising binary orthogonal, antipodal, M-ary phase shift keying (M-PSK) and M-ary pulse amplitude modulation (M-PAM). Furthermore, energy detection (ED) is one of the ways to determine whether the signal is present or not. The performance of ED is studied in terms of complementary receiver operating characteristics (CROC) curve. To verify the correctness of our analysis, the derived closed-form expressions are corroborated via exact result and Monte Carlo simulations.
    Keywords: Nakagami-m distribution; Log-normal distribution; Probability density function; Energy detection.

  • Distributed Denial of Service attacks detection in Cloud Computing using Extreme Learning Machine   Order a copy of this article
    by Gopal Singh Kushwah, Syed Taqi Ali 
    Abstract: Cloud computing has become popular due to its on-demand, pay-as-you-use, and ubiquitous features. This technology suffers from various security risks. Distributed denial of service (DDoS) attack is one of these security risks. It is used to disrupt the services provided by cloud computing. In DDoS attack, the cloud server is overwhelmed with fake requests by the attacker. This makes long response time for legitimate users or shut down of the service completely. In this work, a DDoS attack detection model based on Extreme learning machine (ELM) has been proposed. Experiments show that proposed model can be trained in a very short period of time and provides high detection accuracy.
    Keywords: Cloud Computing; DDoS attack; Extreme Learning Machines; Artificial Neural Networks.

  • Wireless Sensor Network Monitoring System: architecture, applications, and future directions   Order a copy of this article
    by Maroua Abdelhafidh, Mohamed Fourati, Lamia Chaari Fourati, Abdessalam Chouaya 
    Abstract: Wireless Sensor Network Monitoring Systems (WSNMS) have emerged as one of the most promising research area due to reliable technology progress related to the deployed sensors. This solution is efficiently involved with advanced technologies such as Internet of Things (IoT) and Physical Cyber System (CPS) that are designed as a bridge connecting the real world to the digital world. This survey gives a holistic view of WSNMS based on a recent state-of-the art. We address WSNMS applications and its challenges to facilitate its deployment in real world. We demonstrates the synergy between WSN and the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and its major specifications. Finally, we depict open research issues that need to be more studied in the future. We expect to help researchers to get basic knowledge on WSNMS and to open for them new opportunities in regards to understand new technologies considered as an evolution of WSN.
    Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks; Monitoring Systems; Multimedia sensor network; Information and Communication Technologies; Internet of Things; Cyber Physical System.

  • Firefly Algorithm Inspired Energy Aware Clustering Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network   Order a copy of this article
    by Anupkumar Bongale, Nirmala C R 
    Abstract: Most of the existing cluster based routing protocols focus either on cluster head election schemes or on refinement of routing process ignoring process of cluster formation. In this paper, Firefly algorithm inspired Energy Aware Clustering Protocol for WSN is presented. The idea of the proposed protocol is to elect the cluster head nodes by assigning them intensity value defined through firefly algorithm. Another contribution of this paper is energy efficient cluster formation where cluster members join to cluster heads based on intensity parameter associated with cluster head. The presented protocol ensures that the elected cluster heads are usually located in densely populated area of the network resulting in low distance intra-cluster data transmissions and ultimately leading to low energy consumption. The firefly based protocol is compared with popular routing protocols such as LEACH, LEACH-C and EOICHD and comparative results indicate that proposed protocol is highly energy efficient than other protocols.
    Keywords: Cluster Formation; Cluster Head Election; Firefly Algorithm; Wireless Sensor Network;.

  • Quality of Service Class Mapping and Scheduling Scheme for Converged LTE-WiFi in the Next Generation Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Amer T. Saeed, Amir Esmailpour 
    Abstract: Abstract--In this paper, a novel Quality of Service (QoS) class mapping and scheduling scheme for the LTE-WiFi converged network is proposed to ensure that end-to-end QoS support is provisioned seamlessly. A mapping among QoS classes of LTE and WiFi is performed first, then scheduling scheme is outlined. For scheduling scheme, traffic is separated into Real-Time (RT) and Non-Real-Time (NRT) components, then a two-stage complex queuing strategy is performed. In the first stage, Deficit Weighted Round Robin Queuing (DWRRQ) and Class-Based Weighted Fair Queuing (CBWFQ) are used for RT and NRT applications respectively to segregate and forward traffic according to resource requirements. Whereas in the second stage, Rate-Control Priority Queuing (RCPQ) is used for all types of traffic to give each class appropriate priority level. Performance evaluation of the converged network was done based on different metrics such as jitter, end-to-end delay, throughput, and packet loss ratio. Simulation results show significant improvements for RT with slight degradation on NRT applications after using the new scheduling scheme.
    Keywords: QoS; LTE; WiFi; Converged; Next Generation Networks; Scheduling Scheme.

  • Energy-efficient Real-time Deployment of Mobile Sensors in Disaster-prone Location   Order a copy of this article
    by Williams Nwadiugwu, Dong-Seong Kim, Jae-Min Lee 
    Abstract: Recent research works on real-time robot-assisted mobile sensor deployment have become rapid, as they tend to accomplish problem-solving tasks at both safe location and unsafe location. This paper proposes a technique to achieve a real-time energy-efficient deployment of mobile sensors in a disaster-prone location using a path-tracking algorithm. An enhanced path- tracking algorithm was introduced to be able to deploy mobile sensors in both presence and absence of obstacles. The simulation result investigates the real- time performances of the mobile sensor nodes deployment with respect to factors such as the minimal energy consumption of the nodes with neighborhood sharing scheme, the end-to-end system threshold and the time variance for the deployed sensor nodes to reach the target location and back to the base station.
    Keywords: Data center; disaster-prone location; IEEE 802.15.4(ZigBee); GPS-less mobile sensor deployment; path-tracking scheme.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2019.10015202
     
  • A Hybrid Behavioral Based Cyber Intrusion Detection System   Order a copy of this article
    by Henock M. Melaku, Alemtsehay Adhanom 
    Abstract: The experience of deploying Intrusion Detection System (IDS) for securing computer system is being matured. There are Knowledge based (misuse) and anomaly IDS. In knowledge based IDS, prior knowledge of the attack is needed for detection, and during anomaly, behavior of normal data is studied, when new data is arrived and there is a deviation, it is considered as an attack. In this thesis, we present a hybrid intrusion detection system called Behavioral Based Cyber Intrusion Detection System, based on two data mining algorithms, decision tree and association rule mining. The decision tree algorithm is used to detect misuse intrusions but it considers new attacks as normal. Association rule mining works by using the normal output of decision tree as input for further detection.Further, we implement the proposed model using java programming language. We have used a reduced and enhanced non-redundant NSL_KDD data set for training and testing. Evaluation results show that it provides improved detection rate and lower false alarm rates.
    Keywords: Intrusion Detection System,Knowledge Discovery Data Mining; Genetic Algorithm.

  • Distributive Justice in Network Communications   Order a copy of this article
    by Gautam Moktan, Jukka Manner 
    Abstract: Communication networks often have limited resources to serve all users and flows, and therefore different network resource assignment schemes have been deployed that satisfy fairness notions such as max-min fairness or proportional fairness. The justification of why one notion suits over other must be given due analysis in designing and administrating of communication networks. We explore the development of such fairness notions and resource assignment policies from philosophical and economics roots and how they translate into network communications and its layered protocol architecture. We find that resource assignment policies are not commutative, which impacts communications traffic and its bidirectional nature. We observe the effect of prioritization in assigned resource amounts under different notions of the α-fairness spectrum and when the proportion of prioritized participants is varied. After an exploratory discourse, we formulate steps for designing and administrating resource allocation schemes for network communications that takes distributive justice into consideration.
    Keywords: Networking; Fairness; Resource Allocation; Distributive Justice; Prioritization; Socio-Economics.

  • Mitigating the Interferences and Intruders in Cognitive Radio Networks Using an Authentication protocol over Reed - Solomon codes   Order a copy of this article
    by Pavan Kumar C, Selvakumar R 
    Abstract: Cognitive Radio Networks has emerged as a promising solution for spectrum scarcity problem. Secondary users (unlicensed users) accessing cognitive radio network suffer from continuous unintentional interference from Primary Users (licensed users). Also, the adversary present in the channel tries to thwart the secondary users' communication. To address these two problems, an inherent authentication protocol is defined over Reed - Solomon codes. Reed - Solomon codes with authentication protocol is used, with M-ary Frequency Shift Keying modulation technique, for transmissions over cognitive radio network. Similarly, the received message is demodulated and decoded to get the original information bits at the receiver. The performance of the proposed scheme is given in terms of Bit Error Rate. The experimental results show that the proposed system performs better in terms of BER reduction. Also, it is shown that the proposed scheme is resistant to replay attack, man-in-the-middle and impersonation kind of attacks.
    Keywords: Cognitive Radio Network; Reed Solomon codes; Frequency Shift Keying (FSK); Secondary Users (SUs); {Reliability; Security;} Authentication Protocol.

  • Resilient Intrusion Detection System for Cloud Containers   Order a copy of this article
    by Amr Abed, Mohamed Azab, Charles Clancy 
    Abstract: The lightweight virtualization and isolated execution offered by Linux containers qualify it to be the dominant virtualization platform for cloud-based applications. The fact that Linux containers run on the same host while sharing the same kernel opens the door for new attacks. However, limited research has been conducted in the area of securing cloud containers. This paper presents a resilient intrusion detection and resolution system for cloud-based containers. The system relies on two main pillars, a real-time smart behavior monitoring mechanism to detect maliciously behaving containers, and a Moving-target defense approach that applies runtime container migration to quarantine such containers and to minimize attack dispersion. To avoid zero-day targeted attacks, the system also induces random live migrations between running containers to obfuscate its execution behavior. Such obfuscation makes it harder for attackers to execute their targeted attacks. The system was tested by a big-data application using a container-based Apache Hadoop cluster to demonstrate the system
    Keywords: Cloud-Security;Intrusion-Detection; Behavior-Modeling; Resilience ; Linux-container ; Moving-target defense.

  • A Review on propagation of secure data, prevention of attacks and Routing in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs)   Order a copy of this article
    by Gautam M Borkar, Mahajan A. R. 
    Abstract: Wireless communication is considered as a significant part in modern technology for transmitting the packets from source node to destination node in which MANET plays a major role. In this paper, developed a detailed survey about the algorithms and techniques used for solving the various issues like security, authentication and routing. The absence of any central contrivance and wireless medium makes MANETs more prone to cyber-attacks. So as to combat attacks, a secure ad hoc network is expected to meet the different security requirements such as authentication, confidentiality, integrity, anonymity, and availability to mobile users. In addition to that the authentication problem is also focused to provide more security in which authentication is a process carried out by two parties in order to identify one another. Without authentication, an unauthorized node could easily come in and use the available resources within the network. Moreover, consider the problem of incorporating security mechanisms into routing protocols, it also has to be resolved for attaining the best secure communication. To obtain accurate solutions to that issues a large number of protocols, routing technique and algorithms have been employed, but it is very challenging to find out the optimal and efficient method and that can be used globally. In this paper, presented various existing techniques and then critically analyzed the work done by the various researchers in the field of MANETs.
    Keywords: Wireless networks; MANET; communication.

  • An Adaptive Model for Spectrum Assignment in Elastic Optical Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by SRIDHAR IYER 
    Abstract: For an Elastic Optical Network, considering cases of various lightpaths pairs requiring different actual guard bands, we propose an adaptive spectrum assignment (ASA) model which formulates the problem such that, it is possible to investigate as to how spectrum resources can be efficiently assigned in the considered cases. Initially, ASA is formulated as an integer linear program (ILP), followed by its simplification to an ordered-ASA problem which is solvable in polynomial time. To solve ASA in tractable time, we propose a dual stage heuristic algorithm in which, an initial solution is obtained in the first stage, followed by a second stage which resorts to the use of random optimization for improving the initial solution's quality. We conduct simulations considering various graph types and realistic network topology(s), and the obtained results show that, in comparison to ILP model, the proposed dual stage heuristic algorithm finds almost optimal solutions for the ASA.
    Keywords: EONs; adaptive spectrum assignment; ILP; heuristics; conflict graph.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2019.10013619
     
  • An Automated Fault-Tolerant Route Discovery with Congestion Control using TFRF model for 3D Network-on-Chips   Order a copy of this article
    by Sapna Tyagi, Amit Agarwal, Vinay Avasthi, P. Maheswari 
    Abstract: As one of the principle patterns of communication technology for 3D-Integrated Circuit (ICs), the 3D-Networks-on-Chips (3D-NoCs) have lot of attention from scientific research community. 3D-NoCs has been provided as a propitious solution merging the high parallelism of Network-on-Chip (NoCs) interconnect paradigm with the high-performance and lower interconnect-power of 3-dimensional integration circuits. For the permanent link faults, the fault-tolerant routing scheme has been regarded as an effective mechanism to ensure the performance of the 2D NoCs. In this paper, we propose a Triggered Fault-Free Route Forwarding model called TFRF for 3D Mesh NoCs without requiring any virtual channels (VCs).TFRF is a deadlock-free scheme by adopting a logic-based routing named TFRF guided by a turn activating rule model. The experimental results show that TFRF possesses better performance, improved reliability and lower overhead compared with the state-of-the-art reliable routing schemes.
    Keywords: 3D-Networks-on-Chips (3D-NoCs); Triggered Fault-Free Route Forwarding model; virtual channels (VCs); deadlock; turn activating rules.

  • Nonlinear system parameter estimation of drying process using modified state transition algorithm in cloud environment   Order a copy of this article
    by Karthik Chandran, Manikandan Ramasamy, Sathian Dananjayan, Ankur Dumka, Loganathan Jayakumar 
    Abstract: The parameter estimation optimisation with constraints for the nonlinear complex system requires a serious of computation. This paper introduced a novel constrained optimisation method named Lagrangian-based state transition algorithm (LSTA) to solve problems in distributed cloud computing environment. LSTA with the physical constraints involved in solving the problems which occurs while the conventional techniques are used. In LSTA, the updating of the result to an optimisation problem with constraints known as, a state transition. The Lagrangian multiplier is used as a constraint for state transition process to estimate the drying process system effectively. The experiments are conducted in the cloud computing environment and simulated results validated the proposed LSTA methodology for parameter estimation. This method is a promising way for system identification due to its searching competency, enduring performance considering physical limitations and quick convergence.
    Keywords: system identification; system analysis and design; computational modelling; computer simulation; clouds.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2019.10016204
     
  • Cloud-Based Service Oriented Architecture for Social Vehicular Ad-hoc Network Communications   Order a copy of this article
    by Muhammad Arif, Guojun Wang 
    Abstract: This article offers a social networking platform for vehicles, based on cloud computing and service oriented architecture called CSS-IoV for communication and collaboration of vehicle to vehicle (V2V), and vehicle to infrastructure (V2I). CSS-IoV contains five layers: application layer, application service layer, services layer, cloud infrastructure layer, and layer of vehicles. The application layer operation is associated with the functionality of on-board units (OBUs) and road-side units (RSUs). The service layer runs on a service-oriented architecture (SOA) and cloud application services to improve applications. To expand and combine web services on this layer, the application developer and builders can effectively develop the new functions and programs for communication. With the support of dynamic and automated service collaboration, people can easily help and communicate with each other by using OBUs. Our results shows that the proposed scheme provide the best results in terms of both type of communication in VANETs.
    Keywords: VANETs ; SOA ; Vehicles ; Cloud Computing ; Communication.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2020.10016956
     
  • An Online Routing Algorithm for Space Division Multiplexing Based Elastic Optical Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by SRIDHAR IYER 
    Abstract: We focus on the optimisation of lightpath routing in an online space division multiplexing based elastic optical network (SDM-b-EON). We propose a new online routing algorithm, named as online routing algorithm (ORA), which accounts for the presence of the transceivers in the network, and also ensures the routing of the transparent lightpaths through the spectral super-channels over spatial multiple core fibres (MCFs) links. We conduct extensive simulations considering two realistic network topologies and two different MCF crosstalk values which result in different transmission reach values. The obtained results demonstrate that: 1) ORA significantly outperforms the various reference routing techniques in terms of the bandwidth blocking probability (BwBP); 2) in regard to the use of modulation formats, for low crosstalk values, the most used format is QPSK rather than BPSK which results in lesser traffic being accepted by the SDM-b-EON; 3) as the transceivers amount increases, more frequent demands blocking occurs owing to spectrum scarcity. Overall, our study shows that in a SDM-b-EON, larger amount of transceivers can be efficiently used in comparison to the less efficient spectrum usage, since the spectrum significantly experiences fragmentation owing to the spectrum-contiguity and spectrum-continuity constraints.
    Keywords: Elastic optical networks; space division multiplexing; online routing; resource allocation; network optimization.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2020.10016957
     
  • Performance analysis of non-exhaustive wireless sensor networks based on queueing theory   Order a copy of this article
    by Jian Cao, Zhanyou Ma, Shanshan Guo, Xiangran Yu 
    Abstract: An operation mechanism of wireless sensor networks with non-exhaustive service, multiple adaptive sleep and wake-up strategies is presented on the basis of the queueing theory. The operation mechanism is proposed to dominate the workload of the necessary topology maintenance and reduce the energy consumption. The wireless sensor networks are modelled as a complex discrete-time queueing system. We derive the probability generating functions of the number of the data packets, the access delay, and we obtain the expressions of the mean number of the data packets, the mean response time, the utilisation rate and the throughput, etc. The sensitivity analyses of the performance measures are presented by the numerical experiments. Furthermore, the mathematical analyses are made on the energy consumption. Nash equilibrium and the social optimisation strategies are analysed in detail on the utility by using game theory.
    Keywords: wireless sensor networks; queueing theory; non-exhaustive; regeneration cycle method; energy consumption; strategy.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2020.10017314