International Journal of Critical Accounting (18 papers in press)
Ponzi Schemes and California Pyramids Ponzi Schemes and Home-Stake
by Tony Tinker, Adeoye Afolabi, Abdelkader Derbali, Aida Sy
Abstract: In this paper, we investigate the cases of accounting and business fraud known as Ponzi Schemes. These cases studies have been done several decades ago by Professor Tony Tinker. But, notwithstanding Tinkers warning, some corporations and some corporate executives still believe, they are above the law and are using accounting to mislead shareholders and mismanage the corporate finances. The case of Bernard Madoff, a CPA, is an example. rnrn
Keywords: Keywords: Ponzi schemes; critical analysis of accounting; fraud; audits of corporations; California; US economiesrnrn.
A Competition of Crooked Deeds
by Rita Koyame-Marsh
Abstract: The poem focuses on fraud and corruption in the global market of sports. It shows the pervasive state of payment of bribes, money laundering, and accounting fraud. All parties involved seem to be motivated by greed and lack of business ethics. The global nature of the criminal activities is unsettling. A reform of the internal management process is necessary in addition to the institution of an external third party monitoring system.
Keywords: Corruption; Accounting Fraud; bribes; sport management; international sport.
Role of Doctoral Education in Shaping Minds and Thinking: Reflection on My Doctoral Education at Case Western Reserve University
by Khalid Aladeem
Abstract: Earning a doctorate entails the learning of skills necessary to investigate the underlying truth of issues and exposure to epistemology that portrays reality. Subscribing to a certain epistemology and training plays a pivotal role in the perception students develop once they become an accounting academic. Doctoral studies, generally, focus on pre-setting students minds to utility and convincing them of the usability of prescribed meta-theory. However, preparing a thoughtful and independent scholar mandates multiplicity in research methodologies and methods to broaden the academics ontological horizon. Thus, in addition to discussing the philosophies of running a PhD program in accounting, in this essay, I highlight a PhD program that broadens students perspectives.
Keywords: Accounting doctoral education; Paradigm; Positive accounting science; Publishing; Journals; Multiplicity in Research Methodologies and Methods; Philosophy; Research; Kuhnian interpretation; Case Western Reserve University.
Irreconcilable differences? The FASBs Conceptual Framework and the public interest.
by Wm. Dennis Huber
Abstract: Recently, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) revised its Conceptual Framework. The FASBs Conceptual Framework is intended to serve the public interest by providing structure and direction to financial accounting and reporting to facilitate the provision of unbiased financial and related information [which] helps capital and other markets to function efficiently in allocating scarce resources in the economy and society (emphasis added). However, it is not the mission of either the FAF (Financial Accounting Foundation, the parent of the FASB), or the FASB to serve the public interest. Therefore, whether the FASBs Conceptual Framework can serve the public interest as intended, or whether the Conceptual Framework is reconcilable with the public interest is questionable.rnThis paper explores the question of whether the Conceptual Framework is compatible with the public interest. The question is important to consider because if the Conceptual Framework cannot serve the public interest as intended, then it will be necessary to revise the Conceptual Framework in order to achieve its intended purpose of serving the public interest.
Keywords: FASB; conceptual framework; public interest.
The role of accounting conservatism on the relationship between ownership structure and firm performance
by Allam Mohammed Hamdan
Abstract: The study aims to discover the moderating role of accounting conservatism in the relation between ownership structure and performance of Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) firms. Sample of the study comprised of 215 firms from six GCC countries during the period 2013-2015. Ownership structure was explained through three dimensions: ownership concentration, managerial ownership, and institutional ownership. As for performance, it was measured by two variables: ROA and Tobins Q. The study used panel regression and realized that accounting conservatism plays a positive role in reducing the negative impact of ownership concentration on firm performance and consolidating the positive role of managerial and institutional ownerships in firm performance. The increase of accounting conservatism in the financial reports of GCC firms reduced asymmetrical information and the intensity of agency problems, besides providing credibility to investors in financial reports.
Keywords: Ownership structure; Firm performance; Accounting conservatism; Agency theory; Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries.
Dynamic development of carbon reduction strategy and performance measurement systems
by Winnie O'Grady, Sharlene Sheetal Biswas
The association between Corporate Social Responsibility and Dividend pay-outs
by Charl De Villiers, Diandian Ma
Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosures on Financial Performance A Jordanian Case Study
by Huthaifa Hazaima, Mary Low, Jackie Allen
The Development of Carbon Management as a Strategic Practice: An Australian Study
by Sumit Lodhia
A Judicial Approach to Accounting and Accountability for Sustainability: A New Zealand Case Study of the Impacts of Commercial Hydroelectric Operations
by Murugesh Arunachalam, Andrea McLachlan
Climate change accounting: The challenge of uncertainty in Pacific Islands
by Umesh Sharma, Vida Botes, Dani Foo, Ram Karan, Ruvendra Nandan
Great Expectations: A Regulatory Promise Unfulfilled
by Murray Bryant, Mary Claire Mahaney
Abstract: The primary goal of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) is to protect investors by deterring wrongdoing that results in investor loss. The SEC tries to deter wrongdoing in two ways: by inhibiting it through threat of penalty, and by signaling illegal behavior. If the SEC does not hold individuals accountable for illegal behavior, or if it is unclear what actions are illegal, wrongdoing will continue.rnrnConsent decrees have become the SECs enforcement norm in that through negotiation both the defendant and the agency avoid costs and save time. However, the consent decree, by its use of neither-admit-nor-deny provisions, has meant that individuals responsible for wrongdoing have largely avoided personal accountability.rnrnMany firms have responded to this lack of personal accountability by introducing clawback provisions into executive contracts. Empirical evidence has shown that boards largely have not activated clawbacks. We argue that those whose job it is to be accountable for wrongdoing be held personally responsible by boards of directors who, by virtue of their own fiduciary responsibilities, must answer to shareholders.rnrnNo longer can the market and Main Street rely on regulation alone. Boards must design executive contracts that clearly state the rationale for clawbacks and a means by which the amount of clawbacks can be established that is both fair and in the best interests of the corporation.
Keywords: SEC; clawbacks; consent decrees—neither admit nor deny; corporate governance; directors—fiduciary responsibilities; wrongdoing; riskrn rn.
Dividend Policy, Agency Costs and Board independence
by Allam Hamdan
Abstract: In this paper we propose that the integrative relation between the dividend policy and the percentage of bard independence may be expected to decrease agency cost. We develop a formal model of a firm that chooses a dividend to minimize the sum of its agency costs of paying dividends with the role independent outsiders board members. The study used panel data and random-effect model for 237 firms from 4 Gulf Cooperation Council (henceforth GCC) countries: Bahrain, Oman, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates for a period of 13 years from 2003-2015. We find that dividends are positively related to asset utilization, the GCC firms resort to dividend policy in order to reduce free cash flow, eventually reducing agency costs. Furthermore, these positive impacts are enhanced as the proportion of independent directors increases further.
Keywords: Dividend Policy; Board independence; Agency Costs; GCC countries.
Determinants of voluntary tax compliant behaviours in Nigeria.
by Barine Michael Nwidobie
Abstract: This study aims to identify the factors that motivate taxpayers' compliance to fiscal obligations in Nigeria. 695 individual and corporate taxpayers located in the densely populated and industrial areas of Lagos and Ogun States with high numbers of taxpayers were sampled for this study using the cluster sampling technique. Primary data obtained from administered questionnaires were analysed using the ordinary least squares (OLS). Research results show that fear of punishment for tax default, religious beliefs and economic factors have positive relationships with tax compliance; while penalty, financial commitments, level of income, development projects/programmes of government and perceived benefits of tax has negative relationships with tax ccompliance. These results necessitate increased taxpayer education about liabilities of default and developmental benefits of tax payments in religious assemblies and community development associations. Tax rates should float with the level of economic activities to minimize fiscal liabilities in periods of economic downturn and increase compliance.
Keywords: Fiscal responsibility; tax awareness; tax compliance; tax education; tax equity; tax fairness; tax morale.
A reflection on the role of carbon markets in climate governance in Kenya
by Bernard Baimwera
Abstract: Carbon markets with international carbon offsets have been designed to channel carbon finance for climate change management to poor and developing countries. With the threat of climate change becoming more real and economically untenable, the global carbon markets have become a key response mechanism for mitigating climate change. However, the reasons given as to why carbon markets are good ways to respond to climate change do not explain why such markets have flourished as governance mechanisms in relation to climate. Moreover, carbon markets have not been easily accessible to poor and developing countries, which are more vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. The extent to which these markets have benefited poor and developing countries, especially in Africa, has been put to question. Subsequent changes to carbon financial architecture by the Paris climate agreement is likely to have even more compounding effects for developing countries and the legal and policy frameworks they will adopt for their climate governance.
Keywords: carbon markets; climate change; climate governance; carbon finance.
The motives behind the alleged ability of Hofstedes cultural values in predicting sub-cultural values: The case of Iraqi forensic accountants mentally held characteristics as sub-cultural values
by Riyadh Al-Abdullah
Abstract: Ostensibly, the most important constituent of Hofstede's theory on culture is the claim that his system of six pairs of cultural values can be used to predict sub-cultural values. Eighteen mentally held characteristics by an Iraqi forensic accountant are used as sub-cultural values. Based on the scores assigned by Hofstede to the Iraq dominant cultural values, the alleged predictive ability indoctrinate Iraqis to have an inferiority complex about their culture. Three different tests are used to check the predictive ability claimed by Hofstede. The three tests generate results that render Hofstedes claim on the predictive ability of cultural values to be invalid. On the other hand, a pure theoretical evaluation of the Hofstedes system of six pair of cultural values reveals that the purpose behind the alleged predictive ability is to indirectly promote the superiority of the cash wealth maximization culture. Thus, believe that you are inferior and the cure is ready; i.e. cash wealth maximization camouflaged in a system of six pairs of cultural values.
Keywords: Cultural and sub-cultural values; cash wealth maximization; forensic accountant and accounting; predictive ability; Hofstede; mentally held characteristics.
Politically Connected Firms and the Effectiveness of International Financial Reporting Standards Adoption
by Madeline Trimble
Abstract: In response to the ongoing debate on whether International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) has improved accounting quality, I introduce a new firm-level determinant of effective IFRS adoption: the political connectedness of a firm. Established political connections recognize value from firms, which they reward with shielding from enforcement agencies and/or providing financial resources outside of capital markets. By using the exogenous shock of mandatory IFRS adoption in the European Union, I isolate the effect that political connections have on discretionary accounting choices. I find that although accounting quality is ex ante and ex post lower for politically connected firms with top executives in federal roles, there is no incremental difference in the positive effect of IFRS adoption relative to non-connecting firms. This finding suggests that political connections are not fully immune to IFRS effects, and yet the role of political connections is not completely negated by mandated IFRS adoption.
Keywords: International Financial Reporting Standards; IFRS; IFRS Adoption; Political Connections; Accounting Quality; Earnings Management; EU; IASB; Enforcement.
Effect and interaction between external audit quality and ownership structure on earnings management for listed French companies.
by Fathi Jouini, Marwa Saied
Abstract: This study examines the effect of the interaction between audit quality variables and the ownership structure on earnings management based on a sample of 86 French companies listed on the stock exchange in the SBF 120 during 2010-2013. We conclude on one hand that the interaction between auditor reputation and the concentration of capital negatively affects earnings management and on the other hand the interaction between auditor reputation and the size of float has a positive effect on earnings management. Also, the interaction between auditor seniority and the percentage of the voting rights held by the public reduces the practice of earnings management. For the effect of the interaction between auditor reputation and institutional investors, we find a negative and significant effect on the earnings management.
Keywords: External Audit Quality; Auditor reputation; Auditor seniority; Ownership Structure; Earning Management.