International Journal of Autonomous and Adaptive Communications Systems (17 papers in press)
Chaotic discrete bat algorithm for capacitated vehicle routing problem
by Yanguang Cai, Yuanhang Qi, Hao Cai, Helie Huang, Houren Chen
Abstract: This paper presents a chaotic discrete bat algorithm for addressing the capacitated vehicle routing problem. The proposed algorithm presents new parameters and operations for the bat algorithm, and uses a penalty function method to address the constraint conditions. The proposed algorithm also introduces a chaotic initialization for bat populations, and adopts a local search strategy which is combined with a 2-Opt strategy, insert strategy and exchange strategy to expand the local search space. Experimental results show that: the proposed algorithm is better than alternative algorithms in terms of optimization capability, robustness and time consumption, and there are significant differences between the proposed algorithm and alternative algorithms.
Keywords: Discrete Bat Algorithm; Chaotic Optimization Algorithm; Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem; Vehicle Routing Problem.
A multi-level generic multi-agent architecture for supervision of collective cyber-physical systems
by Michel Occello, Jean-Paul Jamont, Choukri Ben-Yelles, Thi Thanh Ha Hoang
Abstract: Cyber-Physical systems like networked embedded systems or ambient sensors networks are called large scale artificial complex systems. They are difficult to supervise because of their numerous components in interaction relying upon physical devices, their extension and their openness. A multi-scale organization can be a solution to make them more accessible. Multi-agent systems (MAS) are well suited for modeling large complex systems, as multi-agent organizational capabilities allow to introduce multi-level observation. This paper proposes a multi-level multi-agent mechanism based on recursion for supervision and observation of large scale artificial complex systems. It is developed as a free framework that is a decentralized application allowing a truly physically decentralized MAS to communicate with abstract multi-agent layers. As an illustration, the framework is applied to a wireless sensor network supervision system.
Keywords: Multi-Agent System; Collective Intelligence; Multi-level; Scalability ; Collective Cyber-Physical System; Wireless sensor network; Monitoring.
A Matching-Game-based Satisfactory Spectrum Leasing for Cognitive-Radio-Empowered 5G
by Sara Handouf, Hamid Bouassam, Essaid Sabir
Abstract: In the emerging Fifth Generation (5G) mobile networks, one of the fundamental issues is to meet the challenging Quality of Service (QoS) requirements
imposed by a variety of applications at any circumstance. Cognitive radio is a promising paradigm that allows flexible self-organizing solution to manage the spectral resources scarcity. It can be used to improve the spectrum utilization while protecting much larger range of coexisting users (licensed users, opportunistic users, etc.) and within wider kinds of spectrum sharing models, such as spectrum leasing. In this article, we present a new solution for spectrum leasing using the powerful tool of matching games theory. Based on this Nobel Prize winning framework, a novel distributed cognitive scheme, for joint resource management and business side, is built. Yet, we exhibit a new scheme for spectrum leasing, whereby multiple Primary Users (PUs) and multiple Secondary Users (SUs) interact with one another to select their best possible partner in order to optimize their own benefits. The problem is captured by a matching game
where the P U plays the seller and the SU plays the bidder/buyer. Next, a variant of Gale-Shapley stable matching algorithm is employed to optimally manage the cognitive channels allocation. In order to efficiently use available spectrum, each SU seeks to be allocated a channel with sufficient bandwidth and low cost. Numerical investigations illustrate how stable the matching-game-based scheme and how it outperforms standard resource allocation. It is also compared with flat rate multiple access scheme via extensive simulations implementing the two schedulers in terms of network size, SUs QoS demand and bandwidth fee.
Keywords: 5G Networks| Cognitive Radio| licensed user| unlicensed user| MatchingrnGame Theory| Distributed Algorithm| Multiple access scheme.
Impulsive noise reduction techniques in power line communication: a survey
by Samir Laksir, Abdelaali Chaoub, Ahmed Tamtaoui
Abstract: Power Line Communication (PLC) is a technology that permits data
transmission using the electrical networks. In the last few years, research in the
area of efficient wired home-networking services and Smart Grid has received a
great interest thanks to the already-existing electrical networks and the ubiquitous sockets (outlets). However, the power-line channel presents a challenging task and provides drastic medium for multimedia (audio, image and video) transmission. In fact, over the last decades, there has been an intense research in the area of impulsive noise reduction in PLC environments and numerous error-mitigation strategies have been proposed, thus the need for such a broad survey. To this end, this paper presents a comprehensive overview, with major emphasis on identifying strengthens and weaknesses of the state-of-the-art techniques, and discusses some challenges and future research directions thorough consolidation of related works on PLC signal protection strategies against impulsive noise effects.
Keywords: power line communication; wired home networking services; smart
grid; multimedia transmission; electrical networks; power-line channel; impulsive
noise reduction; error-mitigation strategies.
AMBAS: an autonomous multimodal biometric authentication system
by Abdeljebar Mansour, Mohamed Sadik, Essaid Sabir, Mostafa Jebbar
Abstract: The traditional authentication techniques based on single factors such as passwords and tokens suffer from problems related to their robustness. Moreover, multi-factor authentication based on multimodal biometrics (MFA-MB) technique is used to overcome the drawbacks related to these techniques and also the problems related to the biometrics using single traits. Based on MFA-MB, this paper aims to model and develop an autonomous multimodal biometric authentication system called AMBAS using discrete-time Markov chains in order to decrease the complexity of the multimodal biometric system used in the MFA-MB scheme. In fact, giving the self-control to the AMBAS will improve therefore one user experience and achieve as well good performances in terms of authentication time. This system aims to identify users according to four different methodologies. While giving a case study with three-modal biometrics, we exhibit the performed algorithms. A simulation is done in order to test the system performances and usefulness.
Keywords: multi-factor authentication; multimodal biometric authentication; MBA; multimodal biometrics; discrete-time Markov chains; DTMCs; autonomous systems; user experience; computer security.
A monitoring based approach for WSN security using IEEE-802.15.4/6LowPAN and DTLS communication
by Raul A. Fuentes-Samaniego, Vinh Hoa LA, Ana R. Cavalli, Juan A. Nolazco-Flores, Raul V. Ramirez-Velarde
Abstract: In this paper, we present a monitoring based approach for securing upper layer communications of WSN (Wireless Sensor Networks), the latter using IEEE802.15.4/6LoWPAN stacks and tinyDTLS. The monitoring techniques have been integrated as an extension to the industrial tool MMT (Montimage Monitoring Tool). The MMT-extension verifies that the network is working following a set of security rules that have been defined by ETSI. The security rules check if the protocol stack is working properly. If MMT detects a security rule that was not respected, then it sends an alarm to the system manager so that he can take properly reactive adjustments. We tested each of the security rules in MMT's extension using point-to-point configuration. After all these tests were verified, we tested our MMT-extension using real data gathered from the FIT IoT-LAB platform. The results of these tests shown that our MMT's extension for WSN using IEEE-802.15.4/6LowPAN and DTLS communication is feasible.
Keywords: WSN; IoT; Security monitoring; Monitoring Tools; Intrusion Detection; 6LoWPAN.
Achieving a Balanced Optimization Between Network Lifetime and Data Delivery Latency in Multihop Wireless Sensor Networks
by Ravi Babu, Udaya Kumar K. Shenoy, Kiran Kumari Patil
Abstract: Data gathering using mobile sinks is considered one of the efficient and cost-effective strategies to mitigate the hotspot problem in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Although sink mobility is beneficial in many ways, these benefits are not without its new challenges. A major concern is achieving a good balance between sensors energy consumption and message delivery latency. The unique characteristics and requirements of wireless sensor networks make this task a significant challenge. Another major challenge is coping with the changing topology caused by the sink mobility. The sensor nodes are required to maintain fresh routes toward the latest sink location for efficient data delivery. This paper proposes data gathering schemes to address these two major issues in WSNs by using a virtual overlay structure built over the existing physical network. Simulation results reveal a reduced route reconstruction cost, and a good trade-off between network lifetime and data delivery latency.
Keywords: data gathering; message delivery; data delivery latency; energy-delay optimization; mobile sink; multihop communication; network lifetime; virtual overlay; wireless sensor networks;.
TEPaaS: Test Execution Platform as-a-Service: Applied in The Context of e-Health
by Mariam Lahami
Abstract: Runtime testing of large scale systems running in dynamic and distributed environments is a costly and a resource consuming task. With the aim of handling such runtime validation activity in a cost effective manner, we introduce in this paper a scalable test execution platform deployed on the cloud, called TEPaaS (Test Execution Platform as-a-Service). The latter offers various testing capabilities provided as services like automatic test component deployment, test execution and test evaluation. A proof-of-concept prototype is developed and deployed on the Google Cloud Platform and also evaluated through several experiments. Based on this prototype, we validate an e-health case study implemented using Web service technology and also deployed on the cloud.
Keywords: Distributed testing; Service-based systems; Cloud testing; Testing as-a-service; e-Health.
Design and implementation of A CATV Network Management System based on a General-Purpose Agent
by Wenbo Zhang, Nan Bai, Guangjie Han, Yongxin Feng
Abstract: Many cable television (CATV) devices, which cannot be feasibly monitored using a simple network management protocol, are used in CATV networks. It is difficult to remotely monitor these devices online because different protocols are used in different devices. In this paper, we design and implement a general-purpose network management agent that can communicate efficiently with different devices. Furthermore, data obtained from devices can be transmitted effectively to users. The simulation results show that this general-purpose agent can effectively respond to user requests, such as configuration requests and search requests. Moreover, the agent can maintain steady, stable device performance parameters while supporting concurrent multi-user operation.
Keywords: CATV Network; Network Management Agent; General-purpose Agent.
Design of an Autonomic Communication System
by Jose Aguilar, Kristell Aguilar, José Torres
Abstract: In modern communication systems, it is necessary to develop new approaches to optimize them. To achieve this objective, new paradigms are necessary. The present work proposes the conception of an autonomic communication system, which is based on a Bayesian network and on an ontology, to take reconfiguration decisions in the system. The ontology provides the knowledge about the performance factors and their relationships in the communication networks, to configure the structure of the Bayesian network. The Bayesian network is the stochastic reasoning mechanism used by the decision-making system. We present several tests on the NS2 simulator, and we observe an improvement in the system performance, for scenarios with high reconfiguration requirements.
Keywords: autonomic communication system; autonomous systems; Bayesian network; ontology.
Performance of $L$-SC Receiver over Generalized $K$-fading Channels
by Pampee Das, Rupaban Subadar
Abstract: Fading is a phenomenon which is highly degrading the quality of the
wireless signal. Shadowing is also an event due to which the receive quality of the
signal degrades considerably even if the receiver is closed to the transmitter. Both
this phenomena is happening together in a wireless environment. However, very
little work has carried out to analyze the joint effect of these two phenomena. The
KG fading model describes accurately composite multipath/shadowing fading
channels and the analytical results are highly matching with the experimentally
obtained results due to more accurate statistical modeling of the channels.
Analysis of selection combining (SC) diversity receiver has been presented in
this paper considering an arbitrary number of diversity branches. The receiver
performance have been studied based on the numerical evaluation of the obtained
expressions of average bit error rate and ergodic capacity. The presented analysis
will assist the design people to optimize their system in an environment where
both fading and shadowing effect is prominent.
Keywords: Fading/Shadowing channels; $K_G$ fading channels; SC receiver; ABER; Channel capacity.
Computing modes-based task processing for Industrial Internet of Things
by Juan Wang, Di Li
Abstract: The Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) is facing enormous challenges, including limited computing resources and network bandwidth and high energy consumption. To facilitate the realization of IIoT-enabled manufacturing, several problems concerning computing modes and interaction patterns among fog nodes and the cloud should be clarified: what the typical computing modes are; what their advantages and drawbacks are; and how the tasks are calculated in different computing modes. The above-listed problems are the focus of this paper. Four computing modes are listed accordingly, namely, local computing, remote computing, cloud computing and fog computing. The system model is established for each kind of computing mode, and the models for delay and energy consumption are formulated. A task processing experiment platform is set up in simulation software. The experimental results show that compared with other computing modes, fog computing exhibits better performance in terms of delay and energy consumption.
Keywords: Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT); task processing; cloud computing; fog computing.
Research and Realization of Realtime Ethernet Protocol for Networked Motion Control System
by Shouting Feng, Zhongshuo Zhuo, Daru Pan
Abstract: In PC-based motion control system, networking is the trend. Since the
host is running a non-real-time operating system, the existing real-time Ethernet
protocol cannot be implemented directly on the host. Existing control cards
typically use non-real-time Ethernet protocols, such as TCP/IP, making it difficult
to achieve multi-axis synchronization between control cards. A practical scheme
is proposed in this paper to solve this problem. In this scheme, the internal clocks
of control cards are adjusted to the same value by the sync frames periodically
sent by the host, so that in effect all axes seem to be driven by the same clock. The
jitter of the sync frame has very little impact on the consistency of the clocks of all
control cards. This alleviates the real-time performance requirements of the host,
and thus reduces the cost and design difficulty. In addition, all synchronous or
asynchronous frames are unified into a cluster frame model, which simplifies the
processing of the frames to fly-read or fly-write, making it easy to implement in
hardware such as FPGAs. This real-time Ethernet protocol has been implemented
in a large-scale motion control chip. And the test results showed that this scheme
achieves expected performance, and the shorter the period of the sync frames, the
higher the accuracy of synchronization motion control.
Keywords: Real-Time; Ethernet; protocol; synchronization; Motion Control;
Towards cognitive radio-based eHealth systems
by Dramane Ouattara, Mohamed Aymen Chalouf, Francine Krief
Abstract: In this paper, we investigate the use of cognitive radio systems in medical data transmission. Therefore, based on the state-of-the-art, we propose a complete cognitive-radio communication architecture for eHealth systems. The goal is to point out significant technical challenges required for more flexible and effective transmissions in eHealth contexts. After that, we study connectivity, interference management and performance criteria in cognitive-radio based eHealth systems. For connectivity, we show that cognitive-radio technology allows exploring opportunistically frequencies to find available channels. Then, to avoid interference, we propose a strategy-based management plan to reduce disruption risks. An example of strategy, frequency hopping, is then implemented and tested. Finally, we analyse the performance of our proposal for some categories of medical data. We propose therefore a function that reinforces the cognitive radio decision-making and spectrum sharing modules by controlling some quality parameters.
Keywords: eHealth systems; cognitive radio networks; communication performance; QoS; interference management; permanent connectivity.
Power load clustering algorithm for demand response
by Yanguang Cai, Helie Huang, Hao Cai, Yuanhang Qi
Abstract: Satisfactory clustering of power load is an essential prerequisite for the effective implementation of demand response (DR) programs. Focusing on the inability of common clustering algorithms to specify the similarity degree between load profiles; this paper proposes a novel power load similarity measurement criterion based on the maximum deviation, similarity degree and deviation degree, termed maximum deviation similarity criterion (MDSC). We further propose a power load clustering algorithm based on the MDSC for obtaining reasonable load classification. The proposed MDSC is capable of specifying the similarity degree and effectively describes the shape similarity between load profiles. Furthermore, the criterion is simple, reasonable and flexible in nature. A case study with 32 load data clustering analysis is used to verify the proposed clustering algorithm. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed clustering algorithm is computationally faster and has a better clustering efficiency, allowing it to better meet the needs of DR programs.
Keywords: demand response; power load; maximum deviation similarity criterion; MDSC; clustering algorithm; shape similarity.
B-DASH: broadcast-based dynamic adaptive streaming over HTTP
by Koffka Khan, Wayne Goodridge
Abstract: Multiple video players competing at a bottleneck link give rise to overlapping ON-OFF traffic patterns. These patterns may introduce the problem of overlapping oscillatory effects amongst players resulting in poor video quality, frequent flickering and video freezes. We propose a distributed heuristic hybrid-based approach called B-DASH to address this problem. B-DASH implements two mechanisms: 1) message exchange; 2) adaptation. During message exchange, a broadcast mechanism is used to send information to neighbouring players. Based on the information present in this exchange, players can adapt to different network conditions. In this adaptation approach, B-DASH players with the higher estimated bandwidth are forced to reduce their bitrate request, while players with the lowest estimated bandwidth increase their bitrate request. This action reduces the oscillatory effects of the ON-OFF traffic patterns. Adaptive video streaming players using the B-DASH approach are compared to other players using conventional, PANDA and ELASTIC approaches. Experimental evaluation of B-DASH indicates good quality of experience (QoE) characteristics for players. Possible trade-offs for players using the B-DASH approach is investigated under various network conditions. The results show improvements of up to 5% bandwidth utilisation, 79% fairness, 27% re-buffering ratios, 57% stability and 9% quality.
Keywords: ON-OFF traffic; oscillatory; quality; B-DASH; flickering; freezes; distributed; heuristic; bitrate requests; quality of experience; QoE; fairness; stability.
Adaptive M-MRC scheme with estimation error over TWDP fading
by Bhargabjyoti Saikia, Rupaban Subadar
Abstract: High speed data requirement among a large group of user is one of the key challenges in wireless communication. To meet this requirement adaptive multi-antenna system (adaptive diversity receiver) is a well known potential solution in wireless system design. Nevertheless, the ideal estimation technique which is considered to optimise the performance of a diversity receiver is difficult to get. Hence, in a practical scenario, the expected system performance of the receiver is considerably degraded. In this paper the average bit error rate (ABER) and capacity analysis has been studied for an arbitrary branch maximum ratio combiner (MRC) system for different modulation techniques over two wave diffused power (TWDP) fading channels with error in estimation.
Keywords: quadrature amplitude modulation; QAM; PSK; estimation error; adaptive system; MRC receiver; TWDP fading; average bit error rate; ABER; channel capacity; coherent modulation.