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International Journal of Autonomous and Adaptive Communications Systems

 

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International Journal of Autonomous and Adaptive Communications Systems (31 papers in press)

 

Regular Issues

 

  • Survey of deployment algorithms in wireless sensor networks: coverage and connectivity issues and challenges   Order a copy of this article
    by Ines Khoufi, Pascale Minet, Anis Laouiti, Saoucene Mahfoudh 
    Abstract: Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have many fields of application, including industrial, environmental, military, health and home domains. Monitoring a given zone is one of the main goals of this technology. This consists in deploying sensor nodes in order to detect any event occurring in the zone of interest considered and report this event to the sink. The monitoring task can vary depending on the application domain concerned. In the industrial domain, the fast and easy deployment of wireless sensor nodes allows a better monitoring of the area of interest in temporary worksites. This deployment must be able to cope with obstacles and be energy efficient in order to maximize the network lifetime. If the deployment is made after a disaster, it will operate in an unfriendly environment that is discovered dynamically. We present a survey that focuses on two major issues in WSNs: coverage and connectivity. We motivate our study by giving different use cases corresponding to different coverage, connectivity, latency and robustness requirements of the applications considered. We present a general and detailed analysis of deployment problems, while highlighting the impacting factors, the common assumptions and models adopted in the literature, as well as performance criteria for evaluation purposes. Different deployment algorithms for area, barrier, and points of interest are studied and classified according to their characteristics and properties. Several recapitulative tables illustrate and summarize our study. The designer in charge of setting up such a network will find some useful recommendations, as well as some pitfalls to avoid. Before concluding, we look at current trends and discuss some open issues.
    Keywords: WSN, deployment algorithms, wireless sensors, deployment pattern, area coverage, barrier coverage, point of interest coverage, full connectivity, intermittent connectivity, node activity scheduling, virtual forces, grid

  • An Ensemble Design Approach Based on Bagging Technique for Filtering Email SPAM   Order a copy of this article
    by Sanjiban Sekhar Roy, V. Madhu Viswanatham, P. Venkata Krishna 
    Abstract: Spam is a severe widespread predicament which causes troubles for almost every computer user and as well as for companies and institutions. Detection of spam email is a difficult task due to several complications occurring in the process of exchanging information over a network. In this paper, we have demonstrated an approach for designing a spam filtering technique using ensemble based bagging technique. The bagging technique classifies the email message into either spam or not spam (i.e. ham). Bagging being an effective classifier, is a powerful pattern recognition and machine learning methodology that is widely used in the literature. Our approach is tested for performance with other existing methods, it is observed that our method, i.e. bagging gives the better accuracy while classifying email instances. Experimental outcome also exhibits that the framework using bagging technique, we attain better precision and recall. Choosing the optimal value of the parameters is a crucial criterion, and this was achieved by performing 10 fold cross-validations.
    Keywords: email; spam filtering; bagging; classifying; cross-validation.

  • User Preferences and Expert Opinions Based Vertical Handoff Decision Strategy with the inclusion of Cost Parameter for 4G Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Dhanaraj Cheelu, M. Rajasekhara Babu, P Venkata Krishna, X. Z. Gao 
    Abstract: Quick developments in the advancement of wireless technologies and also increasing mobile user demands requires future wireless communication to be a cooperative working of heterogeneous systems with their reciprocal characteristics. Handoff decision is an all important issue in a heterogeneous environment. Vertical handoff considers many network criteria in order to select the optimum network. For this a smart approach is necessitated, so that the user can choose the most proficient network amidst the accessible systems based on the user preferences. This paper proposes a user preferences and expert opinions based vertical handoff decision model under the guidelines of the original Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) but with the inclusion of cost parameter to make vertical handoff decision for a file downloading application, aiming to maximize user satisfaction. Simulation is carried out using OMNet++ framework and the results are acknowledged with discussion and analysis.
    Keywords: Heterogeneous Wireless Networks; Vertical Handoff; Analytical Hierarchy Process; User Preferences; Expert Opinions

  • New optimal modular Sidon sets   Order a copy of this article
    by Zehui Shao, Fei Deng, Meilian Liang, Xiaodong Xu, Mingjun Zou 
    Abstract: Sidon set and its related problems including modular Sidon set have many applications in information theory and communication system. They have been widely studied in radio frequency selection, radio antennae placement and error correcting codes. In this paper, we establish a backtracking algorithm with pruning techniques to construct modular Sidon sets. By using master-slave parallel model, 50 new optimal modular Sidon sets are constructed.
    Keywords: modular Sidon set; Golomb ruler; generalized Sidon set.

  • A Task and Role Based Access Control Model in a Computer-Supported Cooperative Design System   Order a copy of this article
    by Ai Fei, Zhang Ping 
    Abstract: To properly reflect the requirements of a computer-supported cooperative design system (CSCD), a task and role based access control model (T&RBAC) is proposed. The T&RBAC model extends the T-RBAC model, defines the key elements, and the relationships of the elements. The concept of a 'usergroup' is introduced in the model to simplify user and authorization management. Additionally, the classification of the role and task is presented according to the requirements of the CSCD's access control policy, and supports the permissions to be assigned to both the tasks and roles, and hence realizes the active and passive access control policies. Finally, the T&RBAC model is validated in the CSCD system.
    Keywords: CSCD; access control; task; role

  • FPGA-based Elastic In-Circuit Debugging for Complex Digital Logic Design   Order a copy of this article
    by Fulong Chen 
    Abstract: In digital integrated circuit design, the emergence of Intellectual Property (IP) reuse technology reduces the complexity of System on Chip (SoC) design, and makes the SoC have more and more powerful functions. Unfortunately, it also increases the verification difficulty, and extends the whole system design cycle. Aiming at the low efficiency of stimulating mechanism, the difficulty of real-time signal monitoring and non-reusability of module- level verification platform for IP design based on Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), we propose a kind of elastic in-circuit debugging method for complex digital logic design so as to optimize the verification process. Based on the extension of traditional IP verification platform, we build the IP in- circuit debugging platform, which has some advantages such as elasticity, configurability, extensibility and humanization. In this platform, through the simulation debugging kit working in the workstation side, the downloading pathway of stimulus signals and configuration data is created; through the simulation monitoring kit working in the FPGA side, the uploading pathway of simulation data and feedback signals is created; and with Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter (UART), the stimulus signals, configuration data, simulation data and feedback signals are transmitted between the workstation side and the FPGA side. After verification of multiple IP instances, the results show that the method has strong universality and can improve the efficiency of IP verification.
    Keywords: IP Verification Method;In-circuit Debugging;Elastic Design;FPGA

  • Security in Cyber-Physical SystemsChallenges and Solutions   Order a copy of this article
    by Keliang Zhou, Taigang Liu, Ling Liang 
    Abstract: Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs), which integrate physical components and computational elements, are becoming increasingly popular in recent years. As complex systems themselves, CPSs are frequently used in complex applications such as smart power grids, transport systems, and financial infrastructure. Security is a critical and challenging aspect that needs more attention during CPS design, due to the extensive use of CPSs in applications. To address this, we discuss CPS security threats and investigate specific security measures that can be taken. This paper, firstly introduces the CPS architecture, which consists of a perception layer, a data transport layer, and an application control layer. We then outline security threats and measures taken to combat threats at each of the three layers. Finally, using the smart grid as an example, we present a short analysis of typical threats and measures to keep the smart grid cyber safe. In addition, we list differences between IoT security and CPS security to compare the two methods.
    Keywords: cyber-physical systems; security architecture; security threats; security measures; smart grid; cyber security

  • A Context Change Detection Approach For Ubiquitous Environments   Order a copy of this article
    by Nesrine Khabou, Ismael Bouassida Rodriguez, Mohamed Jmaiel 
    Abstract: The increase of mobile and interconnected devices leads to the growth of demands for pervasive and mobile applications. Due to the diversity, the heterogeneity of devices in terms of resources, capabilities, etc., the applications have to adapt themselves to the context changes and the surrounding execution environment. This requires the development of context aware applications that must be able to perform four phases. Collecting and monitoring context, aggregating and analyzing context to detect changes, planning adaptation actions and finally executing the planned adaptation actions to respond to the context changes. We focus on the second phase (Aggregating and analyzing context). It's aim is to analyze context to detect changes. In this field, most research studies detect context changes by comparing context with fixed thresholds. In this paper, we propose a context analysis approach that relies on different thresholds (fixed, step function and adaptive) to detect changes and raise notifications when changes occur. The analysis approach requires three steps. Context storage step, context classification step and threshold calculation step. The context storage step is out of the scope of this paper. In the context classification research direction, most studies classify context either by enumerating context examples or by defining different viewpoints. The proposed context classification approach depends on the user needs and classify context according to the context parameter evolution. For the threshold calculation, the fixed and the step function thresholds are fixed by the application designers. However, for the adaptive thresholds, different mathematical models are applied in order to update thresholds used to detect context changes.
    Keywords: Ubiquitous computing, context awareness, adaptation, analysis techniques, threshold calculation, mathematical models.

  • A Survey on Real-Time Ethernet   Order a copy of this article
    by Xin Chen, Di Li 
    Abstract: Smart manufacturing era is coming. As the nervous system in smart manufacturing, Real-Time Ethernet (RTE) has been one of the main research focuses in academia for decades and has become a multidisciplinary area. With these growing research trends, it is important to consolidate the latest knowledge and information to keep up with research needs. This paper discusses the similarity and imparity of RTE protocols defined by IEC 61158 from the perspective of protocol model, transmission mode of real-time data, synchronization mode, topology and communication mode. Meanwhile, this paper introduces the Performance Indicators (PIs) defined by IEC61784-2 and several special PIs. This paper also presents evaluation methods of RTE in actual application. A brief literature survey and possible future directions are included.
    Keywords: Real-time Ethernet, Comparison, Evaluation, Performance Indicators

  • Privacy Preserving Search over Multiple Servers   Order a copy of this article
    by Ayad Ibrahim, Hai Jin, Ali A. Yassin, Deqing Zou 
    Abstract: Search over encrypted data is a hot topic. In this paper, we propose a secure scheme for searching the encrypted servers. Such scheme enables the authorized user to search multiple servers with multi-keyword queries and retrieve the most relevant documents in a descending order with respect to their relevance to the query, without compromising the privacy of his query and the contents of documents he retrieved. In such a setting, each data owner builds his own searchable index, and associates with each document in that index its weight score, which facilitates document ranking. To protect the privacy of these weights, we utilize the Privacy Preserving Mapping (PPM) primitive, while preserving their capability to perform the ranking process. We have conducted several empirical analyses on a real dataset to demonstrate the performance of our proposed scheme.
    Keywords: Cloud computing; searchable encryption; ranked search; distributed informationrnretrieval; PPM; Bloom filter

  • Cloud-enabled Web Services for Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Shiyong Wang, Chunhua Zhang, Di Li 
    Abstract: Wireless sensors and actuators have limited resources and low bandwidth wireless communication ability while they are low-cost and energy-efficient. These devices can form ad hoc wireless networks and can be connected to the internet through the gateways. The resource constrained wireless devices cannot afford the general Internet protocols so that they cannot be directly accessed through the Internet. In this paper, we propose a cloud-enabled web services solution to address this issue. The functions of device are encapsulated into web services and submitted to the cloud; the client operates the device by invoking the web services; and the gateway converts messages between the device and the cloud. Using the standard web services architecture instead of customized SOA solutions, and deploying services to the cloud instead of wireless nodes or gateways reduce the resource demand of nodes and gateways, simplify the wireless network design, and provide a uniform interface for using and managing devices.
    Keywords: Internet of Things; wireless sensor network; cloud computing; web services.

  • Systematic Survey on Evolution of Cloud Architectures   Order a copy of this article
    by Bharath Bhushan, Pradeep Reddy, Dhenesh V Subramanian, Gao X. Z 
    Abstract: Cloud architectures are becoming an active area of research. The quality and durability of a software system is defined by its architecture. The architecture approaches that are used to build cloud based systems are not available in blended fashion to achieve universal architecture solution. The paper aims to contribute to the Systematic Literature Review (SLR) to assist researchers who are striving to contribute in this area. The main objective of this review is to systematically identify and analyse the recently published research topics related to software architecture for cloud with regard to research activity, used tools and techniques, proposed approaches, domains. The applied method is a SLR based on four selected electronic databases proposed by (Kitchenham et al., 2007). Out of 400 classified publications, we regard 121 as relevant for our research domain. We outline a taxonomy of their topics and domains, provide lists of used methods and proposed approaches. At present, there is little research coverage on software architectures for cloud, while other disciplines have become more active. The future work is to develop common and secure architecture to achieve quality of service and service level agreements.
    Keywords: cloud computing; software architectures; quality of service; service level agreement; resource and service management; security.

  • A Method of Determining Maximum Transmission Rate in Wireless Sensor Network   Order a copy of this article
    by Yuan Junying, Cao Huiru, Zhan Choujun, Wang Lin 
    Abstract: The lifetime of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) decreases with the increasing payload, such that extending the network lifetime has become a hot topic. This paper proposes a distance-based transmission rate sexlection algorithm, Maximum Emission Rate (MER) Determination, to select the pairwise maximum effective transmission rate in a given WSN environment. The proposed work is founded on two observations, one is the logarithmic relationship of internode communication distance to data transmission rate, the other is the linear relationship of receiving current to data transmission rate. The proposed work helps to reduce data transmission duration, and finally to increase the network lifetime. Simulation results show that the application of MER in existing network protocols extends 300% plus network lifetime while ensuring communication success rate.
    Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN); Network Protocol; Packet Loss Rate (PLR); Node Survival Rate; Network Lifetime.

  • A New Intelligent Self-service Express Delivery System Based on Mobile Cloud Computing and WeChat   Order a copy of this article
    by Yongliang Zhang, Ling li 
    Abstract: In order to solve the "last mile" logistics and distribution problems in express parcel delivery, this paper designs an intelligent system by integrating mobile cloud computing with WeChat to achieve the couriers
    Keywords: mobile cloud computing; WeChat; intelligent self-service express delivery system; optimal pedestrian navigation

  • Simulation Based Efficient Analysis of Radio Propagation Model using On-demand Routing Protocols in the Indian Automotive Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Ramesh C. Poonia, Reena Dadhich, X.Z. Gao 
    Abstract: VANET is the subset of mobile ad-hoc network, with the help of this we can communicate among nearby vehicles and between vehicle and also fixed road side equipment. For this scenario we can include an electronics device in the vehicle that is provide ad-hoc network connectivity for the passengers. The aim of this study is to perform the feasibility analysis of Nakagami propagation model for vehicular ad-hoc networks in the Indian automotive network. The main purpose of this paper is to simulation based study of distinct propagation model for vehicular ad-hoc networks and to find the efficient analysis using on-demand routing protocols that can be more suitable in various scenarios, particularly on highways. We have used different parameters like throughput and packet drop for comparing the AODV, DSR and TORA protocols in VANETs. The research outputs will be useful in implementing efficient architecture on the realistic highway scenario, especially for four-wheeler traffic types. It will be advantageous to avoid congestion and highway road accidents due to speeds of the traffic, road condition.
    Keywords: VANETs; NS-2; VanetMobiSim; Nakagami; AODV; DSR; V2V.

  • Sparse Representation for Kernel Function Selection of Support Vector Machine   Order a copy of this article
    by Liang Liming, Wu Jian, Zhong Zhen, Zhu Sha 
    Abstract: Support Vector Machine (SVM) is a kind of learning method based on the kernel, and it is well known that different kernel functions have significant different influences on the performance of SVM. Thus, how to obtain an effective method for the kernel function selection becomes an important issue in the researching field of SVM. Since different kernel functions contain different geometric measurement characteristics, selecting an appropriate kernel function can results in a satisfying generalization ability of SVM. However, the traditional method for the SVM kernel function choice is manually designated, which contains great limitations and blindness, obviously. Based on sparse representation theory, this paper presents a kernel function selection method, which can take the measurement features of different kernel functions into account and make a reasonable choice of the kernel function of SVM according to specific problems. Finally, simulation experiments are given to show that the method in this paper can overcome the shortcomings of the traditional kernel function selection in SVM model, and achieve the optimal performance.
    Keywords: SVM, Kernel function, Sparse representation, Sparse Dictionary

  • L(d,1)-labelings of generalized Petersen graphs   Order a copy of this article
    by Fei Deng, Xiaoling Zhong, Zehui Shao 
    Abstract: An interesting graph distance constrained labeling problem can model thernfrequency channel assignment problem as well as code assignmentrnin computer networks.rnThe Frequency Assignment Problem asks for assigning frequencies to transmittersrnin a broadcasting network with the aim of avoiding undesired interference.rnOne of the graph theoretical models of The Frequency Assignment Problem is the conceptrnof distance constrained labeling of graphs.rnLet $u$ and $v$ be vertices of a graph $G=(V(G), E(G))$ and $d(u, v)$ be the distance between $u$ and $v$ in $G$.rnFor an integer $d geq 0$, an $L(d, 1)$-labeling of $G$ is a functionrn$f: V(G) rightarrow {0,1,cdots}$ such that for every $u,v in V(G)$, $'f(u)-f(v)' geq d$ if $d(u,v)=1$ and $'f(u)-f(v)' geq 1$ if $d(u,v)=2$ .rnThe span of $f$ is the difference between thernlargest and the smallest numbers in $f(V(G))$. The $lambda_{d, 1}$-number of $G$ is thernminimum span over all $L(d, 1)$-labelings of $G$.rnFor natural numbers $n$ and $k$, where $n > 2k$, a generalized Petersenrngraph $P(n, k)$ is obtained by letting its vertex set be ${u_1, u_2, cdots, u_n} cup {v_1, v_2, cdots, v_n}$ andrnits edge set be the union of $u_iu_{i+1}, u_iv_i, v_iv_{i+k}$ over $1 leq i leq n$, where subscripts arernreduced modulo $n$.rnIn this paper, we show the $lambda_{d,1}$-numbers of the generalized Petersen graphs $P(n,k)$ for $n geq 5$.
    Keywords: graph labeling; generalized Petersen graph; code assignment; frequency assignment problem.

  • Sleeping Scheme Based on Gray Forecast and Time Division for Heterogeneous WSNs   Order a copy of this article
    by Cao Huiru, Yan Hehua 
    Abstract: The current evaluation models of hierarchical wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are based on some idealistic hypothesis, such as fixed amount of data transmission and electing cluster head mechanism. In order to solve these problems, extend network life of clustering-WSNs by reducing unnecessary monitoring and power consumption, a sleeping scheme based on Gray Forecast model and Time Division in cluster-WSNs (GFTD) is proposed. Using gray forecast algorithm and historical records to computing sleep time, this scheme dynamically predicts and adjusts nodes sleep time. Moreover, fixed cluster head strategy and a mechanism of data transmission in time division multiplexing (TDM) mode are presented to reduce the process of cluster head selection and the frequency of the state-switching of nodes. Meantime, the algorithm could ensure the integrity of transmitted information. Simulation results show that the algorithm of GFTD, compared to other existing, exhibit a longer working time with more sleeping time and more residual energy. At last, a simple WSN is built up, experimental results show that the relative error of sleep time calculated by the GFTD and the theoretical value is less than 5 %.
    Keywords: Wireless Sensor Network; Sleeping Forecast; heterogeneous network; Gray Forecast model; Time Division

  • Multi-agent Reinforcement Learning based approach for controlling signals through adaptation   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammed Tahifa, Jaouad BOUMHIDI, Ali YAHYAOUY 
    Abstract: In this paper, we present a multi-agent reinforcement learning based approach for controlling traffic signals. The aim is to use a multi-agent system with learning abilities for controlling and optimizing traffic lights. We consider in this study the Q-learning algorithm, where the states are computed from average queue length in approaching links. The action space is modelled off-line by using different time splits. The adaptation of the considered learning optimal policy through on-line learning is introduced to deal with the change of the environment. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive learning algorithm.
    Keywords: Multi-agent Systems, Reinforcement Learning, Adaptation, Traffic Signal Control, Q-learning

  • Automatic Modulation Recognition for DVB-S2 Using Pairwise Support Vector Machines   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohsen Farhang, Ali Ghaleh, Hamid Dehghani 
    Abstract: In this paper a Support Vector Machine (SVM) pairwise coupling algorithm is developed for classification of satellite communications signals used in 2nd generation of Digital Video Broadcasting via Satellite (DVB-S2) standard. DVB-S2 standard adaptively uses one of QPSK, 8PSK, 16APSK, and 32APSK modulations. The proposed method extracts fourth and sixth order cumulants as features from the received signal. The features are given to a SVM pairwise coupling algorithm in which there is one binary SVM for each pair of modulation types. Finally the algorithm selects the modulation type chosen by the maximal number of pairwise SVMs as final decision. SVMs are trained by samples from different modulation types corrupted by Gaussian noise. The simulation results show that the proposed method allows higher recognition rates in comparison with previous methods, especially at low SNRs.
    Keywords: automatic modulation classification; cumulant; pairwise support vector machine; DVB-S2.

  • Cognitive Fuzzy Flow Control for Wireless Routers   Order a copy of this article
    by Mirjami Jutila, Tapio Frantti 
    Abstract: This paper presents fuzzy set theory based cognitive control system for IEEE 802.11b WLANs (Wireless Local Area Networks). Developed Fuzzy Weighted Queueing (FWQ) method anticipates required changes on weight coefficients with optimal packet sizes for adaptive flow control. Traffic flows are scheduled for prevailing traffic level on WLAN based router. The algorithm determines the amount of allowed bandwidth for each service class in the outputs of wireless router anticipating the application dependent delay and packet loss rate. It is shown through simulations that the developed FWQ model is also more stable and reacts faster to different traffic states than drop-tail or WFQ (Weighted Fair Queueing) schedulers that were used here as comparative methods. Delay times and packet loss rates of the FWQ algorithm were lower than drop-tail's or WFQ's respective values with different amounts of background traffic.
    Keywords: QoS; queueing; scheduling; packet size control; fuzzy control; expert system; FWQ; WFQ

  • Using Program Branch Probability for the thread parallelization of branch divergence on the CUDA platform   Order a copy of this article
    by Hong Yao, Huifang Deng, Caifeng Zou 
    Abstract: In a virtualized environment, the underling hardware and software resources should not be directly used by upper applications. In view of this, we focus on the divergent branch problem within a SIMT architecture, where threads with branch divergence should be serially executed. To reduce the performance loss, existing approaches usually regroup the threads executing a same program branch into a same warp to realize vectorization. However, such an effort is normally costly but does not necessarily yield a better result due to the constraints of private resources. On the other hand, next generation of platforms, which have more complex hardware structures, raises more requirements for virtualization as well as more flexibility for scheduling programs. Therefore, the private resources can be avoided putting in use directly. For virtualized platforms, our approach can convert general parallel threads to CUDA threads and converge isomorphic threads into same redundant warps to eliminate divergence. We use program branch probabilities to determine the number of redundant warps for optimization and introduce the algorithms for the thread recombination models of binary branches, single branch and multiple branches respectively. Without redesigning hardware needed, we obtained a load balance schema for parallelization of divergent branch threads. The theoretical analysis and experimental results illustrated the merit of our trade-off approach.
    Keywords: GPGPU; SIMT architecture; CUDA; branch divergence; performance optimization; code structure; program branch probability; thread recombination; redundant warp; hash table; warp lane.

  • A Heuristic Approximation Algorithm for the Steiner Tree Based on Prior Multicast Nodes   Order a copy of this article
    by Weijun Yang, Yun Zhang, Yuanfeng Chen, Jianqi Liu 
    Abstract: Multicast routing is regarded as a critical component in networks, especially the real-time applications for multimedia become increasingly popular. Finding such a Steiner tree in multicast routing is an NP-complete problem as for as we know. This paper devises a novel and improved prior nodes minimum cost path heuristic approximation algorithm (IPNMPH) to deal with it. Some paths passing through adjusted prior destination nodes are selected, and they partly share links in the network and decrease the cost of the multicast routing tree. The theoretical validations for the proposed algorithm show that its approximation ratio is 2(1-1/q) and the time complexity is O(n
    Keywords: multicast routing; Steiner tree; approximation algorithm; prior nodes;.

  • Community outlier detection in social networks based on graph matching   Order a copy of this article
    by Soufiana Mekouar, Nabila Zrira, El Houssine Bouyakhf 
    Abstract: Outlier or anomaly detection is widely used in several fields of study such as statistics, data mining, and social networks. It can reveal important anomalous and interesting outlier behaviors in the social network communities. In this work, we propose a new approach for community outlier detection based on social network graph matching. We identify community structures in social networks using some community detection methods. For each community, the node signature is combined with an optimal assignment method for matching the original graph data with the graph pattern data, in order to detect two formalized anomalies: anomalous nodes and anomalous edges. We also define a distance between two graphs using Euclidean formula. Then, we define a node-to-node cost in an assignment problem using the Hungarian method to deduce the matching function. The obtained experimental results demonstrate that our approach performs on real social network datasets.
    Keywords: Community outlier detection; node signature; Hungarian method; graph matching.

  • A Minimum Knapsack based Resource Allocation for Underlaying Device-to-Device Communication   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammad Islam, Abd-Elhamid Taha, Selim Akl 
    Abstract: As the numbers of devices are increasing, the proximity based services have enabled Device-to-Device (D2D) communication to be regarded as one of the major communication paradigms. In underlaying D2D, the devices communicating with each other directly use shared cellular resources. In this paper we propose a MInimum Knapsack based Interference aware Resource Allocationrnalgorithm (MIKIRA) for D2D communication underlaying cellular networks.rnWe compare the system sum rates, interference and Signal-to-Interference-and-Noise-Ratios (SINR) of MIKIRA with a Graph based Resource Allocation (GRA) algorithm and random allocation. In our three different sets of experiments with different percentages of D2D pairs in the total number of cellular users in the network we observe that, MIKIRA performs better than the other algorithms in terms of interference and SINR, and obtains similar system sum rate. MIKIRA (O(n^2 log(n))) is also computationally more efficient when compared with the GRA (O(n^3)), which makes it suitable for use in LTE scheduling period of 1 ms.
    Keywords: Resource Allocation; Minimum Knapsack; Device-to-Device; Cellular Networks; Underlaying; Spectrum Sharing.

  • Wireless Standard Technology Identification via Signal Temporal Characteristics: A Comprehensive 802.11b/g/n Case Study   Order a copy of this article
    by Samer Rajab, Walid Balid, Hazem Refai, Mohamad Al Kalaa 
    Abstract: ISM spectrum is becoming increasingly populated with various wireless technologies that may or may not utilize similar rules for sharing the spectrum. Consequently, wireless coexistence suffers especially when heterogeneous communicating wireless devices are collocated and sharing the same spectrum. Technology awareness of the collocated devices will provide a pathway to improving wireless coexistence. This paper presents a novel method for identifying wireless technologies through the use of simple energy detection techniques to measure channel temporal characteristics including activity and idle time probability distributions. First, time distributions belonging to a particular 802.11 standards are obtained via experimental measurements. Then, features uniquely belonging to specific wireless technologies are extracted from their corresponding temporal distributions and fed into a machine-learning algorithm to identify the technologies under evaluation. Wireless technology identification enables situational awareness to improve coexistence and reduce interference among the devices. An intelligent wireless device is capable of detecting wireless technologies operating in the vicinity. This can be performed by scanning energy levels without the need for signal demodulation and decoding. In this work, a wireless technology identification algorithm was assessed experimentally. Temporal traffic pattern for 802.11b/g/n homogeneous and heterogeneous networks were measured and used as algorithm input. Identification accuracies of up to 96.83% and 85.9% were achieved for homogeneous and heterogeneous networks, respectively.
    Keywords: wireless technology identification; wireless coexistence; cognitive radio; energy detection; machine learning.

  • An Energy-Aware Clustering Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks: GA based Approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Payal Khurana Batra, Krishna Kant 
    Abstract: Energy conservation is the predominant requirement of wireless sensor networks. Clustering is a technique which helps in achieving the goal of energy efficiency and scalability. Several clustering approaches using Genetic Algorithm (GA) as an optimization tool are proposed in the literature. Most of these clustering approaches lead to multi-objective optimization. In this paper, we propose a GA based Clustering Algorithm (GACA) which considers major factors responsible for effective clustering. The proposed approach has been compared with existing approaches for the best fit and optimal fit case. Simulation results show that the proposed GACA approach is more energy efficient than existing approaches and optimal fit results are better than the best fit results.
    Keywords: clustering; network lifetime; energy efficiency; genetic algorithm; wireless sensor networks.

  • A novel adaptation approach for collaborative ubiquitous applications   Order a copy of this article
    by Imen Abdennadher, Ismael Bouassida Rodriguez, Mohamed Jmaiel 
    Abstract: Ubiquitous computing environments provide a wide range of challenges and possibilities in distributed systems. Ubiquitous communicating systems have particular characteristics, such as their dynamic nature and the great number of users and heterogeneous devices involved. The problem of adapting collaborative applications on top of ubiquitous communicating systems is an important issue. In our view, solutions for such applications adaptation must ensure the selection of the most suitable architectural configuration according to context while respecting users'requirements. In this paper, we present a novel adaptation approach and a description of its use in the context of the Smart Building case study. We address the adaptation of the Smart Building Application on two levels. The high-level adaptation aims to reduce the energy consumption of the building while respecting the comfort of users. The low-level adaptation is related to the software architecture of the application. In this level, a new deployment of the software components is generated according to resources context parameters and a decision policy called "Disorder Increase". The implementation of this decision policy has been evaluated. We show that the "Disorder Increase" can effectively make the selection of the most suitable architectural configuration easier and more efficient than other decision policies.
    Keywords: Ubiquitous Collaborative Systems; adaptation; decision policies; Smart Building; energy consumption.

  • MultipathP2P: A Simple Multipath Ant Routing System for P2P Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohamed Amine RIAHLA, Karim Tamine 
    Abstract: This paper presents MultPathP2P that is a new routing protocol dedicated to P2P system. MultPathP2P relies on the social networks concepts where nodes are identified through their virtual addresses. The proposed protocol will decrease the routing overhead within the network. The main idea consist of using Mobile Agents in order to find optimal routes towards the destination nodes. These Agents are generated by each network node. Whenever a network node plans to request a resource in the network, it set a local resource request rather than broadcasting it. Then, this request will be shared among the others nodes using the Agents which are moving within the network. We also present a data routing protocol based on ants general behavior in order to increase the performance of MultiPathP2P. The Simulation results show that our new algorithm provide a significant improvement in terms of various performance metrics compared to other protocols.
    Keywords: Swarm intelligence; Mobile Multi Agent Systems; P2P networks; routing protocol.

  • Game theory approach to peer-to-peer video streaming: a comprehensive survey   Order a copy of this article
    by Hamidreza Mahini, Mehdi Dehghan, Hamidreza Navidi, Amir Masoud Rahmani 
    Abstract: Recent reports and forecasts indicate video is the most important part of the Internet traffic. This traffic is the result of increasing video applications, also the high expectations of today users. In fact, streaming HD videos with minimum initial buffering time and interrupting forms the QoE backbone. Therefore, resource provisioning for this demands is very challenging and the scalability of these systems depends on spending a high cost on preparation new resources or taking the advantage of users abilities in the form of a peer-to-peer (p2p) system. Although p2p architecture can significantly improve scalability but it has severe management complexity challenges. The dynamic nature and the autonomy of peers are the prominentreasonsfor this issue. Because of the strategic context in p2p video streaming and due to the existence of conflicting actions for participant entities in such systems, using game theory has been very interesting as a mathematical tool for modeling and analyzing in recent related investigations. Due to the multitude of these methods, the lack of a comprehensive review is intensively palpable. This paper seeks to fill this research gap especially with focus on applying non-cooperative games to p2p video streaming resource allocation.
    Keywords: Peer-to-Peer; Video Streaming; Game Theory.

  • Biologically Inspired Modeling of Smart Grid for Dynamic Power-Flow Control under Power Failure   Order a copy of this article
    by Hidefumi Sawai, Hideaki Suzuki, Hiroyuki Ohsaki 
    Abstract: Smart grid is an electric power network that enables an effective use of electric power in a highly parallel distributed manner. We have first formulated the basic equations for the smart grid by inspiring from the mechanisms in biological organism, and controled the power-flow dynamically in the smart grid by monitoring an objective function, which reflects the power-flow and the constraint imposing on the power nodes. To validate the operation of the smart grid, we performed several simulation experiments, which include the operations of a conventional power network, a microgrid (comprises eight power nodes), and a smart grid (comprises three microgrids integrated into the conventional power network) both in synchronous and asynchronous manners for the operation of power nodes. Furthermore, even for several cases of power failure such as outage, a thunderbolt shock on the power plant and disconnection of power cables, power recovery can be automatically achieved through bypass connections similar to synaptic interconnections in a dynamic function of brain. Thus, the proposed control method guarantees a dynamically stable operation even in several cases of power failure by monitoring the objective function, while always reflecting an optimal state in smart grid as a whole system.
    Keywords: smart grid; dynamic power-flow control; highly distributed asynchronous system; brain function; fault tolerance.