Interdisciplinary Environmental Review (9 papers in press)
Financial Statement Disclosures and Environmental Performance by US Companies Participating in the EU Emissions Trading System
by Martin Freedman, Jin Dong Park, A.J. Stagliano, Ora Freedman
Abstract: In this study we examine US firms that owned plants in EU nations and were among the 10 industries that were required to participate in the EUs cap-and-trade system (which has been termed the EU-ETS) that was developed for the Kyoto Protocol (Kyoto). Ironically, firms from the US, a country that chose not to ratify Kyoto, became participants in a program shunned by their government. Furthermore, based on the Securities and Exchange interpretive release of Feb 2010 US participants in the EU-ETS needed to disclose that information in filings with the SEC (SEC 2010). rnSince these US plants were required to meet the EU carbon standards the research question is how successful these plants were in reducing their carbon emissions and what they disclosed about their performance. The results indicate that for the plants examined in this study, carbon emissions in 2012 decreased relative to 2008 emissions. In terms of disclosure, firms disclosed significantly more about climate change and EU-ETS in 2012 compared to 2008.
Keywords: Carbon accounting; environmental accounting; EU-ETS; environmental disclosure.
Coastal and Estuarine Management in the UK: Review and Overview of Perspectives
by Temitope D. T. Oyedotun
Abstract: The United Kingdom (UK) is a coast-dominated country which is relatively well endowed with estuaries on the account of its varied geology. Coasts and estuaries are the example of typical environments which have attracted growing concerns in recent times because of the prevalence of anthropogenic and intense physical processes pressures. Various coastal and estuarine management techniques are being employed to address the challenges imposed by these pressures. This paper presents the overview and reviews of the management strategies and interventions being adopted for the UK coastline and estuarine environments.
Keywords: coastal erosion; estuarine environment; strategies; interventions; Shoreline Management Plan; UK.
An Energy and Exergy Based Performance Analysis and Emission Control of the Turbine Cycle in a Coal Based Steam Power Plant
by Malay Kanti Naskar, SUDIP SIMLANDI, Nilkanta Barman
Abstract: India mostly uses traditional energy sources, but these sources are insufficient to meet the growing demands in near future. This crisis leads to operate the existing power plants of India in a better mode for effective performance. Here, we present a study based on energy and exergy analysis of performance of a coal based steam power plant of 500 MWe at Mejia, India of DVC. In this regard, a thermodynamic model is considered to assess the performance of the plant. The work primarily studies performance of the turbine cycle and subsequent associated components of the plant separately under different unit loads (full load, and at 80%, 60% and 50% of full loads). A break-up of energy and exergy losses for the turbine cycle and the associated components of the plant are presented in our details. Both energy and exergy efficiencies of the turbine cycle are compared at different unit load conditions. It is found that heat rate minimizes at full load, which maximizes economy of the operation. This work also considers exergy flow through the turbine cycle using a Grassman diagram. The heat rate of the turbine cycle is then presented with unit loads. In context to improvement of the turbine, the heat rate with increasing load is estimated. It is found that the heat rate minimizes at full load, which is a condition leading to operational efficiency. Finally, based on improvement in the heat rate, a reduction in coal consumption, ash generation, SO2 and CO2 emissions is predicted.
Keywords: Turbine cycle; energy; exergy; analysis; efficiency; irreversibility; emission.
Coastline morphodynamics and defences in Mazatl
by Temitope D. T. Oyedotun, Arturo Ruiz-Luna, Alma Guadalupe Navarro-Hernández
Abstract: The coastline of Mazatl
Keywords: shoreline changes; coastal defences; morphodynamics; coastal processes; Mazatlán; shoreline preservation.
Better Composite Environmental Performance Index
by Satyendra Nath Chakrabartty
Abstract: The paper makes a review of existing environmental performance indices and suggests an index without resorting to scaling or finding weights that accounts for all selected component indicators in different units which may be independent or have correlations with different degrees. The suggested approach in terms of Geometric mean can provide a single unifying measure of performance when an environmental resource delivers numerous services and satisfies all the desired properties including monotonically increasing, time reversal test, formation of chain indices, independent of change of scale, etc. and reduces the level of substitutability between component indicators. Separate indices for core areas or drivers can be constructed easily by clumping relevant indicators pertaining to each core area. Further, weighted sum of such indices for core areas or drivers is not required to get the index for overall environmental performance. The approach facilitates further statistical analysis like estimation, confidence interval and test of significance and identifies the critical areas requiring corrective measures. Such identification is important from a policy point of view. The method helps to reflect path of improvement registered by a country or a region over time. Such paths may provide new criteria for comparison of countries across time.
Keywords: Keywords: Composite index; Variance of weighted sum; Geometric means; Monotonic; Time-reversal test; Chain indices.rnrn.
Characteristics of soils under conventional farming practices in southwestern Nigeria
by Yetunde Mary Adelere, Adebayo Oluwole Eludoyin, Olufemi Awotoye
Abstract: The need to ensure food security has threatened sustainable agriculture in many regions; hence recent studies have focused on sustainable farm practices. The study compared soil properties and quality under five different farm practices in a part of the southwest Nigeria. The study indicated that fewer soil properties accounted for more percentage change in total variance at the fallow and mono-cropping plots than at the forest, crop rotation and alley farming systems. It also showed that soils under fallow and mono-cropping systems exhibited he lowest quality values among the farm practices system studied. The study recommends improved soil management approaches in plots under mono-cropping practices, and extensive soil recovery programmes for fallow lands
Keywords: Farming practices; Soil physical and chemical attributes; Soil quality indicator; Plinthic luvisol; southwest Nigeria.
Economic Valuation Methods for Environmental Resources - A Review
by Showkat Shah
Abstract: In the last decades, valuation of environmental resources become an emerging task for environmentalists, decision makers and technocrats as they often being undervalued due to their non-marketable nature. Various studies demonstrated that most of the economies paced with continuous huge unobserved monetary loss in terms of deteriorations of environmental assets. This would be unhygienic for economic development in long run. This paper highlighted the range of possibilities of economic valuation methods, as an economic assessment tool and how they are associated with the concerned problems. The study also documented the various pros and cons of each method and seeks to explain how valuation should be conducted to counter the policy related questions.
Keywords: Environmental resources; Values; Economic valuation methods; Willingness to Pay.
Contrasting Political and Techno-economic Perspectives on Energy Policies in Bangladesh
by Palash Kamruzzaman, Samuel J G Cooper
Abstract: This paper assesses whether selected power sector policies in Bangladesh may have been subject to excessive political interference in contrast to rational and open decision-making approach. This is done by comparing techno-economic assessments with populist narratives on the merits and demerits of three specific policies. While the populist narrative is critical of all three policies, techno-economic assessments are less conclusive and some aspects are explained by the context in which the policy planning has occurred. The paper reflects on the differences between populist narrative and techno-economic assessment and suggests how an awareness of their differences may inform future planning.
Keywords: Power sector policies; Populist narrative; Techno-economic; Quick Rental Power Plants; Policy-making; Rampal Power Plant; Bangladesh.
Linking the Public Acceptance of Wind Power to Technology Deployment
by Kalle Nuortimo, Janne Härkönen, Erkki Karvonen
Abstract: Public acceptance and positive media image are the key features of any technology market deployment. This paper analyses the media image of wind power and the link between the media image of a technology, public acceptance and thus, successful market deployment. Indeed, the increase in wind power plants has been influenced by increased off-shore technology developments as well as subsidies and greater acceptance of the technology. This paper focuses on the latter by undertaking opinion mining approach with machine learning -based media analysis.
For the paper, media sentiment analysis of both editorial and social media was conducted using an M-Adaptive tool for media monitoring. The results indicate that the sentiment toward wind power is primarily positive in both editorial publications and social media (SoMe), and also at the project level of offshore projects. The role of SoMe seems to be increasing for public acceptance issues. When considering the effect of global climate negotiations, namely, Paris COP21, the United Nations conference on climate change, the effect on wind power was mostly negative in terms of the communication quantity and overall media sentiment.
Keywords: public acceptance; wind power; learning machine based media analysis.