Interdisciplinary Environmental Review (17 papers in press)
INVESTIGATION ON IMPROVED SOLAR DRYERS FOR AGRICULTURE
by Vivek Khambalkar, Surendra Kalbande, Sneha Deshmukh
Abstract: Due to high cost of fossil fuels and uncertainty regarding future cost and availability, use of sun drying of various agriculture products, vegetables, fruits, fish, milk products, food products etc. is being practiced largely since ancient times for preservation of agriculture products. Despite many disadvantages of natural drying, almost 80 % of farmers are using open sun drying method for drying their crops. Open sun drying, in which the product is spread on ground in open, is the simplest and cheapest method of drying. But there are considerable losses associated with it. So, the advanced method of drying i.e. solar drying can also be used for drying the products and improve the quality. In this paper, a comprehensive review of solar drying of various products are presented.
Keywords: solar tunnel dryer; solar cabinet dryer; drying efficiency; open sun drying.
Wind Speed Forecasting Model for Northern-Western Region of India Using Decision Tree and Multi Layer Perceptron Neural Network Approach
by Parul , Hasmat Malik, Rajneesh Sharma
Abstract: Power production by wind energy with the increase in renewable energy sources, plays an important role in India due to its critical location. In this paper, using the input variables like Latitude, Longitude, Cooling design temperature, Relative humidity ,Air temperature, Atmospheric pressure, Daily solar radiation horizontal, Earth temperature amplitude, Earth temperature, Heating degree-days, Cooling degree-days, Elevation, Heating design temperature, Frost days at site, monthly wind power density and air density, wind speed is predicted by Multi layer perceptron in 17 cities of India. The varying number of hidden neurons helps in calculation of accurate forecasting. It is found that prediction accuracy is highest for six hidden neurons in training and testing phase which is 99.14 percent and 96.116 percent respectively.
Keywords: Multilayer perceptron; Decision Tree; REP Tree; Wind speed prediction; Artificial Neural Network.
Special Issue on: Non-Conventional Energy Technology
Performance and Emission analysis of Pongamia Biodiesel and its blends in different operating condition- A review
by Gaurav Dwivedi, Priyanka Sharma, Prem Pal, Gopal Nandan
Abstract: The progress of a nation depends critically on the availability of the energy resources such as fossil fuels and with rapid industrialization and growth in population there is rapid increase in the demand of energy and fossil fuels. In the current scenario all the human energy requirements are fulfilled from the fossil fuels which are depleting at rapid pace consequently led to their extinction for the future generation and also the emissions from these fossil fuels has the serious impact on the environment, human health and ecological system. To overcome these problems, focus is to find the alternatives to replace the utilization of petroleum. Biodiesel, derived from non-edible oil sources is the future prospect. Out these non-edible oil sources Jatropha and Pongamia are identified as most important species for biofuel development in India. The presents study was focused on the fuel properties, combustion and emission characteristics of the biodiesel derived from Pongamia (karanja) oils and its blends on various types of engine under different operating conditions. The study reveals that Brake specific fuel consumption for Pongamia biodiesel PB100 is 30% higher as compare to diesel while for PB20 blend it is 10% higher while brake thermal efficiency of PB100 is lower as comparable to diesel while for PB20 it is similar to that of diesel. The literature review also reveals that CO and HC emission are lower while NOx emission increases as the % load increases. The study shows that Pongamia blend PB20 performance characteristics are comparable to that of diesel with lower emission it can be recommended as an alternative to diesel.
Keywords: Pongamia; Performance; Emission; Biodiesel; Diesel.
USE OF KOTA STONE CUTTING AND QUARRY WASTE AS SUB BASE MATERIAL.
by Pradeep Kumar Gautam, Pawan Patidar, Pawan Kalla, Ajay Singh Jethoo, Harshwardhan S.C.
Abstract: In the present study, an attempt is made to use Kota stone mining, cutting and quarry waste as a full replacement to conventional aggregate in Granular Sub Base Course (GSB). For the study, Kota stone mining waste was hand crushed into aggregates of the desired size and evaluated for physical and mechanical parameters as per Ministry of Road Transportation and Highways specifications (MoRT&H 2013). Kota stone quarry waste and slurry waste is used as fines and screening. Modified Proctor Test was conducted to find optimum moisture content (OMC), and Maximum Dry Density (MDD) for all the six grading and Soaked California Bearing Ratio (C.B.R.) was performed to analyze mechanical properties of the mix. From the result of this experimental research, it is observed that Kota stone mining and slurry waste satisfies parameters specified by MoRT&H 2013 and can be used as GSB material in the flexible pavement.
Keywords: Kota stone mining waste; sub-base material; cutting and quarry waste; sustainable development.
Analyzing the occupational health of workers in the brick kilns of Rajasthan
by Manoj Kumar Sain, M.L. Meena
Abstract: Brick is a widely used construction material in low-middle-income-countries like India. India is the second largest producer of clay bricks in the world with 1.40 lac brick kilns producing around 250 billion bricks per year. Clay brick kiln workers work in adverse working conditions having poor working postures with substantial loadings and traditionally designed hand tools, which results in occupational health problems. Owing to lack of proper training and personal protection equipment, the brick kilns have a potential of causing adverse effects on the workers. In India, mainly the traditional fixed chimney Bull's trench kilns having higher emissions are used as this type of kilns costs about 40% lesser than other types employing cleaner technologies.This paper presents an analysis on occupational health of brick kiln workers in Rajasthan. The results show that 79.23% workers were found suffering with musculoskeletal disorders in shoulders, wrists and lower back regions. Various other respiratory and skin diseases were also found in significant number of workers.
Keywords: Brick kiln; Emission; Ergonomics; Musculoskeletal disorders; Occupational health.
Synthesizing Zero Valent Iron Supported on Alumina for Removal of Arsenic from Drinking Water
by Ayushi Jain, Madhu Agarwal
Abstract: In this study, synthesis of zero valent iron nanoparticles dispersed on alumina by sodium borohydride reduction process was achieved for the removal of arsenic. Structure and properties of ZVI on alumina is investigated using various analytical techniques, for instance FTIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission microscopy (TEM). Dispersing the zero valent iron nanoparticles on alumina enhances the ease of separation of particles after treatment. Adsorption experiments were conducted to study arsenic removal from drinking water by synthesized adsorbent (zero valent iron on alumina) and residual arsenic concentration was analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS). The arsenic removal efficiency was found to be greater than 70% at neutral pH, and have high absorption capacity. The results of experiments show that the synthesized material exhibit high efficiency on water treatment.
Keywords: zero valent iron; alumina; arsenic.
Architecture analysis compatible with climate based on Mahoney Tables In Hamadan (Iran)
by AREZO ZANDIMOHEB
Abstract: In the architectural designing process of a building with the citys climate condition knowledge Architecture in a specific period, space design patterns can be utilized to raise the welfare of residents. Utilizing the data of 30 years of meteorology, climate studies results and Mahoney tables, this study examines the architecture compatible with the climate of this city, which is among the cold and historical cities of Iran. The research method is extracting the meteorology data and their analysis in the relevant tables. The Research's method and nature are practical, and it has been conducted to optimize buildings. In the end, architectural designing approaches for the construction of buildings, configuration, materials for construction, and the level of temperature in a year, as well as the inactive architectural approaches for the supply and improvement of construction in Hamadan, have been provided.
Keywords: Architecture analysis; Mahoney Tables; Bioclimatic Design; Hamadan; Iran.
A Study on the characterization of the species formed during Fluoride removal through coagulation
by Swati Dubey, Madhu Agarwal, A.B. Gupta
Abstract: : Intake of fluoride above than the acceptable limit (>1.5 mg/l) via drinking water can lead to severe diseases that includes dental and skeletal fluorosis. Various techniques for fluoride removal like adsorption, (electro) coagulation, ion-exchange, membrane separation, and the Nalgonda (coagulation technique) process have been adapted. Among these, most widely applied technique is coagulation due to its profitability and high efficiency. Nowadays, alum is the widely used coagulant in this field. In the present work, coagulation mechanism has been followed using alum as coagulant to make the fluoride within the acceptable limit. Fluoride removal has been observed for initial fluoride concentrations between 2-6 mg/l at pH between 6.5-7.5. As the species formed during the process play a influential role in the defluoridation mechanism, the characterization of the species has been done through zeta- charge, zeta sizing and XRD. TEM analysis has also been done to verify the particle size of the species formed.
Keywords: Coagulation; TEM; Zeta; defluoridation; XRD; SEM.
Methodologies for removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater: An overview
by Renu -
Abstract: As the industrial environment matures we become the victims of our own successes as natural environment faces the serious problem of heavy metal pollution now a days. These heavy metals are discharged into water from various chemical industries. They are harmful for living organisms and it is essential to remove presence of these heavy metals to minimize possibility of uptake by plants, animal and human. In last few decades several methods for heavy metal removal have been extensively investigated. There are different methodologies used for heavy metal removal from wastewater. These methodologies are chemical precipitation, ion exchange, adsorption, membrane filtration, coagulation-flocculation and floatation. This review paper reviews these methodologies used for heavy metal removal from wastewater and evaluates their advantages and disadvantages. It is evident from the literature survey that Adsorption method is widely used over conventional methods (i.e. chemical precipitation, ion exchange, membrane filtration, coagulation-flocculation and floatation) because of its low cost, availability and eco-friendly nature.
Keywords: adsorption; heavy metal; methodology; wastewater.
Investigation of Various Airfoils for Maximization of Lift in Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT) A case study
by Kedar Mehta, Robin Ranjan, Amit Sata
Abstract: Wind energy can be considered to be one of the most reliable and sustainable energy sources of world. In India, more than 2300 MW (4.5% of newly installed capacity across world) capacity of wind turbine power has been newly installed in 2014. The utilization of the installed capacity can be increased by improving overall efficiency of wind turbines. The efficiency of wind turbine is directly driven by power coefficient (CP), density of air (ρ), wind velocity (V), and swept area (A). The power coefficient of a particular wind turbine depends on tip-speed ratio (TSR). The TSR is considered to be constant for a particular wind turbine type and wind velocity (say horizontal wind turbine), and helps in finding number of blades for a wind turbine. However, wind velocity as well as density of air are considered to be unchanged for a particular location. Therefore, the efficiency of wind turbine is governed by various geometric characteristics of wind blades including length of blade, aerodynamic characteristic of blades (airfoil), glide ratio (ratio of lift to drag), etc. The airfoil of blade is considered to be one of most influencing parameters in deciding geometric characteristic of blade as it mainly decides the driven force (lift) imposed on wind blades. The airfoil of blade is chosen from standard database of airfoils compiled by National Advisory Committee of Aerodynamics (NACA). In the present work, HAWT is designed to provide electric power of about 10 KW that is be used at authors hometown (Rajkot). Various airfoils (six widely accepted) with varying angle of attack (AoA) (from 00 to 200 in the step of 10) of blades are analyzed to identify most suitable airfoil for maximum lift of blades. Different airfoils were modeled, and then analyzed analytically using QBlade (open source software) for computing lift and drag force acting of a blade. These airfoils were also analyzed for finding separation of airflow over top surface of airfoil (stall angle) that may be caused due to different AoA using computation fluid dynamics (CFD). It was observed from the simulation results that NACA 4412 was found to be more suitable for providing maximum lift to blade in comparison with other airfoils. It was also observed from CFD analysis that relatively large AoA (more than 120 for most of the cases) caused the separation of air flow over airfoils. The prototype of these airfoils were also prepared and tested for separation of flow over airfoils in wind tunnel. It was observed that simulation results matched with wind tunnel results in most of the cases.
Keywords: Airfoil; Stall; Lift Coefficient; Drag Coefficient; NACA; NREL; CFD; HAWT.
Special Issue on: Just Sustainability 2016 Environmental Justice and Sustainability
Just Sustainability Arts: A Vibrant Convergence
by Marna Hauk, Rachel Kippen
Abstract: At a time when violence is worsening across domains of historical domination structures as well as embedding ecological systems, imaginative engagement with just sustainabilities offers a different path. This paper represents theory-building inspired by two educational designers field experiences with justice, sustainability, and the arts. Leveraging the method of the transdisciplinary imagination to tackle complex and intransigent problems, and informed by a transformative, transgressive lens on social learning, the two authors explore how nine literatures converge to inform just sustainability arts. Socially conscious arts and arts-based educational research open up enlivening educational practices at the nexus of transdisciplinary approaches such as environmental and climate justice, ecofeminism, critical place and land pedagogies, bioculturally responsive curriculum, and systems thinking.
Keywords: just sustainability arts; environmental justice; just sustainabilities; youth leadership; arts based educational research; socially conscious arts; climate justice education; transdisciplinary imagination; bioculturally responsive curriculum; critical pedagogies of place; land based pedagogies; ecofeminism; environmental racism; systems thinking; transgressive; transformative; and disruptive social learning; International Environmental Review.
Psychologys Contribution to Water Conservation: Barriers and Success Stories
by Thuy-Vy Phan, Le Hy
Abstract: Psychologists only started to contribute to the topic of water conservation in the last 15 years by diagnosing barriers, including their own ignorance and neglect of the issue. They have identified both the deeply-rooted mentality and the numerous psychological barriers to conservation. This paper reviews successful efforts for water conservation, both in the lab and in the field. The Target 140 Campaign in Brisbane, Australia was able to reduce water consumption from more than 300 litres to a mere 140 litres per person per day, using only voluntary means, and maintained that result for years after the end of the campaign. Other successful field projects were in Jordan, Australia and the United States.
Keywords: water conservation; sustainable behaviour; water consumption; conservation psychology; water crises; water scarcity; freshwater.
Environmental Justice Frameworks in Student Affairs Assessment Practice
by Andrew Wells
Abstract: Assessment and evaluation of programs are core components of ethical professional practice for student affairs administrators in higher education. This paper reviews three environmental frameworks and applies the Just Sustainability Paradigm in the development of an assessment questionnaire. rn
Keywords: Environmental Justice; Student Affairs; Assessment; Rasch Modelrn.
Place-based education: a look at its potential benefits to our students and our places through case study research and the literature
by Doreen Keller
Abstract: The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore how River Valley School District* students experienced the River Valley Outdoor Learning Center*. Particular attention was paid to four students connection with and curiosity about the program curriculum. Their relationship with the place that was the RVOLC, their connection with the outdoors, and their awareness of sustainability practices were also important foci. Students perception of their own contentment when learning outdoors was also explored. Data came from interviews with the four student participants, the students parents and learning center educators and documents and observations of the fifth grade participants while at a three-day culminating educative experience offered by the center. Findings suggested that the River Valley Outdoor Learning Center program that practiced a combination of place-based and environmental education pedagogies had lasting impacts on the studys four student participantsit helped these four students to be more connected to nature, more advocating of their place and the sustainability of that place. *pseudonyms
Keywords: place-based education; experiential education; environmental education; case study research; teacher education; education reform; project-based learning; pedagogy.
Extinction and Democracy: Wildness, Wilderness, and Global Conservation
by Jason Frederick Lambacher
Abstract: As the extinction crisis deepens, global conservation efforts have been troubled by important social and intellectual critiques. To work through these problems, genuine cross-cultural dialogue is needed to reflect diverse ways of relating to nature that generate democratic and politically legitimate conservation regimes. The concept of wildness as distinguished from wilderness, and strict approaches to protected areas (PA) generally holds special potential to support such dialogue. This is because wildness can speak effectively to the hybrid character of new ecological politics that link claims of ecological and social justice as questions of democracy. Wildness should therefore be amplified as a keystone concept for 21st century conservation. Without wildness, connections between humankind and other-kind threaten to unravel further, with grave consequences for future ecologies and human communities.
Keywords: wildness; wilderness; extinction; biodiversity loss; ecological democracy; critical political ecology; cross-cultural dialogue; global conservation; political legitimacy; justice.
Is Weeding Defensible? Moral Consideration for Crabgrass
by John Hainze
Abstract: How we relate to other species undergirds our approach to sustainability. This paper traces the development of human regard for other organisms, considering philosophical and religious perspectives in light of recent developments in biology. Aspects of the biology of pest organisms like silverfish, dandelions, fruit flies, and crabgrass are reviewed as supporting moral considerability. It is determined that the findings of science, philosophy, and religion lead us to abandon a Cartesian conception of nonhumans as machinelike other, and towards an attitude of moral consideration for other organisms. This position requires that we adjudicate conflicts between members of different species, affirming the need to survive over lesser needs such as efficiency or aesthetics. A respectful attitude towards common living things like crabgrass can only enhance our relationship to nature in general.
Keywords: moral concern; value of organisms; environmental philosophy; environmental ethics; axiology; science; religion; Buddhism; Hinduism; Confucism; Islam; Judaism; Christianity; regard for nature.
Sustainability Education: How Evolving STEM Benefits Underserved Populations
by Liliana Caughman
Abstract: This research explores ways in which sustainability education efforts can create an advantageous learning environment for women and underrepresented minority students in STEM. By drawing on key literature that discusses how to increase socioeconomic, ethnic, gender, and racial diversity in STEM fields, this work examines strategies to promote the retention of diverse learners by means of implementing a Sustainability Education (SE) model. Findings emphasize the importance of community-based learning, practical and applicable knowledge, and interdisciplinary studies in creating a positive learning environment for underrepresented students. This paper also highlights upcoming case studies focusing on two populations typically excluded from science and sustainability: 1) a Science and Sustainability Lecture Series for incarcerated students; and 2) an integrated STEM curriculum at a Tribal College. These programs and their curricula showcase aspects of environmental, social and cultural sustainability in higher education, targeted at diverse learners.
Keywords: STEM education; Sustainability education; environmental education; underrepresented minority students; higher education; prison education; native american education; tribal colleges and universities.