Interdisciplinary Environmental Review (15 papers in press)
INVESTIGATION ON IMPROVED SOLAR DRYERS FOR AGRICULTURE
by Vivek Khambalkar, Surendra Kalbande, Sneha Deshmukh
Abstract: Due to high cost of fossil fuels and uncertainty regarding future cost and availability, use of sun drying of various agriculture products, vegetables, fruits, fish, milk products, food products etc. is being practiced largely since ancient times for preservation of agriculture products. Despite many disadvantages of natural drying, almost 80 % of farmers are using open sun drying method for drying their crops. Open sun drying, in which the product is spread on ground in open, is the simplest and cheapest method of drying. But there are considerable losses associated with it. So, the advanced method of drying i.e. solar drying can also be used for drying the products and improve the quality. In this paper, a comprehensive review of solar drying of various products are presented.
Keywords: solar tunnel dryer; solar cabinet dryer; drying efficiency; open sun drying.
Wind Speed Forecasting Model for Northern-Western Region of India Using Decision Tree and Multi Layer Perceptron Neural Network Approach
by Parul , Hasmat Malik, Rajneesh Sharma
Abstract: Power production by wind energy with the increase in renewable energy sources, plays an important role in India due to its critical location. In this paper, using the input variables like Latitude, Longitude, Cooling design temperature, Relative humidity ,Air temperature, Atmospheric pressure, Daily solar radiation horizontal, Earth temperature amplitude, Earth temperature, Heating degree-days, Cooling degree-days, Elevation, Heating design temperature, Frost days at site, monthly wind power density and air density, wind speed is predicted by Multi layer perceptron in 17 cities of India. The varying number of hidden neurons helps in calculation of accurate forecasting. It is found that prediction accuracy is highest for six hidden neurons in training and testing phase which is 99.14 percent and 96.116 percent respectively.
Keywords: Multilayer perceptron; Decision Tree; REP Tree; Wind speed prediction; Artificial Neural Network.
Achieving Sustainable Industrialization in Egypt: Assessment of the Potential for EIPs
by Suzanna ElMassah
Abstract: This paper explores the prospects of Egypt in achieving Sustainable Development Goal 9 (sustainable industrialization). It looks at the national policy efforts of the new government and finds that environmentally-sound industrial production and overall sustainable industrial development is a priority in the countrys vision. The analysis then takes a closer look at three case studies of attempts of the Egyptian government to promote sustainable industrial development by establishing or developing eco-industrial parks (Robbiki Eco-Leather Park, El-Safaa metal foundries zone, and Shaq Al-Thu'ban marble technology park). The analysis of the three cases outlines a number of factors impeding the success of these attempts; including weak policy and regulatory frameworks, lack of strong enforcement mechanisms, poor planning, lack of financial resources to support the relocation of most vulnerable (smallest) enterprises, and the negative impact of informal economy and criminal elements. The paper concludes with several recommendations to overcome these obstacles.
Keywords: Eco-industrial parks; sustainable industrial development; developing countries; Egypt; SDGs; sustainable development.
Comprehensive assessment of fertilizer-linked environmental externalities and its key determinants: IWRM approach
by Chitra Pandey, Hema Diwan
Abstract: Agricultural activities are found responsible for deterioration of essential ecosystem services like clean water, air and soil. This literature review has identified a multitude of sources for water quality deterioration and emphasized on agricultural pollution due to excessive use of nutrients particularly nitrogen fertilizers. Through this paper, it has also been attempted to identify the upstream cause of fertilizer-linked water quality degradation issue by the cross-sectoral study of the various drivers of fertilizer use intensity. The synthesis of cause and effect has resulted in broader and deeper understanding of the scope of nutrient management at farm level. The paper indicates to embrace integrated water resource management practice as an instrument to manage provisioning and supporting ecosystem services. The review emphasizes to focus on the synergistic effect of various factors consisting of socio-economic, personal, institutional and agro-ecological factors to mitigate the nutrient pollution problem as well as resilience of natural resources. The understanding of farmer fertilizer use pattern can be pivotal in meeting the challenge of sustainable agro-ecosystems by decreasing the trade-offs and maximising the synergies between various factors.
Keywords: Agricultural intensification; Water quality; Air quality; Soil quality; Nitrogen-fertilizer use; Nutrient pollution; Farmers’ decision making.
AWARENESS ON CLIMATE CHANGE: PERCEIVED PHYSICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL IMPACT AMONG THE YOUNG GENERATION ; LEAST DEVELOPING COUNTRYS PERSPECTIVE
by Muhammad Sabbir Rahman, Md. Afnan Hossain, Mahmud Habib Zaman, Mahafuz Mannan
Abstract: Climate change is a crucial issue of global concern. The causes, consequences, and mitigation policies of climate change in developed countries are well researched. However, research regarding climate change awareness and its impact on human health in developing countries is scarce. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the awareness of climate change in aspects of perceived physical and psychological impact on the young generation of Bangladesh. A survey of 263 University students (both public and private) from undergraduate and postgraduate level were involved directly in this research and applied multiple regression
Keywords: Perceived Awareness; Climate Change; Physical impact; Psychological Impact; Young Generation; Bangladesh.
Financial Statement Disclosures and Environmental Performance by US Companies Participating in the EU Emissions Trading System
by Martin Freedman, Jin Dong Park, A.J. Stagliano, Ora Freedman
Abstract: In this study we examine US firms that owned plants in EU nations and were among the 10 industries that were required to participate in the EUs cap-and-trade system (which has been termed the EU-ETS) that was developed for the Kyoto Protocol (Kyoto). Ironically, firms from the US, a country that chose not to ratify Kyoto, became participants in a program shunned by their government. Furthermore, based on the Securities and Exchange interpretive release of Feb 2010 US participants in the EU-ETS needed to disclose that information in filings with the SEC (SEC 2010). rnSince these US plants were required to meet the EU carbon standards the research question is how successful these plants were in reducing their carbon emissions and what they disclosed about their performance. The results indicate that for the plants examined in this study, carbon emissions in 2012 decreased relative to 2008 emissions. In terms of disclosure, firms disclosed significantly more about climate change and EU-ETS in 2012 compared to 2008.
Keywords: Carbon accounting; environmental accounting; EU-ETS; environmental disclosure.
Special Issue on: Just Sustainability 2016 Environmental Justice and Sustainability
Sustainability education: how evolving STEM benefits underserved populations
by Liliana E. Caughman
Abstract: This research explores ways in which sustainability education efforts can create an advantageous learning environment for women and underrepresented minority students in STEM. By drawing on key literature that discusses how to increase socioeconomic, ethnic, gender, and racial diversity in STEM fields, this work examines strategies to promote the retention of diverse learners by means of implementing a sustainability education (SE) model. Findings emphasise the importance of community-based learning, practical and applicable knowledge, and interdisciplinary studies in creating a positive learning environment for underrepresented students. This paper also highlights upcoming case studies focusing on two populations typically excluded from science and sustainability: 1) a science and sustainability lecture series for incarcerated students; 2) an integrated STEM curriculum at a tribal college. These programs and their curricula showcase aspects of environmental, social and cultural sustainability in higher education, targeted at diverse learners.
Keywords: STEM education; sustainability education; underrepresented minority students; URMs.
Place-based education: a look at its potential benefits to our students and our places through case study research and the literature
by Doreen M. Keller
Abstract: The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore how River Valley School District (pseudonyms) students experienced the River Valley Outdoor Learning Center (pseudonyms). Particular attention was paid to four students' connection with and curiosity about the program curriculum. Their relationship with the place that was the RVOLC, their connection with the outdoors and their awareness of sustainability practices were also important foci. Students' perception of their own contentment when learning outdoors was also explored. Data came from interviews with the four student participants, the students' parents and learning centre educators and documents and observations of the fifth grade participants while at a three-day culminating educative experience offered by the centre. Findings suggested that the River Valley Outdoor Learning Center program that practiced a combination of place-based and environmental education pedagogies had lasting impacts on the study's four student participants - it helped these four students to be more connected to nature, more advocating of their place and the sustainability of that place.
Keywords: place-based education; PBE; experiential education; environmental education; case study research; teacher education; education reform; pedagogy; critical pedagogy of place; place-responsive; relationship with place; situated learning theory; sustainability education.
Navigating the difficult: teaching for sustainability, activism, and the recognition of modern slavery
by Arlene Plevin
Abstract: As a goal, sustainability can sometimes be aligned with economic models and seldom considered in terms of all of its components, including modern slavery. This paper argues that just and flourishing sustainability, that which is for the good of all, incorporates knowledge of modern slavery, the often invisible and unacknowledged abuse of people involved in the production of products and services. The paper encourages teachers to consider the reality of modern slavery and to teach for that, noting that it is an ethical and moral position and essential to just sustainability. Examining some of the challenges of teaching for modern slavery, the paper works with concepts of activism and hope and offers examples of classroom approaches that can enable students to consider and work with modern slavery on behalf of those who are enslaved.
Keywords: activism; diversity; hope; human trafficking; modern slavery; pedagogy of restoration; sustainability; pedagogy for activism.
Just sustainability arts: a vibrant convergence
by Marna Hauk, A. Rachel Kippen
Abstract: At a time when violence is worsening across structures of historical domination and influencing the condition of vital ecological systems, imaginative engagement with just sustainabilities offers a different path. This paper represents theory-building inspired by two educational designers' field experiences with justice, sustainability and the arts. Leveraging the method of the transdisciplinary imagination to tackle complex and intransigent problems and informed by a transformative, transgressive lens on social learning, the two authors explore how nine literatures converge to inform just sustainability arts. Socially conscious arts and arts-based educational research open up enlivening educational practices at the nexus of transdisciplinary approaches such as environmental and climate justice, ecofeminism, critical place and land pedagogies, bioculturally responsive curriculum and systems thinking.
Keywords: just sustainability arts; environmental justice and environmental racism; just sustainabilities; climate justice education; transdisciplinary imagination; bioculturally responsive curriculum; critical place inquiry; ecofeminism; systems thinking; interdisciplinary environmental review.
Environmental justice frameworks in student affairs assessment practice
by Andrew M. Wells
Abstract: Assessment and evaluation of programs are core components of ethical professional practice for student affairs administrators in higher education. This paper reviews three environmental frameworks and applies the Just sustainability paradigm in the development of an assessment questionnaire.
Keywords: environmental justice; student affairs; assessment; Rasch model.
Extinction and democracy: wildness, wilderness, and global conservation
by Jason Frederick Lambacher
Abstract: As the extinction crisis deepens, global conservation efforts have been troubled by important social and intellectual critiques. To work through these problems, genuine cross-cultural dialogue is needed to reflect diverse ways of relating to nature that generate democratic and politically legitimate conservation regimes. The concept of wildness - as distinguished from wilderness, and strict approaches to protected areas (PAs) generally - holds special potential to support such dialogue. This is because wildness can speak effectively to the hybrid character of new ecological politics that link claims of ecological and social justice as questions of democracy. Wildness should therefore be amplified as a 'keystone concept' for 21st century conservation. Without wildness, connections between humankind and other-kind threaten to unravel further, with grave consequences for future ecologies and human communities.
Keywords: wildness; wilderness; extinction; biodiversity loss; ecological democracy; critical political ecology; cross-cultural dialogue; global conservation; political legitimacy; justice.
Is weeding defensible? Moral consideration for crabgrass
by John Hainze
Abstract: How we relate to other species undergirds our approach to sustainability. This paper traces the development of human regard for other organisms, considering philosophical and religious perspectives in light of recent developments in biology. Aspects of the biology of pest organisms like silverfish, dandelions, fruit flies, and crabgrass are reviewed as supporting moral considerability. It is determined that the findings of science, philosophy, and religion lead us to abandon a Cartesian conception of non-humans as machinelike other, and towards an attitude of moral consideration for other organisms. This position requires that we adjudicate conflicts between members of different species, affirming the need to survive over lesser needs such as efficiency or aesthetics. A respectful attitude towards common living things like crabgrass can only enhance our relationship to nature in general.
Keywords: nature; environment; moral consideration; value; axiology; world religion; environmental ethics; moral concern; environmental philosophy.
Psychology's contribution to water conservation: barriers and success stories
by Thuy-Vy H. Phan, Le Xuan Hy
Abstract: Psychologists only started to contribute to the topic of water conservation in the last 15 years by diagnosing barriers, including their own ignorance and neglect of the issue. They have identified both the deeply-rooted mentality and the numerous psychological barriers to conservation. This paper reviews successful efforts for water conservation, both in the lab and in the field. The Target 140 Campaign in Brisbane, Australia was able to reduce water consumption from more than 300 litres to a mere 140 litres per person per day, using only voluntary means and maintained that result for years after the end of the campaign. Other successful field projects were in Jordan, Australia and the USA.
Keywords: water conservation; sustainable behaviour; water consumption; conservation psychology; water crises; water scarcity; freshwater; barriers; success stories; contribution; psychology.
Greening the debate: timing, locality and participation in predicting success of environmental justice campaigns
by Bethany Barratt
Abstract: Organisations in the mainstream environmental movement are larger, stronger, better funded and more knowledgeable than at any previous time. Polls consistently show very high levels of public support for environmental protection for government, corporate and individual action to address climate change. But individual campaigns around climate justice still enjoy limited success. In fact, a survey of climate justice campaigns undertaken by the EJOLT project Environmental Justice Atlas (2017) suggests that of 40 recent EJ campaigns in the Western Hemisphere relating specifically to fossil fuels and climate justice, only 14 were a clear success. How have successful climate justice campaigns have differed from those that have enjoyed more limited success? This paper examines the characteristics of over 40 climate justice campaigns carried out in North America to determine what qualities successful climate justice campaigns share.
Keywords: environmental justice; political campaigns; public opinion; mapping; climate justice.