Title: Lithium battery recycling management and policy
Authors: Ataur Rahman; Rafia Afroz
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, International Islamic University Malaysia, 50728 KL, Malaysia
Department of Economics, Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Science, International Islamic University Malaysia, 50728 KL, Malaysia
Abstract: Recycling of used lithium batteries has primarily focused on extracting active metal cobalt (Co) and lithium (Li). The price of cobalt is higher than the price of others metals. The price of Co and Li has increased due to production of electric and hybrid car. The used Li battery is the source of Li and Co and the optimal way of extract these metals from this waste are important. Hydrometallurgical method is used to recover Co and Li in laboratory scale with 48.8 Wh battery. Calcination on Co, Li and Cu extraction at 700°C was performed to remove organic compounds. Material after calcination was leached in different concentration of HCl and H2SO4 without and with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) reducing agent. Experiment was conducted on recycling of 48.8 Wh battery and found that the recycling cathode 41 wt% and 8.5 wt% of the cell cathode and anode, which are 48.8% and 23.4% of the cathode and anode cell material price, respectively.
Keywords: Li-ion batteries; battery electro-chemistry; battery recycling; calcination; battery disposal; economic value; environmental value; used batteries; lithium batteries; cobalt recovery; lithium recovery; metal extraction; waste recovery; hydrometallurgy.
Int. J. of Energy Technology and Policy, 2017 Vol.13, No.3, pp.278 - 291
Submission date: 09 Jan 2016
Date of acceptance: 16 Jun 2016
Available online: 30 Jan 2017