Title: An analysis of cultural shifts - the examples of Luxembourg, France, Germany
Author: Ursula Schinzel
Address: Université de Luxembourg, Campus Walferdange, Route de Diekirch, L-7220 Walferdange, Luxembourg
Abstract: The purpose of this research is to investigate the cultural shifts in Hofstede's cultural dimensions individualism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity, long-term orientation, indulgence versus restraint, and monumentalism in Luxembourg, France and Germany. The design of the research is the replication of Hofstede's study. Hofstede's original questionnaire was administered to employees in one company in Luxembourg, France, and Germany. A total of 134 filled-in questionnaires were collected: 106 from Luxembourg, including 33 from Lux.Nat. (Luxembourg with Luxembourgish nationality) ten from France and 18 from Germany. The cultural dimensions were calculated and compared to Hofstede's initial data for Luxembourg, France, and Germany. The paper finds that overall there is a cultural shift in Luxembourg and France. Germany's culture did not shift. Potential impact factors are globalisation, knowledge management, innovation, expatriation, mobility, the internet, digitalisation and linguistic specificities. The paper offers practical advice of how to interpret the cultures of Luxembourg, France and Germany. Discussion and implications, limitations and future research opportunities follow.
Keywords: cross-cultural management; human resource management; HRM; Hofstede; cultural dimensions; globalisation; knowledge management; internet; cultural shift; Luxembourg; France; Germany; culture; innovation; expatriation; mobility; digitalisation; linguistic specificities.
World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, 2015 Vol.11, No.2/3, pp.308 - 326
Available online: 19 Mar 2015